Video Case 1




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Video Case 5.1


Dunkin’ Donuts: Dunking the Competition

  1. Marketing research can help Dunkin’ Donuts determine what consumers are looking for in a coffee and donut shop. For example, Marketing research in the form of focus groups and survey research revealed that customers select a coffee and donut shop based on five factors: accessibility, quality, variety, image, and affordability. This helped Dunkin’ Donuts formulate sound marketing strategies to make improvements on all these factors. To illustrate, in order to improve accessibility, Dunkin’ Donuts has opened locations in Home Depot, Wal-Mart, 7-11, and Stop & Shop stores to add to the convenience that customers’ desire. Every location is strategically placed and designed with these customer preferences in mind.

  2. The management decision problem is: What can Dunkin’ Donuts do to further expand in the US in a profitable manner?

  3. The marketing research problem is to determine consumer preferences for coffee and donut shops. Specifically, research should provide answers to the following questions:

    1. What criteria do consumers use in selecting a coffee and donut shop?

    2. How do consumers evaluate Dunkin’ Donuts and its competitor’s based on the identified choice criteria?

    3. What is the potential demand for coffee and donut shops?

    4. What is the demographic and psychographic profile of consumers who prefer Dunkin’ Donuts to competitors?

  4. Students should search an Internet database using the key words “coffee”, “donut,” “coffee shops”, “coffee consumption”, etc. to identify the relevant data. They should also visit Dunkin’ Donuts web site (http://www.dunkindonuts.com).

  5. Dunkin’ Donuts can benefit from a variety of syndicate data. Psychographic and lifestyle data, such as those provided by the Yankelovich Monitor, can help the company discern trends affecting consumers’ patronage of coffee and donut shops. Purchase panel data, such as those provided by NPD, can help determine consumer patronage and expenditures on coffee and donut shops. Firms like Nielsen Media research can provide data on media consumption habits enabling Dunkin’ Donuts to target the right consumers. Finally, scanner data can provide information on coffee and donut consumption.

  6. Both focus groups and depth interviews can be useful. Focus groups can generate new insights and ideas, while depth interviews can uncover hidden motives, values, and beliefs. For example, using qualitative research, the company found that quality translates to freshness in the donut business, therefore, Dunkin’ Donuts makes donuts at least four times a day. The coffee is brewed and then allowed to sit for no more than 18 minutes in all the locations. After the 18-minute time window, the coffee is poured out, and a fresh pot is brewed. This commitment to quality was made as a result of qualitative and survey research showing what the customer desired in a cup of coffee.

  7. Personal interviews at representative coffee shop locations of Dunkin’ Donuts and other chains could be used to determine the preference coffee shop goers have for the new pastries. Sampling control will be a key factor. Only coffee shop goers should be included in the sample. Use of physical stimuli is another key consideration. Respondents can taste the new pastries at these locations and then respond to the survey questionnaire. Other advantages are complex questions can be asked, very good control of the data collection environment, and there is a very good response rate.

  8. Students should be asked to download the KitKat Taste Test from the Web site of this textbook and use it as a guide to develop a script for testing for preference between two coffee brands: Dunkin’ Donuts and Starbucks. Make sure the coffees are warmed to the same temperature, and poured in three groups of identical cups. Each person will select a cup from the first group, taste the coffee, eat a cracker, and take a swallow of water. This will be repeated for each person when tasting from the second, and the third groups, also. (The first group might be Dunkin’ Donuts, the second group Starbucks, and the third group Dunkin’ Donuts). After tasting from each of the three coffee sample groups, have the respondents complete the survey form the students create (similar to that in the KitKat document.) To avoid a biasing effect from the order of presentation of the samples, it will be important for half of the respondents to have a rotated order of presentation: (The first group Starbucks, the second group Dunkin’ Donuts, and the third group Starbucks). The taste test should be conducted on 30 respondents/students.

  9. Questionnaire for assessing consumer preferences for coffee shops:

COFFEE SHOP QUESTIONNAIRE


PART A

Q1. How often do you visit a coffee shop?

a. One a month or less often ____


  1. 2 or 3 times a month ____

  2. Once or twice a week ____

  3. Three or more times per week ____

Q3. Please rate the importance of the following factors in your selection of a coffee shop.

Not at all Very

Important Important



  1. Quality 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Image 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Variety 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Price/affordability 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Convenience of location 1 2 3 4 5

Q4. Please rate your preference for the following coffee shops.

Not at all Very Much

Preferred Preferred



  1. Krispy Kreme 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Dunkin’ Donuts 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Starbucks 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Caribou Coffee’ 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Aurora Coffee 1 2 3 4 5

Q5. Please rate the following coffee shops in terms of Quality.

Poor Excellent

Quality Quality



  1. Krispy Kreme 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Dunkin’ Donuts 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Starbucks 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Caribou Coffee’ 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Aurora Coffee 1 2 3 4 5

Q6. Please rate the following coffee shops in terms of Variety.

Poor Excellent

Variety Variety



  1. Krispy Kreme 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Dunkin’ Donuts 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Starbucks 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Caribou Coffee’ 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Aurora Coffee 1 2 3 4 5

Q7. Please rate the following coffee shops in terms of Image.

Poor Excellent

Image Image



  1. Krispy Kreme 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Dunkin’ Donuts 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Starbucks 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Caribou Coffee’ 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Aurora Coffee 1 2 3 4 5

Q8. Please rate the following fast food restaurants in terms of Price/Affordability.

Poor Excellent

Price Price



  1. Krispy Kreme 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Dunkin’ Donuts 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Starbucks 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Caribou Coffee’ 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Aurora Coffee 1 2 3 4 5

Q9. Please rate the following fast food restaurants in terms of Convenience of Location.

Poor Excellent

Location Location



  1. Krispy Kreme 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Dunkin’ Donuts 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Starbucks 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Caribou Coffee’ 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Aurora Coffee 1 2 3 4 5

Q10. Please indicate how frequently you eat in the following coffee shops.

Not at all Very

Frequently Frequently



  1. Krispy Kreme 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Dunkin’ Donuts 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Starbucks 1 2 3 4 5

  4. Caribou Coffee’ 1 2 3 4 5

  5. Aurora Coffee 1 2 3 4 5

Q11. How often do you eat in Dunkin’ Donuts?

a. Once a month or less often ____


  1. 2 or 3 times a month ____

  2. Once or twice a week ____

  3. Three or more times per week ____


PART B

In this part, we would like to ask you some questions for classification purposes.


Q12. Your Gender:

1. Male _____

2. Female _____
Q13. Marital Status:

1. Currently Married _____

2. Never Married _____

3. Divorced/Separated/Widowed _____


Q14. Family Size:

1. One _____

2. Two _____

3. Three _____

4. Four _____

5. Five or more _____


Q15. Your Age:

1. 18-24 _____

2. 25-40 _____

3. 41-60 _____

4. 60+ _____
Q16. Your Formal Education

1. Less than High School _____

2. High School Graduate _____

3. Some College _____

4. College Graduate _____
Q17. What is Your Occupation?

____________________


Q18. What is the approximate combined annual income of your household before taxes?
1. $30,000 or less _____

2. $30,001 to 50,000 _____

3. $50,001 to 75,000 _____

4. $75,001 to 100,000 _____

5. $100,001 to 150,000 _____

6. $150,001 and over _____


Thank you for your participation.

____________________________________________________________________________



  1. Target population: Major coffee shop customers in Chicago in the current year

Sampling frame: List of coffee houses in Chicago

Sampling unit: Coffee houses in Chicago and then customers in the selected coffee houses

Sampling technique: Quota sampling by age, gender, and income level

Sample size: 400

Execution: Visit the selected coffee houses and interview customers by quota.

Video Case 5.2

eGO: Electric Vehicles on the Go


  1. The company conducted exploratory research followed by descriptive research. Exploratory research by way of pilot studies and informal qualitative research showed that customers would like to test the cycle even though it was unavailable in many stores. A survey of existing eGO owners revealed that the vehicle was used for commuting, recreation, business, and errands.

  2. eGO can make use of a panel of owners and monitor their behavior over time to see how the use of eGO changes over time.

  3. Students should search the Internet and the library’s online databases using key words such as “electric vehicles,” “green marketing,” “environment friendly,” etc.

  4. Psychographic and lifestyle data such as those available from the Yankelovich Monitor would be useful to eGO in projecting the future demand for its vehicles. Such data would indicate whether and to what extent consumers are becoming more conscious of preserving the environment and the size of the “green” segment.

  5. Depth interviews with women would be very useful. The one-on-one setting will permit the probing of underlying emotions. This would be difficult to do in a focus group setting.

  6. The target population is the owners of eGO. The company will have the mailing addresses of all owners because of product registration. Given the identification of the owners with the product and the company, and the use of suitable, yet inexpensive, incentive should lead to a good response rate to a mail survey. This would be the least expensive option for a company concerned about profitability.

  7. Customer satisfaction survey questionnaire.

eGO SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE


PART A

Q1. How often do you use your eGO?

a. One day a month or less often ____

b. 2 or 3 days a month ____

c. One or two days a week ____

d. Three or four days per week ____



  1. More than four days per week ____

Q2. For what purpose do you use your eGO? Please check all that apply.



  1. Recreation _________

  2. Commuting _________

  3. Business _________

  4. Errands _________

  5. Other (Please write in _________

Q3. How satisfied are you with the performance of eGO?

Not at all Very

Satisfied Satisfied

1 2 3 4 5
Q4. How satisfied are you with the functionality of eGO?

Not at all Very

Satisfied Satisfied

1 2 3 4 5


Q5. How satisfied are you with the looks of eGO?

Not at all Very

Satisfied Satisfied

1 2 3 4 5


Q6. How satisfied are you overall with eGO?

Not at all Very

Satisfied Satisfied

1 2 3 4 5


Q7. To what extent has eGO met your expectations?

Not Met Fully Met

My Expectations My Expectations

1 2 3 4 5


PART B

In this part, we would like to ask you some questions for classification purposes.


Q8. Your Gender:

1. Male _____

2. Female _____
Q9. Marital Status:

1. Currently Married _____

2. Never Married _____

3. Divorced/Separated/Widowed _____


Q10. Family Size:

1. One _____

2. Two _____

3. Three _____

4. Four _____

5. Five or more _____


Q11. Your Age:

1. 18-24 _____

2. 25-40 _____

3. 41-60 _____

4. 60+ _____

Q12. Your Formal Education

1. Less than High School _____

2. High School Graduate _____

3. Some College _____

4. College Graduate _____


Q13. What is Your Occupation?

____________________


Q14. What is the approximate combined annual income of your household before taxes?

1. $30,000 or less _____

2. $30,001 to 50,000 _____

3. $50,001 to 75,000 _____

4. $75,001 to 100,000 _____

5. $100,001 to 150,000 _____

6. $150,001 and over _____
Thank you for your participation.

____________________________________________________________________________



  1. Target population: owners of eGO in the current year.

Sampling frame: List of eGO owners available from registration records

Sampling unit: Names on the owners list

Sampling technique: Stratified sampling by duration of eGO ownership

Sample size: 400



Execution: Stratify the sample by duration of ownership. Use simple random sampling to select the required number of owners in each stratum.

Video Case 5.3

Nextel’s Next Move: Expanding Its Customer Base


  1. Marketing research can help Nextel determine the factors that drive the loyalty of business customers. It can help answer questions such as: How should the loyalty of business customers to wireless service providers be defined? How does loyalty develop? What are the factors that lead to loyalty? What marketing programs should be undertaken to enhance customer loyalty?

  2. The management decision problem is: What must Nextel do to expand its customer base?

  3. The marketing research problem is to understand how business customers select a wireless service provider and determine their perceptions and preferences for Nextel and its competitors. Specifically,

    1. What criteria do business customers use in selecting a wireless service provider?

    2. How do businesses evaluate Nextel and its competitors on the identified choice criteria?

    3. Are there any wireless communication needs of businesses that are not being met adequately?

    4. What are the factors that develop loyalty toward wireless service providers?

    5. What is best way to segment the business market for wireless services?

  4. The research design adopted should consist of an exploratory phase followed by a descriptive phase. The purpose of the exploratory phase would be to understand the decision making process of businesses for wireless services and determine the factors that lead to customer satisfaction, retention and loyalty. This phase should include analysis of available secondary data and depth interviews with businesses. The descriptive phase should involve a cross-sectional survey of businesses to quantify the findings of exploratory research and to test specific hypotheses.

  5. Firms such as D&B provide valuable information on businesses. This includes the type of business (NAICS), the sales, number of employees, location, address, telephone, credit report, etc. Such information can be useful in segmenting the marketing and understanding the wireless needs of the different segments.

  6. Qualitative research can help Nextel to understand how loyalty develops and in identifying the factors that drive loyalty of business customers toward wireless service providers. Depth interviews with business customers would be very useful, as substantial probing would be required.

  7. Sample control, i.e., the ability to identify and include the decision maker(s) in each selected business in the survey, would be very important. This can be best done over the telephone. The telephone survey also has the advantages of being fast, offering good control of the field force, good response rate, and moderate cost.



Ordinal Scale

Please rank order the following wireless service providers in terms of your preference for doing business with them. Assign the rank of 1 to the most preferred provider and the rank of 4 to the least preferred.

Wireless Service Provider Rank

a. Cingular _____

b. Nextel _____

c. Verizon _____

d. T-Mobile _____
Interval Scale

Please rate the following wireless service providers in terms of your preference for doing business with them using the seven-point scale, where 1 = no preference, and 7 = strong preference.

No Preference Strong Preference

a. Cingular 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

b. Nextel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

c. Verizon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

d. T-Mobile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Ratio Scale

How many dollars did you spend in the last fiscal year doing business with the following wireless service providers?

Wireless Service Provider Dollars Spent

a. Cingular _____

b. Nextel _____

c. Verizon _____

d. T-Mobile _____


  1. Likert scale: Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly

Disagree Agree

I like Nextel, overall 1 2 3 4 5

Nextel offers good value 1 2 3 4 5

Nextel has inferior technology 1 2 3 4 5

Nextel is competitive 1 2 3 4 5

Semantic differential scale: Nextel is:

Good overall -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Not good overall

Good value -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Not good value

Inferior technology -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Superior technology

Competitive -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Not competitive


Stapel scale:

Nextel is:

+5 +5 +5 +5

+4 +4 +4 +4

+3 +3 +3 +3

+2 +2 +2 +2

+1 +1 +1 +1

Good overall Good value Inferior technology Competitive

-1 -1 -1 -1

-2 -2 -2 -2

-3 -3 -3 -3

-4 -4 -4 -4

-5 -5 -5 -5





  1. Target population: Businesses in the United States in the current year.

Sampling frame: List of telephone numbers of businesses

Sampling unit: telephone numbers

Sampling technique: Stratified random sampling. Strata based on NAIC and number of employees.

Sample size: 500

Execution: Obtain a list of telephone numbers of businesses from D&B. Stratify the businesses by NAIC and number of employees and then use systematic sampling to select within each stratum.


  1. The sample size should be based on statistical consideration, as well as sample size used in similar studies, cost, time, and research judgment. The sample size of 500 would be more than adequate to yield percentage estimates that do not differ by more than plus or minus five percent. It is the sample size that Nextel typically uses in its business surveys.


Video Case 5.4


The Snapple Story: (Un) Reliance on Marketing Research

1. Students should search the Internet and the library’s online databases using key words such as “iced tea,” “Snapple,” “Beverage,” etc.

2. The research design adopted should consist of an exploratory phase followed by a descriptive phase. The purpose of the exploratory phase would be to understand how consumers currently relate to Snapple, how they perceive it as compared to other brands of iced tea and other beverages, and how consumers select a brand of iced tea. This phase should include analysis of available secondary data, focus groups and depth interviews with consumers. The descriptive phase should involve a cross-sectional survey of consumers to quantify the findings of exploratory research and to test specific hypotheses.

3. To the extent the consumption of iced tea is influenced by age and other demographic characteristics, secondary data related to demographic trends would be useful. Industry data related to growth rates, market shares, and beverage industry trends would also be useful.

4. Scanner (volume tracking and scanner panel) data would be useful in examining sales trends, consumption patterns and loyalty factors. Purchase panel data, e.g., the beverage panel maintained by NPD, can provide information on motivations, attitudes, and beliefs and their impact of beverage purchases. Psychographic and lifestyle data can provide information on trends that will influence the consumption of iced tea and other beverages.

5. Both focus groups and depth interviews would be useful. Focus groups can generate new insights and ideas, while depth interviews can uncover hidden motives, values, and beliefs. For example, what is the personality of Snapple? Depth interviews would be very useful. The one-on-one setting will permit the probing of underlying emotions, e.g., what emotional responses are elicited by Snapple? This would be difficult to do in a focus group setting.


6. Mall intercept interviews at representative locations could be used to determine the preference that consumers have for bottled iced tea. Use of physical stimuli is a key consideration. Respondents can taste various brands of iced tea and other beverages at these locations and then respond to the survey questionnaire. Other advantages are complex questions can be asked, very good control of the data collection environment, and very good response rate.

7. The Posttest-Only Control Group Design is recommended. The control group will be exposed to the current Snapple commercial and the test group to the new commercial. Post-exposure measure of advertising effectiveness will be obtained for both groups. The simplicity of this design offers time, cost, and sample size advantages. For these reasons, it is the most popular experimental design in marketing research.

8. A factorial design is recommended. There will be one factor with three treatment levels: current commercial, new commercial 1, and new commercial 2. Respondents will be assigned randomly to the three groups. Post-exposure measure of advertising effectiveness will be obtained for all the groups. This design will allow a comparison of the three commercials in terms of advertising effectiveness.

9.


Ordinal Scale

Please rank order the following bottled iced tea brands in terms of your preference. Assign the rank of 1 to the most preferred and the rank of 3 to the least preferred brand.

Brand Rank

a. Lipton _____

b. Snapple _____

c. Honest Tea _____


Interval Scale

Please rate the following bottled iced tea brands in terms of your preference using the seven-point scale, where 1 = no preference, and 7 = strong preference.

No Preference Strong Preference

a. Lipton 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

b. Snapple 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

c. Honest Tea 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Ratio Scale

How many dollars did you spend in the last two months on the following bottled iced tea brands?

Brand Dollars Spent

a. Lipton _____

b. Snapple _____

c. Honest Tea _____


10. Likert scale: Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly

Disagree Agree

I prefer Snapple iced tea 1 2 3 4 5
Semantic differential scale: My preference for Snapple iced tea is:

Strong -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Weak

Stapel scale:

My preference for Snapple iced tea is:

+5

+4


+3

+2


+1

Preference

-1

-2


-3

-4


-5



  1. A questionnaire for assessing consumer preferences for bottled iced tea.

BOTTLED ICED TEA QUESTIONNAIRE


PART A

Q1. How often do you drink bottled iced tea?

a. One a month or less often ____

b. 2 or 3 times a month ____

c. Once or twice a week ____

d. Three or four times per week ____

e. More than four times per week ____
Q3. Please rate the importance of the following factors in your selection of a brand of bottled iced tea.

Not at all Very

Important Important

a. Quality 1 2 3 4 5

b. Image 1 2 3 4 5

c. Variety 1 2 3 4 5

d. Price 1 2 3 4 5

e. Taste 1 2 3 4 5


Q4. Please rate your preference for the following brands of bottled iced tea.

Not at all Very Much

Preferred Preferred

a. Lipton 1 2 3 4 5

b. Snapple 1 2 3 4 5

c. Honest Tea 1 2 3 4 5


Q5. Please rate the following brands of bottled iced tea in terms of Quality.

Poor Excellent

a. Lipton 1 2 3 4 5

b. Snapple 1 2 3 4 5

c. Honest Tea 1 2 3 4 5
Q6. Please rate the following brands of bottled iced tea in terms of Variety.

Poor Excellent



  1. Lipton 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Snapple 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Honest Tea 1 2 3 4 5

Q7. Please rate the following brands of bottled iced tea in terms of Image.

Poor Excellent


  1. Lipton 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Snapple 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Honest Tea 1 2 3 4 5

Q8. Please rate the following brands of bottled iced tea in terms of a value Price.

Poor Excellent


  1. Lipton 1 2 3 4 5

  2. Snapple 1 2 3 4 5

  3. Honest Tea 1 2 3 4 5

Q9. Please rate the brands of bottled iced tea in terms of Taste.

Poor Excellent

a. Lipton 1 2 3 4 5

b. Snapple 1 2 3 4 5

c. Honest Tea 1 2 3 4 5

Q10. How often do you drink Snapple iced tea?

a. Once a month or less often ____

b. 2 or 3 times a month ____

c. Once or twice a week ____

d. Three or four times per week ____


  1. More than four times per week ____


PART B

In this part, we would like to ask you some questions for classification purposes.


Q11. Your Gender:

1. Male _____

2. Female _____
Q12. Marital Status:

1. Currently Married _____

2. Never Married _____

3. Divorced/Separated/Widowed _____


Q13. Family Size:

1. One _____

2. Two _____

3. Three _____

4. Four _____

5. Five or more _____


Q14. Your Age:

1. 18-24 _____

2. 25-40 _____

3. 41-60 _____

4. 60+ _____

Q15. Your Formal Education

1. Less than High School _____

2. High School Graduate _____

3. Some College _____

4. College Graduate _____


Q16. What is Your Occupation?

____________________


Q17. What is the approximate combined annual income of your household before taxes?
1. $30,000 or less _____

2. $30,001 to 50,000 _____

3. $50,001 to 75,000 _____

4. $75,001 to 100,000 _____

5. $100,001 to 150,000 _____

6. $150,001 and over _____


Thank you for your participation.

____________________________________________________________________________

12. Target population: Mall shoppers in the United States in the current year

Sampling frame: List of Malls in the US

Sampling unit: Mall Shoppers

Sampling technique: Judgmental sampling

Sample size: 1000

Execution: Judgmentally select a set of shopping malls across the United States. Interview shoppers using the mall-intercept method.



  1. This sample size of 1000 was selected based on qualitative considerations, such as the importance of the decision, nature of the research, statistical analyses that would be required, resource constraint, and the sample sizes used in similar studies Snapple had conducted in the past.

Video Case 5.5

Federated Says ‘I do’ to New Bridal Departments


  1. Federated Department Stores can use marketing research in several ways. Research can help it to understand the attitudes and behaviors of the people as pertaining to department store shopping. More specifically, what are consumers looking for in a department store? Marketing research can also help the company develop appropriate positioning of its various stores, determine the desirable product mix and quality, pricing and promotion strategies, advertising campaigns, store locations, and a host of other marketing issues and strategies.

  2. Management Decision Problem: How can Federated Department Stores foster and build the loyalty of its fans and continue to grow?

  3. The marketing research problem is to understand consumer behavior and loyalty for Macy’s (Note that the problem has been narrowed to just one of the chains owned by Federated Department Stores, i.e., Macy’s). More specifically,

    1. What factors are important in the consumers’ decision to patronize Macy’s?

    2. What factors result in repeat attendance and loyalty for Macy’s?

    3. What is the demographic and psychographic profile of consumers who are loyal to Macy’s?

    4. What changes would the loyal fans like to see in Macy’s stores?

4. An appropriate research design would be to conduct exploratory research first followed by descriptive research. Exploratory research should include analysis of internal and external secondary data, focus groups and depth interviews. The objective of exploratory research would be to gain an understanding of how consumers select department stores for shopping and to determine the factors that influence their patronage, repeat patronage, and loyalty patterns. The exploratory phase would be followed by a descriptive phase consisting of a cross-sectional survey. The objective of the descriptive phase would be to quantify the findings of the exploratory phase and test specific hypotheses.

  1. Federated can use Census 2000 data to analyze the changes in demographic profiles (e.g., age, income, race, marital status and gender) to see how these changes impact their loyal customer base. They can also analyze the population growth rates of key segments and regions to determine the impact of these factors on patronage and repeat patronage of Macy’s and other Federated chains.

  2. Syndicated survey data related to psychographics and lifestyles, such as the Yankelovich Monitor, would be useful in discerning relevant trends that impact the patronage of department stores. Advertising evaluation surveys and diary media panels such as the Nielsen TV Index can guide Federated in the placement of its advertising. Scanner data pertaining to certain product categories, such as consumer electronics, can also help in determining the appropriate product mix.

  3. One-on-one depth interviews enable us to understand consumers’ individual attachments and associations to a department store. These are very personal and emotional experiences that can best be uncovered in a one-on-one setting. Focus groups can help in identifying the choice criteria consumers use in selecting a department store.

  4. Mall-intercept personal interviews could be used because the interviewers can easily recruit department store shoppers in the mall area, and it is more efficient for the respondent to come to the interviewer than for the interviewer to go to the respondent. Moreover, this technique will provide very good sample control and flexibility, and complex questions can be asked. Other advantages include very good control of the data collection environment and very good response rate. Should it be necessary to use any physical stimuli, mall-intercept interviews would be desirable.



Likert scale:

Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly

Disagree Agree

I prefer to shop in Macy’s 1 2 3 4 5


Semantic differential scale: My preference for Macy’s is:

Strong -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Weak


Stapel scale:

My preference for Macy’s is:

+5

+4


+3

+2


+1

Preference

-1

-2


-3

-4


-5


  1. See the questionnaire that follows.





DEPARTMENT STORE QUESTIONNAIRE

Q1. How often did you shop in department stores during the past year?


  1. _____ 0-3 times

  2. _____ 4-6 times

  3. _____ 7-9 times

  4. _____ 10-12 times

  5. _____ More than 12 times

Q2. How much money did you spend in department stores during the past year?




  1. _____ $0-$500

  2. _____ $500-$1000

  3. _____ $1000-$2000

  4. _____ $2000-$3000

  5. _____ More than $3000

Q3. Please rate the importance of the following factors in your selection of a department store.


Not at all Very

Important Important

a. Overall Value 1 2 3 4 5

b. Price 1 2 3 4 5

c. Variety 1 2 3 4 5

d. Reliability 1 2 3 4 5

e. Convenience 1 2 3 4 5

f. Customer Service 1 2 3 4 5

g. Advertising 1 2 3 4 5

h. Location 1 2 3 4 5

i. Promotion 1 2 3 4 5

j. Loyalty Program 1 2 3 4 5


Q4. Which of the following would strongly affect your shopping experience?
No Effect Very Strong

at All Effect

a. Poor Lighting 1 2 3 4 5

b. Bad Customer Service 1 2 3 4 5

c. Poor Selection 1 2 3 4 5

d. Unattractive Store 1 2 3 4 5

e. Store Temperature 1 2 3 4 5

f. Loud Music 1 2 3 4 5


Q5. Which of the following department stores have you shopped at during the last six months? Please check all that apply.

  1. _____ Macy’s

  2. _____ Rich’s-Macy’s

  3. _____ Lazarus-Macy’s

  4. _____ Goldsmith’s-Macy’s

  5. _____ Bloomingdale’s-Macy’s

  6. _____ Burdines-Macy’s

  7. _____ Bon-Macy’s

Q6. Please indicate your preference to shop in the following department stores using a seven point scale, where 1 = Not at all Preferred, and 7 = Greatly Preferred.

Not at all Greatly

Preferred Preferred



  1. Macy’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  2. Rich’s-Macy’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  3. Lazarus-Macy’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  4. Goldsmith’s-Macy’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  5. Bloomingdale’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  6. Burdines-Macy’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  7. Bon-Macy’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Q7. How many times have you shopped at Macy’s during the past year?



  1. _____ 0-3 times

b. _____ 4-6 times

  1. _____ 7-9 times

  2. _____ 10-12 times

  3. _____ More than 12 times

Q8. Please indicate your evaluation of Macy’s on the following factors using a seven- point scale where 1 = Very Poor, and 7 = Very Good.

Very Poor Very Good

a. Overall Value 1 2 3 4 5

b. Price 1 2 3 4 5

c. Variety 1 2 3 4 5

d. Reliability 1 2 3 4 5

e. Convenience 1 2 3 4 5

f. Customer Service 1 2 3 4 5

g. Advertising 1 2 3 4 5

h. Location 1 2 3 4 5

i. Promotion 1 2 3 4 5

j. Loyalty Program 1 2 3 4 5

PART B

In this part, we would like to ask you some questions for classification purposes.


Q9. Your Gender:

1. Male _____

2. Female _____
Q10. Marital Status:

1. Married _____

2. Never Married _____

3. Divorced/Separated/Widowed _____


Q11. Family Size:

1. One _____

2. Two _____

3. Three _____

4. Four _____

5. Five or more _____


Q12. Your Age:

1. 18-24 _____

2. 25-40 _____

3. 41-60 _____

4. 60+ _____
Q13. Your Formal Education:

1. Less than High School _____

2. High School Graduate _____

3. Some College _____

4. College Graduate _____
Q14. What is Your Occupation?

____________________


Q15. What is the approximate combined annual income of your household before taxes?

1. $30,000 or less _____

2. $30,001 to 50,000 _____

3. $50,001 to 75,000 _____

4. $75,001 to 100,000 _____

5. $100,001 to 150,000 _____

6. $150,001 and over _____
Thank you for your participation.

____________________________________________________________________________


11. Convenience sampling could be used for mall-intercept interviews.

Target population: Mall shoppers in the United States in the current year

Sampling frame: Malls in the United States

Sampling unit: Malls and then shoppers

Sampling technique: Mall-intercept interviews (Convenience sampling)

Sample size: 500

Execution: Interview shoppers in the selected malls by intercepting them in key locations in the mall. Note that imposing quotas is not necessary since the profile of the mall shoppers closely matches that of target population.

12. This sample size of 500 was selected based on qualitative considerations, such as the importance of the decision, nature of the research, statistical analyses that would be required, resource constraint, and the sample sizes used in similar studies Federated had conducted in the past.

13. Because this is a personal interview, physical appearance and manners are important. The individuals should have a pleasant appearance and appear and act professionally, thus they should have at least a high school education. Experienced personal interviewers are needed since they will tend to be more comfortable interviewing in the mall. Interviewers will need to be personable in order to promote a relaxed atmosphere for the interview. They should have effective speaking, listening and writing skills to successfully capture and record the information.

Training is needed in the following areas:

* Making the initial contact - The initial contact is important to gain the confidentiality and trust of respondents. Practice in approaching people should be a part of the training, including an opening line.

* Asking Questions - As always, field workers must ask the questions exactly as worded in order to prevent interviewer bias. Field workers should be instructed to abide by the guidelines listed in the text.

* Probing - When respondents do not sufficiently answer the question, it is necessary to motivate them to respond or clarify their answers. Training should cover different techniques of probing so that field workers are comfortable with at least one technique.

* Recording answers - Field workers should be familiar with the survey form and know how to mark responses on the form. The entire form should be reviewed in detail. Recording answers to unstructured questions should be reviewed as well. The guidelines listed in the text should be followed.

* Terminating the interview - Field workers should be instructed to close each interview in a polite and gracious manner after all the information has been obtained.

14.


a. Correlation between willingness to attend and each of five independent variables

Dependent variable: Willingness to shop in a department store

Independent variable: quality of merchandise, variety of merchandise, competitive prices, in-store service, and convenience of location.

b. Multiple regression of willingness to shop on all of five independent variables



Dependent variable: Willingness to shop

Independent variables: quality of merchandise, variety of merchandise, competitive prices, in-store service, and convenience of location

c. Hypothesis testing using t-test for paired samples (paired variables: evaluation of Macy’s on quality of merchandise and evaluation of Macy’s on competitive prices)

d. Hypothesis testing using t-test for paired samples (paired variables: evaluation of Macy’s on in-store service and evaluation of Nordstrom on in-store service)

e. Hypothesis testing using t-test for two independent samples (Macy’s shoppers and nonshoppers). Five t-tests will be conducted, one for each of the five independent variables.

f. Hypothesis testing using t-test for two independent samples (men and women) with willing to shop at Macy’s as the dependent variable.

g. ANOVA


Dependent variable: willingness to shop at Macy’s

Independent variable: age classified into four groups: less than 25, 26 to 45, 46 to 65, and 66 or older.

h. Cross-Tabulation of willingness to shop at Nordstrom (unwilling, neutral, and willing) with age (less than 25, 26 to 45, 46 to 65, and 66 or older).



  1. ANOVA

Dependent variable: Willingness to shop at Macy’s

i. ndependent variable: Marital status (never married, currently married, and others)

j. Cross-Tabulation of willingness to shop at Nordstrom (unwilling, neutral, and willing) with marital status (never married, currently married, and others).

k. Since 8 percent does not represent a large number of cases, throwing out these respondents (i.e., casewise deletion) is an option. Pairwise deletion and substation of the missing values with the variable mean should also be tried.


15. The format suggested in Chapter 19 would be appropriate.

16. NASCAR needs to address differences in the lifestyle/pastime and shopping behavior in their marketing research. They also need to consider other socio-cultural factors such as family dynamics and research methodology in Germany. In addition, economic/infrastructure factors, marketing environment, government environment, legal environment, and information and technological environment should be considered as well.



    1. With regard to the general public, ethical concerns revolve primarily around the methods of generating and reporting research results. It is the joint responsibility of the researcher and the client to ensure that the research findings are being disseminated accurately. In particular, care should be taken by both the market researcher and the client to avoid incomplete reporting, misleading reporting, and biased research.

It is the marketing researcher’s responsibility to protect the respondents from unethical research practices. Two issues deserve special attention: conducting a survey as a guise to sell products, and the invasion of the privacy of the respondent.

Given the complexity involved, it is not surprising that the ethical issues surrounding the researcher-client relationship are somewhat numerous. Areas that deserve special attention from an ethical standpoint are: abuse of position arising from specialized knowledge, unnecessary research, an unqualified researcher, disclosure of identity, treating data as nonconfidential, and misleading presentation of data.

The researcher (or the research firm) has the right to be treated ethically as well. Ethical treatment by clients involves several issues: improper solicitation of proposals, disclosure of proprietary techniques, and misrepresentation of findings.

Video Case 5.6


Motorola: Projecting the Moto Lifestyle
1. Motorola can use marketing research in several ways. Research can help it to understand the attitudes and behaviors of the people as pertaining to cellular phone usage. More specifically, what are consumers looking for in a cellular phone handset? Marketing research can also help the company develop appropriate positioning of its various handset models, determine the desirable product mix and quality, pricing and promotion strategies, advertising campaigns, and a host of other marketing issues and strategies.

2. Management Decision Problem: What can Motorola do to build its market share and continue to grow?

3. The marketing research problem is to understand consumer behavior, preferences and purchase of cellular handsets. More specifically,

a. What factors are important in the consumers’ decision to buy a cellular handset?

b. What factors result in the selection of a particular cellular handset model?

c. What are consumers’ perceptions of Moto?

d. What is the demographic and psychographic profile of consumers who are loyal to the Motorola brand?


  1. In order to obtain the required information, three types of online searches can be utilized. First, key words should be entered in standard search engines like www.google.com and www.yahoo.com. The keywords should be descriptive of the type of information and attempt to restrict the number of responses. Some of the keywords that could be used are: “Cell phones and market share”, “Motorola and market share” and “Nokia and market share,” etc.

The second type of search that can be used is a database search. Through the library Web site, students can search for articles in magazines, papers and periodicals like New York Times and News Week concerning market share in the cellular handset industry. In addition, Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe business and industry news database can be used to search for market share statistics.

Finally, the Web sites of major handset manufacturers should be visited looking for press releases that may contain the information needed.

5. Syndicated survey data related to psychographics and lifestyles, such as the Yankelovich Monitor, would be useful in discerning relevant trends that impact cell phone usage and the purchase of cellular handsets. Advertising evaluation surveys and diary media panels such as the Nielsen TV Index can guide Motorola in the placement of its advertising. Scanner data pertaining to certain product categories, such as cellular handsets, can also help in determining the appropriate product mix.

6. One-on-one depth interviews enable us to understand consumers’ individual attachments and associations to a cellular handset. These are very personal and emotional experiences that can best be uncovered in a one-on-one setting. Focus groups can help in identifying the choice criteria consumers use in selecting a cellular handset.

7. Mall-intercept personal interviews could be used because the interviewers can easily recruit cellular handset users and nonusers in the mall area, and it is more efficient for the respondent to come to the interviewer than for the interviewer to go to the respondent. Moreover, this technique will provide very good sample control and flexibility, and complex questions can be asked. Other advantages include very good control of the data collection environment, very good response rate. Since it was necessary to show respondents handset models, mall-intercept interviews were desirable.

8. Experiments can help Motorola to identify preferred features and the levels at which specific features should be offered in the cellular handsets. Experiments can also help determine preferred pricing and advertising levels. These factors can be systematically varied and consumers’ response determined.

9. See the questionnaire that follows.



CELLULAR HANDSET QUESTIONNAIRE


Q1. Do you own or personally use a cellular phone handset?

a. Yes ____

b. No ____
(IF NO, THANK THE RESPONDENT AND TERMINATE)
Q2. Since how long have you had your present cell phone handset?

_____ months and ____ years


Q3. Please rate the importance of the following factors in your selection of a cell phone handset.

Not at all Very

Important Important

a. Brand name 1 2 3 4 5

b. Appearance and Style 1 2 3 4 5

c. Features 1 2 3 4 5

d. My kind of a phone 1 2 3 4 5

Q4. Which of the following brands of cell phone handsets have you ever used? Please check all that apply.

a. Nokia

b. Motorola

c. Samsung

d. Sony/Ericsson


Q5. Please indicate your preference for the following brands of cell phone handsets using a seven point scale, where 1 = Not at all Preferred, and 7 = Greatly Preferred.

Not at all Greatly

Preferred Preferred

a. Nokia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

b. Motorola 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

c. Samsung 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

d. Sony/Ericsson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Q6. Please rate the following cell phone handsets in terms of brand name.

Poor Excellent

a. Nokia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7



  1. Motorola 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  2. Samsung 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  3. Sony/Ericsson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Q7. Please rate the following brands of cell phone handsets in terms of appearance and style.

Poor Excellent

a. Nokia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7



  1. Motorola 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  2. Samsung 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  3. Sony/Ericsson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Q8. Please rate the following brands of cell phone handsets in terms of features.

Poor Excellent


  1. Nokia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  2. Motorola 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  3. Samsung 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  4. Sony/Ericsson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Q9. Please rate the following brands of cell phone handsets in terms of a “my kind of a phone”.

Poor Excellent

a. Nokia 1 2 3 4 5 6 7



  1. Motorola 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  2. Samsung 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

  3. Sony/Ericsson 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


PART B

In this part, we would like to ask you some questions for classification purposes.


Q10. Your Gender:

1. Male _____

2. Female _____
Q11. Marital Status:

1. Married _____

2. Never Married _____

3. Divorced/Separated/Widowed _____


Q12. Family Size:

1. One _____

2. Two _____

3. Three _____

4. Four _____

5. Five or more _____


Q13. Your Age:

1. 18-24 _____

2. 25-40 _____

3. 41-60 _____

4. 60+ _____
Q14. Your Formal Education:

1. Less than High School _____

2. High School Graduate _____

3. Some College _____

4. College Graduate _____
Q15. What is Your Occupation?

____________________


Q16. What is the approximate combined annual income of your household before taxes?

1. $30,000 or less _____

2. $30,001 to 50,000 _____

3. $50,001 to 75,000 _____

4. $75,001 to 100,000 _____

5. $100,001 to 150,000 _____

6. $150,001 and over _____
Thank you for your participation.

____________________________________________________________________________


10. Convenience sampling could be used for mall-intercept interviews

Target population: Mall shoppers in the United States in the current year

Sampling frame: Malls in the United States

Sampling unit: Malls and then shoppers

Sampling technique: Mall-intercept interviews (Convenience sampling)

Sample size: 500

Execution: Interview shoppers in the selected malls by intercepting them in key locations in the mall. Quotas may be imposed based on age and cell phone usage.

11.


a. Correlation between preference rating and each of four independent variables.

Dependent variable: preference rating.

Independent variable: brand name, appearance and style, features, and “my kind of a phone”. A positive relationship is expected.

b. Multiple regression between preference rating and all four independent variables.

dependent variable: preference rating

four independent variables: brand name, appearance and style, features, and “my kind of a phone”.

c. Hypothesis testing using t-test for paired samples (paired variables: appearance and style, and features).

d. Hypothesis testing using t-test for two independent samples (users and nonusers of Motorola).

e. ANOVA

Dependent variable: Preference for Motorola

Independent variable: Product usage (heavy, medium, and light users).

12. Cross-Tabulation (between preference rating for Yahoo! (disliked, neutral, liked) and each of the six independent variables (poor, neutral, and good): brand name, appearance and style, features, and “my kind of a phone”. Four Cross-Tabulations should be run.

13. ANOVA

Dependent variables: Preference for Motorola

Independent variables: Each of the four categorical independent variables (poor, neutral, and good): brand name, appearance and style, features, and “my kind of a phone”. Four ANOVAs should be run.

14. Pie Charts can be used to present percentage estimates. Histograms and bar charts, since frequency counts, will be obtained for most of interval scaled variables. Line charts will not be used, since the data are cross-sectional and pertain to a single point in time.

15. Motorola needs to address differences in the lifestyle/pastime, cell phone usage, and shopping behavior in their marketing research. They also need to consider other socio-cultural factors, such as family dynamics and research methodology in Asia. In addition, economic/infrastructure factors, marketing environment, government environment, legal environment, and information and technological environment should be considered as well.


    1. With regard to the general public, ethical concerns revolve primarily around the methods of generating and reporting research results. It is the joint responsibility of the researcher and the client to ensure that the research findings are being disseminated accurately. In particular, care should be taken by both the market researcher and the client to avoid incomplete reporting, misleading reporting, and biased research.

It is the marketing researcher’s responsibility to protect the respondents from unethical research practices. Two issues deserve special attention: conducting a survey as a guise to sell products, and the invasion of the privacy of the respondent.

Given the complexity involved, it is not surprising that the ethical issues surrounding the researcher-client relationship are somewhat numerous. Areas that deserve special attention from an ethical standpoint are: abuse of position arising from specialized knowledge, unnecessary research, an unqualified researcher, disclosure of identity, treating data as nonconfidential, and misleading presentation of data.



The researcher (or the research firm) has the right to be treated ethically as well. Ethical treatment by clients involves several issues: improper solicitation of proposals, disclosure of proprietary techniques, and misrepresentation of findings.


VC5 -


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