Unit 1: Diversity of Living Things Lesson 2: The Nature of Classification




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Unit 1: Diversity of Living Things

Lesson 2: The Nature of Classification

Categorize and organize the following words in a manner that is meaningful. Be prepared to explain your classification method.



Monkey

Modern Family

Maple Trees

Cardigans

Pigs

The Office

Jeans

Orchids

Humans

Mushrooms

Heeled Shoes

Mazda Protégé

Rocks

Whales

Bridesmaids

Snakes

Chimpanzee

Rainbows

Boeing 747

Khakis

Harry Potter

Cardinals

Soil

Spiders

Ostrich

Socks

Lord of the Flies

Roses

Apple Trees

Glee

You can imagine how daunting a task it is to try and categorize all the species in the world into a meaningful system! How do taxonomists do it?



Taxonomy – Developing a Classification System
Taxonomy: is the science of identifying and classifying all organisms.
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is considered the father of taxonomy. He established a naming system that is still in use today. He used binomial nomenclature.
Binomial Nomenclature: the formal system of naming species whereby each species is assigned a genus name followed by a specific name; the two words taken together form the species name. Ex: Homo sapiens , Canis familiaris, Felis Catus
Linnaeus grouped species into taxonomic ranks, or levels, based on shared characteristics. Each level is called a taxon (plural: taxa).
Traditional Taxonomic Ranks of Classification:

Taxon

Human

Walrus

Bald Eagle

Honey Bee

KINGDOM


Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

PHYLUM


Chordata

Chordata

Chordata

Arthropoda

CLASS


Mammalia

Mammalia

Aves

Insecta

ORDER


Primates

Carnivora

Accipitriformes

Hymenoptera

FAMILY


Hominidae

Odobenidae

Accipitridae

Apidae

GENUS


Homo

Odobenus

Haliaeetus

Apis

SPECIES


Homo sapiens

Odobenus rosmarus

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Apis mellifera


KINGDOM  PHYLUM  CLASS  ORDER  FAMILY  GENUS  SPECIES

As you go from left to right, they become more closely related.


Dichotomous Keys: a series of branching, two-part statements used to identify organisms (or objects)




Taxonomy – Developing a Classification System

Taxonomy:

Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) is considered the father of taxonomy. He established a naming system that is still in use today. He used_________________________.


Binomial Nomenclature:

Linnaeus grouped species into taxonomic ranks, or levels, based on shared characteristics. Each level is called a taxon (plural: taxa).


Traditional Taxonomic Ranks of Classification:

Taxon

Human

Walrus

Bald Eagle

Honey Bee



Animalia

Animalia

Animalia

Animalia



Chordata

Chordata

Chordata

Arthropoda



Mammalia

Mammalia

Aves

Insecta



Primates

Carnivora

Accipitriformes

Hymenoptera



Hominidae

Odobenidae

Accipitridae

Apidae



Homo

Odobenus

Haliaeetus

Apis



Homo sapiens

Odobenus rosmarus

Haliaeetus leucocephalus

Apis mellifera

Dichotomous Keys: a series of branching, two-part statements used to identify organisms (or objects)



Activity:

How are dichotomous keys created? What are their key features that allow them to work? – start general and then get more specific. Start with making a grouping of categories. The features identified should have only two choices (ex: boys/girls) (taller than 5’3, shorter than 5’3) (glasses/no glasses) (dark hair/light hair)



Create a dichotomous key to allow you to identify each student in the classroom. (need name tags) (be respectful – nothing that might be offensive or inappropriate).
Create a dichotomous key to allow you to identify each student’s shoe in the classroom.


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