Urochordata Cephalochordata




Дата канвертавання17.04.2016
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A
Name:
Period:
nimal Kingdom - Phylum Chordata - STUDY NOTES
Phylum Chordata is divided into three subphyla or classes:

  • Urochordata

  • Cephalochordata

  • _______________________

What is a Chordate?

  • All chordates have 4 basic features that are present at some point during their life cycle

  • ___________ ___________ ___________ – Nerve cord in which nerves branch out at regular intervals; dorsal nerve cord

  • ___________ (backbone) – Long supporting rod that runs throughout body

  • ___________ ___________ (gill slits )in throat

  • Muscular Tail – Extends beyond anus (___________)




  • Only 4-5% of animals are chordates

  • Examples of animals from the Chordata phylum _____________________________

Vertebrates

  • Can be divided further into 5 classes

  • Classes of Vertebrates include: ________________ and ________________________



ECTOTHERM: __________________________________________________

ENDOTHERM: ____________________________________________




Fish – Basic Facts

  • Fish live in nearly every single ___________ ___________

  • Fish are aquatic vertebrates characterized by ___________, ___________, and ___________

  • Fish bring in ___________ rich water through ___________ and remove oxygen poor water through gill slits

  • ___________ circulatory system

  • ___________ chambered heart

  • ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________




Fertilization: __________________________________________________

Groups of Fish

  • ___________Fish –

  • Have mouths of ___________tissue with ____ _______true teeth.

  • Have no bones

  • Only vertebrates with no vertebral column as adults

  • Lampreys, Hagfish

  • ___________–

  • Skeleton built entirely of ___________

  • Sharks, sea rays

  • ___________–

  • ___________Fish

  • Majority of fish fall in this order; Carp, sea horse, perch, etc.

The Swim Bladder: _________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________




Basic Fish Anatomy


Amphibians – Basic Facts

  • Amphibian = “_________ ____________”

  • Live in both _________ and ____________

  • Most larvae are fishlike; adults are terrestrial carnivores

  • Larvae respire through skin/gills; Adults use lungs

  • Descendants of ancestral organisms that evolved some, not all, adaptations for life on land

  • First appeared 360 million years ago

  • ___________fertilization

  • ___________circulatory system

  • ___________chambered heart




Groups of Amphibians

  • ___________–

  • ___________and ___________–

  • ___________–

  • Legless animals that burrow in moist soil

  • Have fishlike scales


Reptiles – Basic Facts

  • All reptiles have:

    • __________________________ – helps prevent loss of body water in dry environments

    • ____________________eggs – first animals to develop amniotic eggs that didn’t need to be deposited in water

  • Respire using _________________

  • __________________ Fertilization; Most are egg-laying

  • _________________ – cannot internally regulate body temperature; cannot live in cold climates

  • Behavior controls body temp. (swimming, burrowing, basking, etc.)

  • __________________ circulatory system; double loop;

  • Heart = two atria/one or two ventricles


Groups of Reptiles

  • _______________

    • Shells

    • Beaks (no teeth)

  • ________________________ (Squamates)

    • Shed Skin

    • Jointed jaws/ skulls

  • ___________________

  • ____________________

    • Only 2 species (New Zealand)- most have become extinct


Birds – Basic Facts

  • Nearly ________________ modern bird species

  • Birds are closely related to _____________________ (scales on legs)

  • Have outer covering made of __________________, two legs used for walking or perching, and forelimbs modified into ____________________

  • Feathers separate birds from all other animal species

  • Feathers provide insulation for ________________________; can generate body heat

  • ___________________ bones- lighter for flight

  • ________________________ adapted to type of food they eat

  • Highly efficient ___________________________ system; lungs only exposed to Oxygen rich air

  • ____________________ fertilization; _______________________ eggs; many mate for life


Bird Groups

  • Neorinthes (Modern birds) have 27 Orders of different bird groups (ex: ducks, grouse, pigeons, pelicans, hawks, hummingbirds, owls, woodpeckers, and perching birds, etc.)



Mammals – Basic Facts

  • First true mammals appeared ___________ million years ago

  • Mammals flourished after dinosaurs became extinct – 65 million years ago

  • Basic characteristics

    • ________________

    • _____________________ glands – produce milk to nourish young

    • Breathe air

    • _________________chambered heart

    • _____________________ – can generate own body heat

    • ___________________ fertilization; ________________________


Mammal Groups

  • ________________________

    • Lay eggs

    • Duck-billed platypus and anteater

  • ________________________

  • ________________________

    • Young fully develop inside mother

    • Nourished by a placenta



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