"Writing Emmet’s Epitaph: Rebels Versus Politicians in the Boston Globe’s Representation of the Easter Rising"




старонка3/3
Дата канвертавання27.04.2016
Памер90.1 Kb.
1   2   3
31 Boston Daily Globe, 1 May 1916 (2).

32 Boston Daily Globe, 1 May 1916 (3).

33 Boston Daily Globe, 1 May 1916 (3).

34 Boston Evening Globe, 1 May 1916 (2).

35 Boston Daily Globe, 2 May 1916 (1).

36 Boston Daily Globe, 2 May 1916 (2).

37 Boston Daily Globe, 2 May 1916 (2). Owing perhaps to the explosive implications of this story it was dropped for the evening edition.

38 Boston Daily Globe, 2 May 1916 (2).

39 Boston Evening Globe, 3 May 1916 (1).

40 Boston Daily Globe, 4 May 1916 (1).

41 Foster, Modern Ireland, 477.

42 Boston Daily Globe, 4 May 1916 (6).

43 Boston Daily Globe, 4 May 1916 (6).

44 Boston Daily Globe, 4 May 1916 (6).

45 Boston Daily Globe, 4 May 1916 (6).

46 Boston Daily Globe, 4 May 1916 (6).

47 Boston Evening Globe, 4 May 1916 (1).

48 Boston Evening Globe, 4 May 1916 (1).

49 Boston Evening Globe, 4 May 1916 (6).

50 Boston Daily Globe, 5 May 1916 (3).

51 Boston Daily Globe, 5 May 1916 (3).

52 Boston Daily Globe, 6 May 1916 (1).

53 Boston Daily Globe, 8 May 1916 (1).

54 Boston Daily Globe, 8 May 1916 (1).

55 Boston Daily Globe, 8 May 1916 (3)

56 Boston Daily Globe, 8 May 1916 (3).

57 Boston Daily Globe, 9 May 1916 (1).

58 Boston Daily Globe, 9 May 1916 (1).

59 Boston Daily Globe, 11 May 1916 (1).

60 Boston Daily Globe, 11 May 1916 (3).

61 In Boston, the F.O.I.F. could count amongst its number the Devoy, Casement, Montgomery (Roxbury), and County Plunkett (Roxbury) branches in addition to there also being branches in Brokton, Brighton, Cambridge, and Lynn. The Ancient Order Of Hibernians (hereafter A.O.H.) was the first strictly Irish organization to appear in America and was transplanted from Ireland in 1836. It was basically a social and fraternal organization and spread very rapidly – by 1910, the national assembly was 180,000, with numerous divisions in Boston. By its constitution the A.O.H. was forbidden to involve itself in politics, but foreign affairs were exempted from the ban, which left the Order free to work for the cause of Ireland. The nationalist organization endorsed the Irish Parliamentary Party—the conservative Irish group whose object was Home Rule for Ireland within the British Empire—but the membership generally favored complete independence. At the Massachusetts State Convention of the Ancient Order of Hibernians in August, resolutions severely denouncing England and demanding the recognition of Ireland as a republic were received with wild enthusiasm by the thousand delegates. See Alden Jamison, Irish-Americans, the Irish question and American diplomacy, 1895-1921 (Unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1942), 525.

Theodore Hammet also noted “the historian of the A.O.H. claims that its members predominated (both in numbers and in influence) in the F.O.I.F.,” thereby demonstrating a link between the two groups. See Theodore Hammet, The Boston Irish During World War One: A Study in Idealism [Microform] Boston: 1971., 69.

For a more detailed discussion of radical groups’ activity in Boston, see Hammet, 167.


62 Boston Daily Globe, 11 May 1916 (3).

The Manchester Martyrs: “On September 11, 1867, Colonel Kelly and a comrade were arrested in Manchester England. As they were being transported under a light guard a week later, a party of thirty Fenians ambushed the prison van and demanded that the police officers turn over their keys. The policeman inside the van, a Sergeant Brett, refused to do so. One of the Fenians fired a shot, perhaps to break the lock on the van door, perhaps to frighten Brett. Instead the bullet fatally wounded the sergeant, and another prisoner inside the van took the key from the dying man and handed it to the Fenians. Kelly was set free.

The officer’s murder, and the audacity of the ambush, shocked England. The police swept up dozens of Irishmen living in Manchester. Eventually, five were put to trial for the crime. One was completely innocent; the other four were part of the ambush but none had fired the fatal shot. Nevertheless, they were convicted and sentenced to be hanged. Two of the suspects were naturalized American citizens, and one of them, Edward Condon, gave the Manchester rescue words that would be added to Irish nationalist lore. ‘I have nothing to regret, to retract or take back,’ he said in the dock. ‘I can only say: God save Ireland!’ Three of his co-defendants, William Allen, Philip Larkin, and the other American citizen, Michael O’Brien, took up the call: ‘God save Ireland!’ they shouted.

Allen, Larkin, and O’Brien were hanged in Manchester on November 24, 1867. They became known as the ‘Manchester Martyrs,’ and the anniversary of their executions would be commemorated in Ireland and in America for decades. Their courage inspired a ballad, entitled ‘God Save Ireland,’ that became an anthem of nationality and defiance.” See Golway, For the Cause of Liberty, 147-148.



63 Boston Evening Globe, 11 May 1916 (1).

64 Boston Evening Globe, 11 May 1916 (1).

65 Boston Daily Globe, 13 May 1916 (1).

66 Boston Daily Globe, 13 May 1916 (1).

67 Boston Daily Globe, 15 May 1916 (2).

68 Boston Daily Globe, 15 May 1916 (1). Theodore M. Hammet contends that of particular interest in Boston were the so-called Irish County Clubs, which were formed by immigrants and their descendants from each county in Ireland and which held frequent socials, balls, and reunions. He also notes that there was a city-wide Central Council of Irish County Clubs which was instrumental in calling the attention of members to Irish and American causes. For a further discussion of these county clubs see Hammet, The Boston Irish During World War One, 8.

69 Boston Daily Globe, 15 May 1916 (1).

70 Boston Daily Globe, 15 May 1916 (2).

71 Boston Daily Globe, 15 May 1916 (2).

72 Boston Daily Globe, 16 May 1916 (1). For example, Mayor Curley and Cardinal O’Connell.

73 Boston Daily Globe, 16 May 1916 (4).

74 Boston Daily Globe, 16 May 1916 (4).

75 Boston Daily Globe, 16 May 1916 (4).

76 Boston Daily Globe, 16 May 1916 (4).

77 Boston Daily Globe, 16 May 1916 (4). Contrary to what historian Michael J. Ryan has argued, the President of the U.I.L. of America cabled him to the effect that the Irish executions after the Easter Rebellion had “alienated every American friend and caused a resurgence of ancient enmities. Your life-work destroyed by English brutality.” See Charles Callan Tanshill, America and the Fight for Irish Freedom, 1866-1922: An Old Story Based Upon New Data (New York: The Devin-Adair Co., 1957), 224-225.

78 Boston Daily Globe, 20 May 1916 (3).

79 Boston Daily Globe, 3 August 1916 (1); Boston Evening Globe, 3 August 1916 (8).

80 Boston Daily Globe, 3 August 1916 (3).

Captain Fryatt: Captain Charles Fryatt of the Great Eastern Railway Steamer Brussels was a regular on the Rotterdam/British East Coast route since the start of the war and this was the cause of much annoyance to the Germans. In March 1915 they made two determined efforts to sink the Brussels. On the 3rd March 1915 Capt. Fryatt successfully dodged an attack on his ship by a U-Boat and sailed home to a hero’s reception and was presented with a gold watch by the ship's owners. On the 28th March 1915 a further attempt was made to sink his ship by a U-Boat. Capt. Fryatt saw it surface and as it was trying to line up a torpedo shot on the ship, he turned the helm over and bore down on the U-Boat which was forced to crash dive in order to avoid him. It appears that the U-Boat passed from starboard to port under the ship as it surfaced close enough to the ship so that, as Capt. Fryatt reported "you could have easily hung your hat on the periscope as she lay along side us". The U-Boat then disappeared never to be seen again. Capt. Fryatt was awarded another gold watch, this time by the Admiralty.



Captain Fryatt continued his voyages for another fifteen months until on the 23rd June, 1916, he was trapped by a flotilla of German torpedo boats and taken to Zeebrugge. He was tried by a Court Martial in Bruges on 27th July. By all accounts, he was convicted before the trial even took place. It condemned Capt. Fryatt to death as a franc-tireur. The sentence being confirmed by the Kaiser. He was executed that same evening. He was buried in a small cemetery just outside Bruges which the Germans used to bury Belgian "traitors." This text was excerpted from http://www.gwpda.org/naval/pers0003.htm. Online 11 Nov 2003.

81 Boston Daily Globe, 3 August 1916 (3).

82 Thomas N. Brown, “The Political Irish: Politicians and Rebels” in David Noel Doyle and Owen Dudley Edwards, Editors, America and Ireland, 1776-1976: The American Identity and the Irish Connection (Westport Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1976), 134.

83 Thomas N. Brown, “The Political Irish: Politicians and Rebels” in Doyle and Edwards, America and Ireland, 134.

84 Ibid., 134.

85 Information taken from William V. Shannon, “Boston’s Irish Mayors: An Ethnic Perspective” in Burns and Formisano, Boston 1700-1980: The Evolution of Urban Politics (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1984), 203.

86 Ibid., 203.

87 By the phrase “Boston’s Irish population” the Americans in Boston of Irish-descent are also intended to be included.

88 Hammet, The Boston Irish During World War One, 166-167.

89 Ibid., 69-70. Granted, Redmond also denounced the executions, but this meeting held under the auspices of the Clan-na-Gael resolved to support this latest independence movement.

90 Gaelic-American, May 13 1916.

91 Boston Post, May 17 1916.

92 Boston Post, May 19, 1916.

93 Hammet, The Boston Irish During World War One, 67. Hammet quotes from the Boston Post, May 3, 1916.

94 John J. Horgan, Parnell to Pearse: Some Recollections and Reflections (Dublin: Browne & Nolan 1948), 289. Quoted in Tanshill, America and the Fight for Irish Freedom, 201.

95 Hammet, The Boston Irish During World War One, 68.

96 Boston Pilot, 5 August 1916.

97 Ibid., 13 May 1916.

98 Jamison, Irish-Americans, 494.

99 Ibid., 495.

1   2   3


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка