World meteorological organization




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WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

_________________________
COMMISSION FOR BASIC SYSTEMS
INFORMATION SYSTEMS and SERVICES
INTERPROGRAMME TASK TEAM ON THE FUTURE WMO INFORMATION SYSTEM
GENEVA, 22 - 24 SEPTEMBER 2004



CBS/ITT-FWIS 2004/Doc. 5(2)

(20.IX.2004)

____________


ITEM 5

ENGLISH




ISO 19100 SERIES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION STANDARDS
(Submitted by the Secretariat)




Summary and the Purpose of the Document
The document provides information on the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards.



ACTION PROPOSED
The meeting is invited to review the information presented in the document and to make recommendations for further action in order to study the relevance of each standard of the ISO 19100 series to the FWIS, the benefits of its application for the FWIS, and the resources required to develop the relevant profiles.

Appendix: ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards - Concepts and organisation of the reference model defined in ISO standard 19101


DISCUSSION
1. The ISO 19100 is a series of standards for defining, describing, and managing geographic information, i.e. information concerning objects or phenomena that are directly or indirectly associated with a location relative to the Earth. This series of standard specifies methods, tools and services for management of information, including the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation, and transfer of such data in digital/electronic form between different users, systems and locations. This series of standards make it possible to define profiles in order to facilitate the development of geographic information systems and application systems that will be used for specific purposes; profiling consists of putting together “packages/subsets” of the total set of standards to fit individual application areas or users. Further details on the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards is given in Appendix. The links in the Table A of Annex 1 to Appendix point to the individual fact sheets related to the standards.
2. The WMO Secretariat has access to the documents of the ISO 19100 series listed in Annex I to Appendix before their finalisation as an international standard. The WMO Secretariat provides access to these documents on request.
3. The draft WMO core Profile of the ISO Metadata Standard is based on the use of one of the ISO 19100 series of standard, i.e. ISO 19115 standard – Geographic information - Metadata. The application of other standards of the series may be relevant to the development of the FWIS. For example, the fourth meeting of the Expert Team on Integrated Monitoring (Geneva, 1-3 September 2004) particularly proposed to introduce a catalogue of features conform to the ISO standard 19110 – Methodology for feature cataloguing. It is felt important to study the relevance of each standard of the ISO 19100 series to the FWIS, the benefits of its application for the FWIS, and the resources required to develop the relevant profiles.
4. The WMO Secretariat submitted a proposal to the Secretariat of the ISO/TC 211 for collaboration on a study of the relevance of each standard of the ISO 19100 series to the FWIS, the benefits of its application for the WMO Programmes concerned, and the resources required to develop the relevant profiles. The WMO Secretariat invited the Secretariat of the ISO/TC 211 to provide advice for such a study, in particular as regards the expertise required to carry out the study. It was also suggested that the study be considered as joint contribution to the follow-up to the Geneva Phase of the World Summit on Information Society, which included in its plan of action the promotion of metadata standards to facilitate cooperation and effective use of collected scientific information.
Appendix

ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards


Concepts and organisation of the reference model defined in ISO standard 19101
Annexes:

1 - The list of Projects of the ISO 19100 series

2 - The Conceptual Schema Modelling Facility

3 - Terms and definitions



1. Integration of geographic information with information technology

1.1 The ISO 19100 is a series of standards for defining, describing, and managing geographic information. This standard defines the architectural framework of the ISO 19100 series of standards and sets forth the principles by which this standardization takes place. Standardization of geographic information can best be served by a set of standards that integrates a detailed description of the concepts of geographic information with the concepts of information technology. A goal of this standardization effort is to facilitate interoperability of geographic information systems, including interoperability in distributed computing environments. Figure 1 depicts this approach.




Figure 1 — Integration of geographic information and information technology
1.2 The ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards establishes a structured set of standards for information concerning objects or phenomena that are directly or indirectly associated with a location relative to the Earth. This standard specifies methods, tools and services for management of geographic information, including the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation, and transfer of such data in digital/electronic form between different users, systems and locations. In figure 1, the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards can be grouped into five major areas, each of which incorporate information technology concepts to standardize geographic information. These major areas describe the:


  • The framework for the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards including ISO 19101, Geographic information  Reference model. The framework and reference model cover the more general aspects of the ISO 19100 series of standards. The reference model identifies all components involved and defines how they fit together. It relates the different aspects of the ISO 19100 series of standards together and provides a common basis for communication.




  • Geographic information services define the encoding of information in transfer formats and the methodology for presentation of geographic information that is based on cartography and the old traditions of standardized visualisations.




  • Data administration is concerned with the description of quality principles and quality evaluation procedures for geographic information datasets. Data administration also includes the description of the data itself, or metadata, together with feature catalogues. This area also covers the spatial referencing of geographical objects - either directly through coordinates, or more indirectly by use of, for instance, area codes like postal or zip codes, addresses, etc.




  • Data models and operators are concerned with the underlying geometry of the globe and how geographic features and their spatial characteristics may be modelled. This area defines important spatial characteristics and how these are related to each other.




  • Profiles and functional standards consider the technique of profiling. Profiling consists of putting together “packages/subsets” of the total set of standards to fit individual application areas or users. This supports rapid implementation and penetration in the user environments due to the comprehensiveness of the total set of standards. Equally important is the task of “absorbing” existing de facto standards from the commercial sector and harmonizing them with profiles of the emerging ISO standards.



2. Focus of standardization in the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards


The focus of this family of standards is to:


  1. define the basic semantics and structure of geographic information for data management and data interchange purposes, and

  2. define geographic information service components and their behaviour for data processing purposes.

These two focus points are compatible with the information viewpoint and computational viewpoint of ISO/IEC 10746:1995 RM_ODP (Reference model for Open Distributed Processing).

3. Reference model organization


3.1 The major clauses of the Reference model are Conceptual modelling (clause 7), the Domain reference model (clause 8), the Architectural reference model (clause 9), and Profiles (clause 10). These clauses detailed in ISO 19101 are related to the major areas of the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards. These relationships are summarized in figure 2, and explained in the paragraphs that follow.

Figure 2 — Relationship of the Reference model to other standards in the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards


3.2 Conceptual modelling.
Conceptual modelling is critically important to the definition of the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards. It is necessary for both the information and computational viewpoints (see annex 2). This family of standards uses conceptual modelling to rigorously describe geographic information. Conceptual modelling is also used to define services for transformation and exchange of geographic information. Conceptual modelling is used to describe both geographic information and geographic information services in profiles and functional specifications that specialize the ISO 19100 standards for particular purposes. A consistent application of conceptual modelling is necessary to assure that the standards in the ISO 19100 series are integrated with this reference model and with each other. The approach to conceptual modelling in the ISO 19100 series is based on the Open Distributed Processing (ODP) Reference Model and the principles described in the Conceptual Schema Modelling Facilities (CSMF) (see Annex 2). Conceptual Modelling is described in clause 7 of the ISO 19101 standard. The Open Distributed Processing (ODP) Reference Model is described in ISO/IEC 10746-1:1995. The CSMF is described in ISO/IEC 14481.
3.3 Domain reference model.
The Domain reference model in clause 8 of the ISO 19101 standard provides a high-level representation and description of the structure and content of geographic information. This model describes the scope of the standardization addressed by the ISO 19100 geographic information series and identifies the major aspects of geographic information that will be the subject of standardization activity. The Domain reference model encompasses both the information and computational viewpoints, focusing most closely on those standards in the ISO 19100 series of standards that standardize the:

  • Structure of geographic information in data models and definition of operations

  • Administration of geographic information

3.4 The General feature model defines a metamodel for features and their properties. The Domain reference model uses concepts of the Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS) Framework in ISO/IEC 10027:1990, the Conceptual Schema Modelling Facilities (CSMF) in ISO/IEC 14481, and applies concepts from the Unified Modelling Language (UML). In order to provide more precise definition and understanding, the Domain reference model is described using graphical notation of UML. This is intended for developers of geographic information standards who will use or extend the ISO 19100 series as well as for those who wish to have an in-depth knowledge of this family of standards.


3.5 Architectural reference model.
In clause 9 of the ISO 19101 standard, the Architectural reference model describes the general types of services that will be provided by computer systems to manipulate geographic information and enumerates the service interfaces across which those services must interoperate. This model also provides a method of identifying specific requirements for standardization of geographic information that is processed by these services. Standardization at these interfaces enables services to interoperate with their environments and to exchange geographic information. The Architectural reference model is based on concepts of (1) the ISO Open Systems Environment (OSE) approach for determining standardization requirements, described in ISO/IEC TR 14252:1996, and (2) the Open Distributed Processing (ODP) Reference Model, described in ISO/IEC 10746-1:1995. The Architectural reference model focuses primarily on the computational viewpoint (see annex 2).
3.6 Profiles.
Profiles and functional standards combine different standards in the ISO 19100 series and specialize the information in these standards in order to meet specific needs. Profiles and functional standards facilitate the development of geographic information systems and application systems that will be used for specific purposes. Clause 10 describes the approach to profiling the ISO 19100 series of standards.
To be complete, the reference model must provide an understanding of how it relates to other ISO reference model standards that describe key aspects of information technology upon which the ISO 19100 series is based. Clause 9 describes the relationship between the ISO 19100 series and the Open Systems Environment Reference Model.
4. Interoperability of geographic Information
4.1 Definition of interoperability
Interoperability is the ability of a system or system component to provide information sharing and inter-application co-operative process control. Standardization of geographic information can best be served by a set of standards that integrates a detailed description of geographic information concepts with the concepts of information technology. A goal of the ISO 19100 series standardization effort is to facilitate interoperability of geographic information systems, including interoperability in distributed computing environments. Interoperability provides the freedom to mix and match information system components without compromising overall success. Interoperability refers to the ability to:

  • Find information and processing tools, when they are needed, independent of physical location.

  • Understand and employ the discovered information and tools, no matter what platform supports them, whether local or remote.

NOTE Data exchange is a special case of this level of interoperability.

  • Evolve a processing environment for commercial use without being constrained to a single vendor’s offerings.

  • Build upon the information and processing infrastructures of others in order to serve niche markets, without fear of being stranded when the supporting infrastructure matures and evolves.

  • Participate in a healthy marketplace, where goods and services are responsive to the needs of consumers and where commodity channels are opened as the market expands sufficiently to support them.

4.2 Aspects of interoperability


Interoperability between systems has several aspects:

  • Network Protocol interoperability describes basic communication between systems. Communication occurs on two levels. At the higher level, there is the communication between applications. The lower level describes the transmission of signals. Interoperability is required at this level to ensure signals can be sent and received, signals are timely, networks are expandable, and security is intact.

  • File System interoperability requires that a file can be opened and displayed in its native format on another system. This includes interoperability for transfer and access of files, as well as naming conventions, access control, access methods and file management.

  • Remote Procedure Calls refer to a set of operations that execute procedures on remote systems. This form of interoperability standardizes how programs run under another operating system.

  • Search and Access Databases provide the ability to query and manipulate data in a common database that is distributed over different platforms. Interoperability challenges include the location and access to the stored data.

  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are specific to the geographic community. Interoperability between GIS implies transparent access to data, the sharing of spatial databases and other services regardless of the platform. To achieve interoperability between GIS, a geodata model, service model, and information communities model must be utilized. Syntactic interoperability refers to the ability for different systems to interpret the syntax of the data the same way.

  • Application interoperability refers to the ability for different GIS applications to use and represent data in the same manner. To do this, semantic interoperability is required. Semantic interoperability refers to applications interpreting data consistently in the same manner in order to provide the intended representation of the data. Semantic interoperability may be achieved using translators to convert data from a database to an application. The schemas and implementations described in the ISO 19100 series of standards support this level of interoperability.

4.3 Interoperability in the ISO 19100 series of geographic standards


In order to support the goal of interoperability in the ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards, the following use of conceptual schema language applies:
For application schema: An application schema shall either exist or be derivable. Any suitable conceptual schema language can be used, in principle. An application schema shall be created using rules defined in ISO 19109, Geographic information  Rules for application schema for the specific conceptual schema language that assure that the application schema conforms to the relevant standards in the ISO 19100 series of standards.
For data interchange: A generic data interchange mechanism is described in ISO 19118, Geographic information  Encoding. Another interchange mechanism may be used, in which case a two-way mapping with the relevant ISO 19100 standards shall be provided.
For service implementations: Supporting service implementations and associated data descriptions, can be based on various platforms such as COM/MS-IDL, CORBA/ISO-IDL, ODBC/SQL, SDAI/EXPRESS, ODMG/ODL and shall then conform to and have two-way mapping with the relevant standards in the ISO 19100 series of standards.
The ISO 19100 series of geographic information standards addresses interoperability in the following standards:

  • Specification of conceptual schema languages for the ISO 19100 series create a framework to enable syntactic interoperability and to support semantic interoperability, while supporting multiple interchange formats and multiple service implementations, is discussed in clause 7.4 of this International standard.

  • Model integration, discussed in clause 7.7 of this International Standard ensures the meaningful exchange and sharing of geographic data by computing systems and provides a process for ensuring the consistency of two or more conceptual schemas in order to facilitate interoperability.

  • Spatial objects and position can be related to more abstract concepts that may require standardization to ensure interoperability among computing systems. These concepts are directly relate to ISO 19107, Geographic information  Spatial schema, 19108, Geographic information  Temporal schema, 19111, Geographic information  Spatial referencing by coordinates and 19112, Geographic information  Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers.

  • Service interfaces provide access to geographic information services and enable exchange of data between services and service users, information storage devices, and networks. The Architectural reference model identifies general types of interfaces that are used by geographic information services. Clause 9 of the ISO 19101 standard provides a method for identifying standardization requirements for those interfaces to enable the interoperability of GIS in distributed computing environments. '

  • The purpose of an encoding standard is to enable interoperability between heterogeneous geographic information systems. To achieve interoperability between heterogeneous systems two fundamental issues need to be determined. The first issue is to define the semantics of the content and logical structures of geographic data. This shall be done in an application schema. The second issue is to define a system and platform independent data structure that can represent data corresponding to the application schema.


Annex 1 – List of ISO/TC 211 Projects
The links in the table point to the individual fact sheets


Project

Issue




Project

Issue

6709 - Standard representation of latitude, longitude and altitude for geographic point locations

IS 2006-06




19122 - Qualifications and Certification of personnel

TR 2003-12

19101 - Reference model

IS




19123 - Schema for coverage geometry and functions

IS 2005-05

19101-2 - Reference model - Part 2: Imagery

IS 2007-10




19124 - Imagery and gridded data components

RS

19103 - Conceptual schema language

TS 2004-04




19125-1 - Simple feature access - Part 1: Common architecture

IS 2004-02

19104 - Terminology Introduction

IS 2003-11




19125-2 - Simple feature access - Part 2: SQL option

IS 2004-02

19105 - Conformance and testing

IS




19126 - Profile - FACC Data Dictionary

IS 2004-02

19106 - Profiles

IS 2003-11




19127 - Geodetic codes and parameters

TS 2004-06

19107 - Spatial schema

IS




19128 - Web Map server interface

IS 2005-06

19108 - Temporal schema

IS




19129 - Imagery, gridded and coverage data framework

TS 2004-05

19109 - Rules for applicaiton schema

IS 2004-05




19130 - Sensor and data models for imagery and gridded data

IS 2005-12

19110 - Methodology for feature cataloguing

IS 2004-07




19131 - Data product specifications

IS 2005-09

19111 - Spatial referencing by coordinates

IS




19132 - Location based services possible standards

RS

19112 - Spatial referencing by geographic identifiers

IS




19133 - Location based services tracking and navigation

IS 2005-06

19113 - Quality principles

IS




19134 - Multimodal location based services for routing and navigation

IS 2006-06

19114 - Quality evaluation procedures

IS




19135 - Procedures for registration of geographical information items

IS 2005-09

19115 - Metadata

IS




19136 - Geography Markup Language

IS 2005-12

19115-2 - Metadata - Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data

IS 2006-08




19137 - Generally used profiles of the spatial schema and of similar important other schemas

IS 2005-12

19116 - Positioning services

IS 2004-02




19138 - Data quality measures

TS 2004-12

19117 - Portrayal

IS 2004-02




19139 - Metadata - Implementation specification

TS 2004-11

19118 - Encoding

IS 2004-02




19140 - Technical amendment to the ISO 191** Geographic information series of standards for harmonization and enhancements

Several
amendments

19119 - Services

IS 2004-02










19120 - Functional standards

TR










19121 – Imagery and gridded data

TR










Annex 2

100
The Conceptual Schema Modelling Facility


This section provides a detailed description of external reference models and architectures which either provide a basis for ISO 19101, Geographic information  Reference model or which extend the concepts described in ISO 19101. The reference models and architectures in his section are not strictly followed by ISO 19101.

The Conceptual Schema Modelling Facility (CSMF) (see ISO/IEC 14481) describes a Schema Architecture that defines different levels of abstraction for information in a conceptual schema. This section first describes the CSMF Schema Architecture and then places the different kinds of conceptual schema being developed by the ISO 19100 series of standards into that architecture. This section provides supplemental information for clause 8 of this standard, Domain reference model.


    1. The ISO Conceptual Schema Modelling Facility Schema architecture


The ISO CSMF schema architecture is depicted in the figure A.1. The schema architecture described herein is comprised of four distinct kinds of schemas. These are the defining schema, normative schema, meta-model or modelling schema, and application schemas. These schemas are situated in the three partitions or levels of abstraction called Application model level, Meta-model level, and the Meta-meta model level. These terms are defined below:



Figure 1 — ISO CSMF schema architecture

  • Meta-meta Model Level. In the schema architecture, this is the innermost layer. The meta-meta model level contains the defining schema, which specifies the concepts, terminology, operations, and assumptions needed to specify the basic constructs in the meta-model level. It is usually expressed in natural language and is not itself subject to standardization.

  • Meta-Model Level. The meta-model contains the definitions of the concepts; terminology, operations and assumptions needed to construct application schemas. The meta-model descriptions contain the syntax and semantics of various modelling or representation languages – including conceptual schema languages, schemes or paradigms used for modelling. The normative schema constructs, which are part of the meta-model partition, are described in a language based on the fundamental concepts in the defining schema. The meta-models (modelling schemas), which are also part of the meta-model partition, conform (in varying degrees) to the constructs defined in the normative schema. The normative schema can also be called the 'root' meta-model.

  • Application Model Level. Application schemas define the types of features and processes that are instantiated to produce datasets of geographic information. The application schema is expressed using the syntax and semantics of one or more conceptual schema languages represented at the meta-model level.

In addition, a fourth partition or level of abstraction exists “below” the application model level: the data level. The data level contains that actual data that is defined by the application schema at the application model level. The relationship of the application model level to the data level is that of types to instances.

The guiding principle in use of this architecture (and all architectures that describe relationships between different levels of abstraction) is that the information at any abstraction level is defined in terms of the types provided by a language at the next highest abstraction level. This principle is set forth in Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS) framework in ISO/IEC 10027:1990.


    1. ISO CSMF schema architecture and the ISO 19100 series of geographic standards


Figure A.2 maps the conceptual schema languages and conceptual schemas relevant to the ISO 19100 series of standards onto the CSMF architecture using the approach described in annex B.



Figure 2 — CSMF schema architecture in ISO/TC 211

In this mapping, the meta-meta model level contains concepts necessary for defining conceptual formalisms and conceptual models used by the ISO 19100 series of standards at the meta-model level. There are standards in the ISO 19100 series placed at the meta-meta model level.

For the ISO 19100 series of standards, the object model is a conceptual formalism that plays the role of a normative schema at the meta model level. For the ISO 19100 series, UML is the conceptual schema language whose meta-models conform to the normative object model conceptual formalism (See clause 7 of this standard for further detail). This is depicted in figure A.2. This meta-model, and the conceptual schema language it supports, is used to define conceptual schemas at the CSMF application model level. Similarly, the meta model level identifies the more basic types, models, and languages used to describe geographic information. An example of such a meta-model is the General feature model. This meta-model of geographic information is also used to define conceptual schemas at the application model level.

The conceptual schemas standardized in the ISO series of standards are at the application model level. Application schemas, both those produced for individual geographic information systems and those associated with profiles and product specifications, conform to the ISO 19100 series standardized schemas at the application model level.


Annex 3 -Terms and definitions


This clause contains definitions of terms that are applicable to this draft International Standard. Sources of term definitions not defined in this standard are provided.

NOTE Throughout this document, certain terms are italicised. These terms are defined either in this clause or in the definition clause of a of another part of the ISO 19100 series of standards, as indicated.



4.1

application

manipulation and processing of data in support of user requirements



4.2

application schema

conceptual schema for data required by one or more applications



4.3

conceptual formalism

set of modelling concepts used to describe a conceptual model

EXAMPLE UML meta model, EXPRESS meta model.

NOTE One conceptual formalism can be expressed in several conceptual schema languages.



4.4

conceptual model

model that defines concepts of a universe of discourse



4.5

conceptual schema

formal description of a conceptual model



4.6

conceptual schema language

formal language based on a conceptual formalism for the purpose of representing conceptual schemas

EXAMPLE UML, EXPRESS, IDEF1X

NOTE A conceptual schema language may be lexical or graphical. Several conceptual schema languages can be based on the same conceptual formalism.



4.7

dataset

identifiable collection of data

NOTE The principals which apply to datasets may also be applied to dataset series and reporting groups.

4.8

data level

stratum within a set of layered levels in which data is recorded that conforms to definitions of types found at the application model level



4.9

data quality element

quantitative component documenting the quality of a dataset

NOTE The applicability of a data quality element to a dataset depends on both the dataset’s content and its product specification; the result being that all data elements may not be applicable to all datasets.

4.10

data quality overview element

non-quantitative component documenting the quality of a dataset

NOTE Information about the purpose, usage, and lineage of a dataset is non-quantitative information.

4.11

feature

abstraction of real world phenomena

NOTE A feature may occur as a type or an instance. Feature type or feature instance shall be used when only one is meant.

4.12

feature attribute

characteristic of a feature

EXAMPLE 1 A feature attribute named ‘colour’ may have an attribute value ‘green’ which belongs to the data type ‘text’.

EXAMPLE 2 A feature attribute named ‘length’ may have an attribute value ’82.4’ which belongs to the data type ‘real’.

NOTE 1 A feature attribute has a name, a data type, and a value domain associated to it. A feature attribute for a feature instance also has an attribute value taken from the value domain.

NOTE 2 In a feature catalogue, a feature attribute may include a value domain but does not specify attribute values for feature instances.



4.13

feature catalogue

catalogue containing definitions and descriptions of the feature types, feature attributes, and feature relationships occurring in one or more sets of geographic data, together with any feature operations that may be applied



4.14

feature operation

operation that every instance of a feature type may perform

EXAMPLE 1 An operation upon the feature type 'dam' is to raise the dam. The result of this operation is to raise the level of water in a reservoir.

EXAMPLE 2 An operation by the feature type 'dam' might be to block vessels from navigating along a watercourse.

NOTE Feature operations provide a basis for feature type definition.

4.15

functional standard

existing geographic information standard, in active use by an international community of data producers and data users

NOTE GDF, S-57, and DIGEST are examples of functional standards.

4.16

geographic information

information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth



4.17

geographic information service

service that transforms, manages, or presents geographic information to users



4.18

geographic information system

information system dealing with information concerning phenomena associated with location relative to the Earth



4.19

graphical language

language whose syntax is expressed in terms of graphical symbols



4.20

lexical language

language whose syntax is expressed in terms of symbols defined as character strings



4.21

metadata schema

conceptual schema describing metadata

NOTE ISO 15046-15 describes a standard for a metadata schema.

4.22

profile

set of one or more base standards and – where applicable – the identification of chosen clauses, classes, options, and parameters of those base standards that are necessary for accomplishing a particular function

NOTE A base standard is any ISO/TC 211 standard or other Information Technology standard that can be used as a source for components from which a profile or product specification may be constructed (see ISO/IEC 10000-1).

4.23

quality

totality of characteristics of a product that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs

NOTE Within the data quality model, quality is an indication of the totality of feature representation types, feature representations, and the feature attributes, feature relationships, and operations of feature representation types and feature representations of a dataset identified in a dataset specification. Quality is used to determine fitness for use.

4.24

quality schema

conceptual schema defining aspects of quality for geographic data



4.25

schema

formal description of a model



4.26

service

capability which a service provider entity makes available to a service user entity at the interface between those entities



4.27

service interface

shared boundary between an automated system or human being and another automated system or human being



4.28

spatial object

instance of a type defined in the spatial schema



4.29

universe of discourse

view of the real or hypothetical world that includes everything of interest


Symbols and abbreviated terms

Abbreviations


CSMF Conceptual Schema Modelling Facility

ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association

GIS Geographic Information System

IDL Interface Definition Language

IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System

ISP International Standardized Profiles

IT Information Technology

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology

OCL Object Constraint Language

ODP Open Distributed Processing

OMG Object Management Group

OSE Open Systems Environment

STEP Standard for Exchange of Product Data

UML Unified Modelling Language






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