Unit 9 central intelligence agency read, translate and render the text given below




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UNIT 9

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

1. Read, translate and render the text given below

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. It is an executive agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence, with responsibility for providing national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers. Intelligence gathering is performed by non-military commissioned, civilian intelligence agents, many of whom are trained to avoid tactical situations. The CIA also oversees and sometimes engages in tactical and covert activities at the request of the President of the United States. Often, when such field operations are organized, the US military or other warfare tacticians carry these tactical operations out on behalf of the agency while the CIA oversees them. Although intelligence-gathering is the agency's main agenda, tactical divisions were established in the agency to carry out emergency field operations that require immediate suppression or dismantling of a threat or weapon. The CIA is often used for intelligence-gathering instead of the U.S military to avoid a declaration of war. It is the successor of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) formed during World War II to coordinate espionage activities against the Axis Powers for the branches of the United States Armed Forces. The National Security Act of 1947 established the CIA, affording it "no police or law enforcement functions, either at home or abroad". Through interagency cooperation, the CIA has Cooperative Security Locations at its disposal. These locations are called "lily pads" by the Air Force. The primary function of the CIA is to collect information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and to advise public policymakers, but it does conduct emergency tactical operations, carries out covert operations, and exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. The CIA and its responsibilities changed markedly in 2004. Before December 2004, the CIA was the main intelligence organization of the US government; it was responsible for coordinating the activities of the US Intelligence Community (IC) as a whole. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 created the office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), which took over management and leadership of the IC.

Today, the CIA still has a number of functions in common with other countries' intelligence agencies. The CIA's headquarters is in Langley in McLean, unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, a few miles west of Washington, D.C. along the Potomac River.

The CIA has an executive office and several agency-wide functions, and four major directorates:

The Directorate of Intelligence, responsible for all-source intelligence research and analysis.

The National Clandestine Service, formerly the Directorate of Operations, which does clandestine intelligence collection and covert action

The Directorate of Support

The Directorate of Science and Technology


The overall US intelligence budget has been considered classified until recently. There have been numerous attempts to obtain general information about the budget. As a result, it was revealed that CIA's annual budget in Fiscal Year 1963 was US $550 million (inflation-adjusted US$ 3.9 billion in 2012), and the overall intelligence budget in FY 1997 was US $26.6 billion (inflation-adjusted US$ 36.4 billion in 2012). There have also been accidental disclosures; for instance, Mary Margaret Graham, a former CIA official and deputy director of national intelligence for collection in 2005, said that the annual intelligence budget was $44 billion.


2. Learn the following lexics

Civilian – цивільний

Assessment – нарахування, внесок

Oversee – наглядати

Agenda – порядок денний

Suppression – придушення, заборона

Dismantling – демонтаж

Espionage – шпигунство

Enforcement – тиск

Covert – прихований

Directorate – управління

Clandestine – таємний

Disclosure – відкриття
3. Answer the following questions.

1.What is the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)?

2. Who performs the Central Intelligence Agency?

3. What is the primary function of the CIA?

4. Where is the CIA's headquarters?

5. What are major directorates of the Central Intelligence Agency?

6. What is the budget of the Central Intelligence Agency?
4. Translate into English


  • Операція Splinter Factor

З метою дестабілізації обстановки в комуністичних режимах у Східній Європі, ЦРУ використовувало відому хворобливу підозрілість Сталіна. Операція Splinter Factor полягала на маніпулятивних доказах співпраці діячів — комуністів з американською розвідкою. Початок операції було спрямоване проти Ноель Філда, американського дисидента з комуністичними симпатіями і контактами з провідними членами комуністичної партії варшавського блоку.

  • Операція Gold

Операція Gold мала на меті побудувати підземний тунель з американського сектора Західного Берліна в радянський Східний Берлін, і підключитися до телефонного кабелю штаба радянських військ.

Була проведена спільно з американською, британською і західнонімецькою розвідками. Ідею будівництва тунелю запропонував з Вільям К. Харві, командувач операційної бази в Західному Берліні. Будівництво почалося у вересні 1954 року. Інженери американської армії будували тунель. Інженери працювали 24 години на добу протягом 6 місяців.



5. Match the words and phrases with the definitions.

1. intelligence

2. security

3. covert

4. suppression

5. emergency

6. disposal

7. clandestine

8. fiscal

9. disclosure

10. exert

11. reveal

12. agent



a. a person who acts on behalf of another person, group, business, government, etc.; representative

b. to disclose (a secret); divulge

с. to use (influence, authority, etc.) forcefully or effectively

d. the act of disclosing; revelatione. relating to government finances, esp tax revenues

f. secret and concealed, often for illicit reasons; furtive

g. an unforeseen or sudden occurrence, esp of a danger demanding immediate remedy or action

h. the act or process of transferring something to or providing something for another

i. the act or process of suppressing or the condition of being suppressed

j. concealed or secret

k. precautions taken to ensure against theft, espionage, etc

l. military information about enemies, spies, etc


6. Comment on the following idiom:

Spy out the land



GRAMMAR BOX: PRESENT CONTINUOUS
USAGE:

  1. A process or a progressive action at the present moment or at the moment of speaking. E. g. Helen is reading an interesting book now. Процес чи тривала дія в теперішній період або в момент мовлення. (Now, at the moment)




  1. With the verbs of motion like to go, to come, to leave, to start, to arrive for a planned future actions. E. g. When is he arriving to Lviv? З дієсловами руху для спланованої майбутньої дії.




  1. TO BE GOING TO DO SOMETHING. This expression presents decided or intended action in the nearest future. E. g. Tom is going to buy a new car.

Цей вираз позначає вирішену чи сплановану дію в найближчому майбутньому.
FORMS:


Стверджувальна форма

Питальна форма

Заперечна форма

I am singing

Am I singing?

I am not singing

You are singing

Are you singing?

You aren’t singing

He, she, it is singing

Is he, she, it singing?

He, she, it isn’t singing

We are singing

Are we singing?

We aren’t singing

You are singing

Are you singing?

You aren’t singing

They are singing

Are they singing?

They aren’t singing




  1. Choose the correct form of the verb in brackets:




  1. Riders of a gigantic roller coster (to scream) excessively and (to laugh) loudly and crazily now.

  1. He (to run) third in a few national competitions without doing anything more than thinking about running.

  1. This rainy evening little Sue (to sit) by the fireside and suddenly she hears a loud knock at the door.

  1. The Boniello sextuplet (шістернята) (to thrive) healthy into forth-graders with their own personalities at present?

  1. The scientists (to focus) their attention on the artificial production of elements nowadays?

  1. The National Gallery of Art and the National Portrait Gallery (to display) the most important art collections in the world.

  1. The fiancй and the bride (наречений та наречена) (to invite) their wedding guests by the phone all the morning.

  1. The boy (to choose) baseball over studying?

  1. The temperature of the Black sea water (not to rise) during the day.

  1. Democrats (to try) to show their current opposition to the war.


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