Unit 11 animal evolution chapter 32: introduction to animal evolution what is an animal?




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UNIT 11

ANIMAL EVOLUTION

CHAPTER 32: INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL EVOLUTION
WHAT IS AN ANIMAL?

Structure, Nutrition, and Life History Define Animals



  • Ingestion

  • Cleavage

  • Blastula

  • Gastrulation

  • Gastrula

  • Larva

  • Metamorphosis

  • Hox Genes

The Animal Kingdom Probably Evolved from a Colonial, Flagellated Protist
TWO VIEWS OF ANIMAL DIVERSITY

Body “Plans”



  • Grade

  • The Parazoa-Eumetazoa Dichotomy

    • Parazoans

    • Eumetazoans

  • The Radiata-Bilateria Dichotomy

    • Radial Symmetry

    • Radiata

    • Bilateral Symmetry

    • Dorsal, Ventral, Anterior, Posterior

    • Cephalization

    • Germ Layers

      • Ectoderm

      • Endoderm

        • Archenteron

      • Mesoderm

    • Diploblastic

    • Triploblastic

  • The Acoelomate, Pseudocoelomate, Coelomate Grades

    • Acoelomates

    • Body Cavity

    • Pseudocoelomates/ Pseudocoelem

    • Coelomates/ Coelom

  • The Protostome-Deuterostome Dichotomy Among Coelomates




  • Cleavage

    • Spiral Cleavage

    • Determinate Cleavage

    • Radial Cleavage

    • Indeterminate Cleavage

  • Coelom Formation

    • Schizocoelous

    • Enterocoelous

  • Blastopore Fate

    • Blastopore

    • Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes

Molecular Systematics and the Phylogenetic Tree of Animals (Fig 32.8)

  • Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA)

  • Parazoa vs. Eumetazoa

  • Radiata vs. Bilateria

  • Protostomia vs. Deuterostomia

  • Lophotrochozoa vs. Ecdysozoa


ORIGINS OF ANIMAL DIVERSITY

  • Ediacaran Period

  • Cambrian Explosion

  • Evo-Devo



CHAPTER 33: INVERTEBRATES
PARAZOA

  • Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

  • Spongocoel

  • Osculum

  • Choanocytes

  • Mesohyl

  • Amoebocytes

  • Hermaphrodites


RADIATA

  • Phylum Cnidaria (Hydras, Jellies, Sea Anemones, Corals)

    • Gastrovascular Cavity

    • Polyps

    • Medusa

    • Cnidocytes

    • Nematocysts

    • Life Cycle of Hydrozoa

  • Phylum Ctenophora (Comb Jellies)

    • Colloblasts



PROTOSTOMIA: LOPHOTROCHOZOA

  • Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)

    • Characteristics

    • Planarians

    • Trematodes (Flukes)

    • Tapeworms

  • Phylum Rotifera (Rotifers)

    • Characteristics

    • Complete Digestive Tract

    • Parthenogenesis

  • Phylum Nemertea (Proboscis Worms)

  • Phylum Molusca (Mollusks)

    • Foot

    • Visceral Mass

    • Mantle/ Mantle Cavity

    • Radula

    • Trochophore

    • Body Plan (Fig 33.16)

    • Class Gatropoda

      • Torsion

    • Class Bivalvia

    • Class Cephalopoda

  • Phylum Annelida (Segmented Worms)

    • Characteristics

    • Metanephridia

    • Anatomy (Fig 33.23)

    • Class Oligochaeta (Earthworms)

    • Class Hirudinea (Leeches)

  • Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms)

    • Characteristics

  • Phylum Arthropoda

    • Characteristcs

      • Segmentation

      • Cuticle/ Exoskeleton

      • Molting (Ecdysis)

      • Jointed Appendages

      • Open Circulatory System

    • Trilobites

    • Chelicerates

      • Class Arachnida (Scorpions, Spiders, Ticks, Mites)

        • Characteristics

        • Book Lungs

        • Anatomy (Fig 33.30)

    • Uniramians

      • Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)

      • Class Chilopoda (Centipedes)

      • Class Insecta

        • Entomology

        • Mandibles

        • Antennae

        • Compound Eyes

        • Malpighian Tubules

        • Tracheal System

        • Metamorphosis (Complete vs. Incomplete)

    • Crustaceans

      • Characteristics

      • Isopods

      • Copepods

      • Decapods (Lobster, Crayfish, Crab, Shrimp)


DEUTEROSTOMIA

  • Phylum Echinodermata (Echinoderms)

    • Characteristics

    • Water Vascular System

    • Tube Feet

    • Class Asteroidea (Sea Stars)

    • Class Echinoidea (Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars)

  • Phylum Chordata (2 Invertebrate phyla and all Vertebrates)


CHAPTER 34: VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY
INVERTEBRATE CHORDATES AND THE ORIGIN OF VERTEBRATES

  • Deuterostomes

    • Echinoderms

    • Chordates

  • Four Anatomical Features

    • Notochord

    • Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord

    • Pharyngeal Pouches

    • Muscular, Postanal Tail

  • Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicates)

  • Subphylum Cephalochordata (Lancelets)

    • Somites

    • Paedogenesis


INTRODUCTION TO THE VERTEBRATES

  • Subphylum Vertebrata

    • Neural Crest

    • Pronounced Cephalization

    • Vertebral Column

    • Closed Circulatory System

  • Overview of Diversity

    • Hagfishes

    • Lampreys

    • Gnathostomes (“Jawed Mouth”)

      • Cartilaginous Fish (Sharks and Rays)

      • Bony Fish (Ray-Fins, Lob-Fins, and Lungfishes)

    • Tetrapods (“Four Footed)

    • Amniotes (Amniotic Egg)


JAWLESS VERTEBRATES

  • Agnathans (“Without Jaws”)

  • Class Myxini (Hagfish)

  • Class Cephalaspidomorphi (Lampreys)

  • Ostracoderms

  • Conodonts


FISHES AND AMPHIBIANS

  • Characteristics

  • Evolution of the Vertebrate Jaw

  • Class Chondrichthyes (Sharks and Rays)

    • Cartilaginous

    • Spiral Valve

    • Lateral Line System

    • Oviparous/ Ovoviviparous / Viviparous

    • Cloaca

  • Osteichthyes (Bony Fish)

    • Characteristics

    • Operculum

    • Swim Bladder

    • Class Actinopterygii (Ray-Finned Fishes)

      • Anatomy (Fig 34.13)

    • Class Actinistia (Lobe-Finned Fishes)

    • Class Dipnoi (Lungfishes)

  • Tetrapods

    • Evolution

    • Class Amphibia (Salamanders and Frogs)

      • Characteristics

      • “Dual Life”


AMNIOTES

  • Evolution of the Amniotic Egg

  • Extra-embryonic Membranes (Fig 34.19)

  • Class Reptilia

    • Characteristics

    • Ectotherms

    • Dinosaurs

    • Endothermic

    • Testudines (Turtles)

    • Squamata (Lizards and Snakes)

    • Crocodiia (Alligators and Crocodiles)

  • Class Avies

    • Characteristics

    • Flight

    • Evolution: Theropods/ Archaeopteryx

    • Ratites (Flightless Birds)

    • Sternal Keel

    • Passeriformes (Perching Birds)

  • Class Mammalia

    • Characteristics

    • Placenta

    • Evolution

      • Therapsids

    • Monotremes (Platypuses and Echidnas/ Spiny Anteaters)

      • Egg Laying

    • Marsupials (Opossums, Kangaroos, Bandicoots, and Koalas)

      • Marsupium “Pouch”

    • Eutherians (All Others)

      • Placenta

      • Characteristics


PRIMATES

  • Characteristics

    • Opposable Thumb

  • Prosimians (“Premonkeys”, Lemurs, Tarsiers, Lorises)

  • Anthropoids (Monkeys, Apes, Humans)

    • Monkeys

      • Old World (Africa and Asia)

      • New World (South America)

    • Apes

      • Genus Hylobates (Gibbons)

      • Genus Pongo (Orangutans)

      • Genus Gorilla (Gorillas)

      • Genus Pan (Chimpanzees and Bonobos)

  • Paleoanthropology

    • Hominoid (Great Apes and Humans)

    • Hominid (Human-like)

  • Evolution of Homo sapiens



    • Homo

      • Homo habilis

      • Homo erectus

      • Homo neanderthalensis

      • Homo sapiens

    • Multiregional Hypothesis

    • Replacement Hypothesis (“Out of Africa”)

    • mtDNA


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