Kathryn C. Gamble DVM, MS, DACZM Stephanie B. James, DVM, DACZM
Coraciiformes TAG – Hornbills Coraciiformes TAG – non-Hornbills
Lincoln Park Zoo Wildlife Conservation Society/Bronx Zoo
Director of Veterinary Services Clinical Veterinarian
2001 North Clark Street 2300 Southern Blvd.
Chicago, IL 60614 Bronx, NY 10460
Ph: 312.742.7722 Ph: 718.220.7104
Fx: 312.742.7823 Fx: 718.220.7126
Micronesian Kingfisher SSP:
Randall E. Junge, DVM, MS, DACZM Scott P. Terrell, DVM, DACVP
SSP Veterinary Advisor SSP Pathology Advisor
St. Louis Zoo Disney’s Animal Kingdom
Director of Animal Health Pathologist
One Government Drive P.O. Box 10,000
St. Louis, MO 63110 Lake Buena Vista, FL
Ph: 314.781.0900, ext. 487 Ph: 407-938-2746
Fx: 314.647.7969 Fx: 407-938-1909
- Hypercholesterolemia (?) – Buceros sp. have been evaluated in the last year with higher than anticipated serum cholesterol concentrations. The ISIS normal database is quite sparse in this category so when additional serum is available to complete this test parameter, it would help establish species normals.
- Rhino hornbill beak and casque issues – Several discussions this year for beak and casque concerns (flakiness, soft spots, crevices) in B. rhinoceros. To date, no concern of neoplasia has been identified in this species in this area which is in striking contrast to the B. bicornis (see below).
- Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the casque in Buceros bicornis (giant Indian or greater hornbill) presented in a 0.1 specimen since the last report. This animal is the 8th case of SCC in this species and was terminal at the time of diagnosis. It also evens the gender presentation. If this condition is suspected, please contact Veterinary Advisor (K. Gamble) ASAP to discuss diagnostics, treatments, and after-care to facilitate standard of care.
Reminder: SCC has been detected earliest by casque and skull radiographs. These are recommended as a baseline for all adult Buceros hornbills with repetition annually for giant hornbills.
Pathology survey (S. James):
Minimal reports were received from 2004 and 2005. Reminder: Necropsy reports from any and all coraciiform mortalities are requested at the time of histologic diagnosis.
Historic (1990-2004) reports are still needed from: Attleboro, Aurora, Birmingham, Bloomington, Boston (NEAQ), Brevard, Bridgeton, Brownsville, Cape May, Brookfield, Cleveland, Coal Valley, Columbia, Dallas World Aquarium, Denver, Des Moines, Dickerson Park, Duluth, Eureka, Franklin Park, Gainsville, Glen Oak, Granby, Green Bay, Greenville, Gulf Breeze, Hancock, Hattiesburg, Jackson, Jacksonville, John Ball, Kansas City, Lafayette, Langley, Los Angeles, Lowry, Lufkin, Mill Mountain, Nashville, Norfolk, NZP (CRC and Zoo), Oakland, Ocean Journey, Oklahoma City, Orlando, Palm Desert, Panama, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pitts CA, Pittsburgh, Providence, Quebec, Redwood, Rockton, Safari West, San Antonio, San Diego Zoo, Sanford, Sea World (Florida, Texas, California), Sedgwick, Sioux Falls, St. Augustine, Staten Island, Syracuse, Tautphaus, Topeka, Tuscon, Valley, Waco, Wahpeton, Watertnsd, West Palm Beach, World Bird.
If your institution is on this list, please coordinate with your veterinarian to check mortality logs (1990-2004) and submit records as they are available to maintain the depth and utility of this database. If you did not have any deaths during this time or do not display the Order, please let the Veterinary Advisors (K. Gamble, S. James) know so that you inventory is accounted.
Micronesian kingfisher (MKF) pathology survey (S. Terrell):
Very few reports were received in the 2005 fiscal year (as a matter of fact, only one report was received on Dec 9, 2004 from stdbk 26 from Brookfield). As with the other species of coraciiforms, please continue to send in your reports.
A tremendous number of historical reports from San Diego, Brookfield, and Milwaukee were received and appreciated. I also received the original hard copies of historical reports from the previous SSP pathologist, Dr. Don Nichols, which were appreciated greatly.
In early 2005, mycobacteriosis from MKF were collated. To date, at least 15 historic cases of avian mycobacteriosis were identified. In only 6 of those cases do we have definitive culture results while the rest were diagnosed by seeing acid-fast bacteria on histopathology. It is interesting to note that in 4 of the 6 culture positive cases, Mycobacterium simiae was cultured. M. avium was cultured from 2 of the 6 cases. The significance of these results is not yet known.
Anyone with suspect cases of avian mycobacteriosis is asked to please submit tissues for mycobacterial culture in addition to histopathology. This will add greatly to the database and understanding of mycobacteriosis in MKF.
Coraciiformes TAG Bibliography (K. Gamble) – This project is maintained with new publications entered as they arrive and are identified. When you publish about the Order, please send the citation to the Veterinary Advisor for entering into the database and reprints. Books and chapters will be reviewed in the upcoming year for entry of literature citations if not present in the database. Annual updates are submitted to the TAG webmaster for posting.
Internal Anatomy of the Hornbill Casque (K. Gamble) – Completed manuscript will circulate in September to reviewers then be submitted to the Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery in October.
Uropygial Gland Secretion Pigmentation of the Casque of Asian Hornbills (Gamble, Dierenfeld) - In 2004-05, nearly 60% of eligible adult giant and 45% of eligible adult rhinoceros hornbills in AZA institutions have been samples for uropygial (preen) gland secreta. Shipping permits for carotenoid analysis have been submitted with the expectation of an end of calendar year date. As these birds are currently concluding their breeding seasons, if they are put in hand during the next few months, please coordinate with veterinarians to collect samples. If supplies or protocol is needed, contact the Veterinary Advisor (K. Gamble).
A poster detailing the project was presented in May 2005 at the European Zoo Vet Conference/IZW in Prague, Czech Republic, and will be presented at the International Hornbill Conference in November 2005 in South Africa. This served to introduce the collection protocol to EAZA with plans to sample this population in 2006.
Grant funding is pending for ex situ and in situ sampling with Asian zoological facilities and ongoing in field projects that are planned for 2006.
Author: KCG – September 2005