Wfb 232 Ichthyology Taxonomy, Week 5 28 Feb 2005

Дата канвертавання18.04.2016
Памер26.76 Kb.
WFB 232 Ichthyology

Taxonomy, Week 5 28 Feb 2005

Superclass Gnathostomata

Class Actinopterygii

Subclass Neopterygii

Division Teleostei

Subdivision Euteleostei

Contains fishes with adipose fins and nuptial tubercles(but not all members of this group have adipose fins and nuptial tubercles) no “unique” characteristic common to all species in Euteleostei.

Superorder Ostariophysi

Most dominant group of freshwater fishes. 6,500 species (27% of known species)

alarm pheromone in most Ostariophysans, unculi (horny projections)

Series Anotophysi

Order Gonorhynchiformes (Milkfish)
Family Chanidae, Chanos chanos

slightly modified anterior vertebrae, large forked caudal fin, planktivorous.

popular in pond aquaculture, esp. in SE Asia. grows to 1.8 m in length.
No Weberian apparatus

Series Otophysi

Most dominant group of freshwater fishes (>6,000 species)

Weberian apparatus (bony connection between swim bladder & ear) for sound reception

variable body forms, sizes, habitats

Order Cypriniformes (Carps, minnows, loaches, suckers and allies)

No true teeth, pharyngeal teeth (for filtering plankton), no adipose fin

fully scaled, physostomus, lack true fin spines

Originated in SE Asia, naturally distributed to Africa, Europe, & North America
(introduced to South America & Australia)

~ 2,000 species, very important ecologically & economically

In Vermont: See page 3 for list of families and species

Order Characiformes (Characins)

have true teeth on jaw, opposing pharyngeal teeth, adipose fin

tropical species, found only in freshwater, Africa (200 spp.)

& Texas to South America (1,300 spp.)

piranhas, tetras, hatchetfishes

variable feeding methods: detritivory, herbivory, planktivory, predation, fin-eating, and

scale-eating, group-predation

Order Siluriformes (Catfishes)

very diverse group, distributed around the world, second to Cypriniformes in # species

no scales (some have armor), have barbels (whiskers) around mouth, adipose fin (in most)

teeth only on premaxillary (in most)

dorsal & pectoral fins have spines (modified soft rays), which have “venom” in some spp.

omnivorous, but some w/ specialized diets (parasites)

some species swim upside down (reverse countershading)

most can breathe air, some have strong electrosensory development, some are blind

candiru – parasitic in urogenital canals!

In Vermont: Family Ictaluridae

4 pairs of barbels around mouth, adipose fin, no scales or armor, stout spine at leading edge of dorsal and pectoral fins (in bullheads).

Ictalurus punctatus

channel catfish (introduced)

Noturus flavus


Ameiurus natalis

yellow bullhead

Ameiurus nebulosus

brown bullhead

Order Gymnotiformes (Knifefishes)

similar to Siluriformes, occur in Central & South America

no dorsal fin, but long fleshy fin on back resembling adipose fin, usually no caudal/pelvic.

Anus & urogenital openings in front of pectorals

all members have some electric organs (some are stronger than others)

electric eel – up to 650 volts!

some are modified air-breathers

Order Cypriniformes, Representatives in Vermont:

Family Catostomidae

Carpiodes cyprinus, Quillback

Catostomus catostomus, Longnose sucker

Catostomus commersoni, White sucker

Moxostoma anisurum, Silver redhorse

Moxostoma macrolepidotum, Shorthead redhorse

Moxostoma valenciennesi, Greater redhorse

Family Cyprinidae

Carassius auratus, Goldfish (introduced)

Couesius plumbeus, Lake chub

Cyprinella spiloptera, Spotfin shiner

Cyprinus carpio, Carp (introduced)

Exoglossum maxillingua, Cutlips minnow

Hybognathus hankinsoni, Brassy minnow

Hybognathus regius, Eastern silvery minnow

Luxilus cornutus, Common shiner

Margariscus margarita subspecies margarita, Pearl dace

Notemigonus crysoleucas, Golden shiner

Notropis atherinoides, Emerald shiner

Notropis bifrenatus, Bridle shiner

Notropis heterodon, Blackchin shiner

Notropis heterolepis, Blacknose shiner

Notropis hudsonius, Spottail shiner

Notropis rubellus, Rosyface shiner

Notropis stramineus, Sand shiner

Notropis volucellus, Mimic shiner

Phoxinus eos, Northern redbelly dace

Phoxinus neogaeus, Finescale dace

Pimephales notatus, Bluntnose minnow

Pimephales promelas, Fathead minnow

Rhinichthys atratulus, Blacknose dace

Rhinichthys cataractae, Longnose dace

Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rudd

Semotilus atromaculatus, Creek chub

Semotilus corporalis, Fallfish

Tinca tinca, Tench (introduced)

База данных защищена авторским правом © 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка