Yugoslavia Predrag Jakšić General introduction




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Yugoslavia

Predrag Jakšić




General introduction


Yugoslavia covers an area of 102,173 km2 of which Serbia comprised 86% and Montenegro 14%. The main geographic units in Serbia are the Pannonian region in the north, the Peripannonian region in the centre, and the Mountain-and-basin region in the south. In Montenegro the main units are the Coastal and the Mountain-and-basin regions. The northern province of Vojvodina is strikingly flat, while the central part of the country is hilly and mountainous; Montenegro has a coastal area. A large proportion of the country is covered by forest, with areas of agricultural land. More than 60% of Yugoslavia is made up of hilly to mountainous landscapes above 500 m elevation. Montenegro has a c. 200 km long coastline along the Adriatic Sea.
Seventeen Prime Butterfly Areas have been identified, covering 94,877 ha (table 1, map 1).
Table 1: Summary of Prime Butterfly Areas in Yugoslavia.

Number

Name

Main vegetation

Number of target species


Area (ha)

YU-01

Crno Jezero

Woodland

4

200

YU-02

Pastrik - Gorozup

Woodland

3

820

YU-03

Sar-Planina - Brezovica

Woodland, grassland

2

960

YU-04

Majdanpek - Rudna Glava

Woodland

1

885

YU-05

Stol

Woodland

3

200

YU-06

Bar

Woodland and scrub

1

632

YU-07

Igalo

Woodland and scrub

1

480

YU-08

Osljak

Woodland and grassland

2

2200

YU-09

Prokletije

Woodland

1

2400

YU-10

Kopaonik

Woodland, grassland

1

11800

YU-11

Stara Planina

Woodland

2

14200

YU-12

Budva

Woodland and scrub

1

800

YU-13

Fruska Gora

Woodland

1

25300

YU-14

Planina Tara

Woodland, grassland

3

19200

YU-15

Mokra Gora

Woodland, grassland

2

6400

YU-16

Gornje Podunavlje

Woodland, grassland

2

4100

YU-17

Rugovska Klisura

Woodland

3

4300


Map 1: Location of Prime Butterfly Areas in Yugoslavia.


Importance for butterflies


There are 207 native butterfly species in Yugoslavia, 19 of them considered threatened in Europe. The six target species are listed in table 2.

Table 2: Present distribution and trend of the target species in Belarus. The percentage of the European population indicates the importance of the country for the conservation of the butterfly.


Species

Present distribution class

Trend

Percentage of European population

Number of PBAs

Euphydryas aurinia


5-15%

unknown

<1%

3

Euphydryas maturna

<1%

unknown

<1%

4

Lopinga achine

1-5%

unknown

<1%

2

Lycaena ottomana

<1%

unknown

1-5%

3

Maculinea arion

1-5%

unknown

<1%

10

Parnassius apollo

5-15%

unknown

<1%

11



Euphydryas maturna is restricted to a few woodland sites, scattered over the country. Lopinga achine is found locally in woodlands in the north and east, while Lycaena ottomana has a very limited distribution along the Adriatic coast of Montenegro. Maculinea arion and Parnassius apollo are widely distributed in the mountains of the country.


Land-use and threats

All PBAs are partly used as a nature reserve, while other major land-uses are forestry, tourism and agriculture. Several areas are used for military purposes or have urban influence.

Table 3: Land-uses at Prime Butterfly Areas in Yugoslavia (n=17). One PBA can have several forms of land-use.


Land-use

Number of PBAs


nature conservation

17

forestry

13

tourism

12

agriculture

8

military

6

urban

5

industrial

2

Since the main vegetation of most PBAs is woodland, it is not surprising that a major threat is from the felling of woodland. Other serious threats are from the drainage of wetland habitats, tourist developments, afforestation and urbanisation. Isolation poses another major threat to populations of some target species, notably Lopinga achine.




Figure 1: Occurrence of threats at Prime Butterfly Areas in Yugoslavia.
Information sources

Distribution data are provided in Jakšić (1988) for the whole of former Yugoslavia. The maps were subsequently complemented by information from a network of collaborators, but the quality of distribution data is patchy. Numerous sub-species have been described (Jakšić, 1988), but there taxonomy needs to be revised.
Thirty-five species are included in the Red List of Butterflies in Serbia published in Jakšić (1998), but there is no Red List of Butterflies in Montenegro. Fifty-seven species are included in a National Red Data Book for Serbia, though this has not yet been published (Jakšić, 2001, manuscript).
There is no monitoring system of individual species and no active species protection programmes. However, many sites are covered by laws that protect their habitats. There are more than 500 registered and protected areas: ten national parks and World Natural heritage sites (NP+WNHS "Durmitor", NP+WNHS "Kotorsko-risanski zaliv", NP "Biogradska gora", NP "Lovcen", NP "Fruska Gora", NP "Djerdap", NP "Tara", NP "Kopaonik", NP "Skadarsko jezero" and NP "Sar-planina"). There are also many nature parks, many areas protected for their natural beauty, etc.

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