Turning the Tide: The Eradication of Invasive Species Proceedings of the International Conference On Eradication of Island Invasives

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Turning the Tide:

The Eradication of Invasive Species

Proceedings of the International Conference

On Eradication of Island Invasives

Edited by C. R. Veitch and M. N. Clout

Occasional Paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission No. 27



Turning the tide of biological invasion: the potential for eradicating invasive species 1

M. N. Clout and C. R. Veitch

Keynote Address

Today Tiritiri Matangi, tomorrow the world! Are we aiming too low in invasives control? 4

D. Simberloff

Cat eradication on Hermite Island, Montebello Islands, Western Australia 14

D. A. Algar, A. A. Burbidge, and G. J. Angus

Eradication of introduced Bactrocera species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Nauru using male annihilation
and protein bait application techniques

A. J. Allwood, E. T. Vueti, L. Leblanc, and R. Bull

Man-made marinas as sheltered islands for alien marine organisms: Establishment and eradication of
an alien invasive marine species

N. Bax, K. Hayes, A. Marshall, D. Parry, and R. Thresher

The eradication of alien mammals from five offshore islands, Mauritius, Indian Ocean 40

B. D. Bell

The eradication of possums from Kapiti Island, New Zealand 46

K. P. Brown and G. H. Sherley

The impact of rabbit and goat eradication on the ecology of Round Island, Mauritius 53

D. J. Bullock, S. G. North, M. E. Dulloo, and M. Thorsen

Introduced mammal eradications for nature conservation on Western Australian islands: a review 64

A. A. Burbidge and K. D. Morris

Habitat refuges as alternatives to predator control for the conservation of endangered Mauritian birds 71

S. P. Carter and P. W. Bright

Control of invasive plants on the Poor Knights Islands, New Zealand 79

G. J. Coulston

Eradication planning for invasive alien animal species on islands – the approach developed by the
New Zealand Department of Conservation

P. L. Cromarty, K. G Broome, A. Cox, R. A. Empson, W. M. Hutchinson, and I. McFadden

Eradication of buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) on Airlie Island, Pilbara Coast, Western Australia 92

I. R. Dixon, K. W. Dixon, and M. Barrett

Eradications of invasive species to restore natural biological diversity on Alaska Maritime National
Wildlife Refuge

S. E. Ebbert and G. V. Byrd

Control and eradication of the introduced grass, Cenchrus echinatus, at Laysan Island, Central Pacific Ocean 110

E. Flint and C. Rehkemper

The eradication of Rattus rattus from Monito Island, West Indies 116

M. A. García, C. E. Diez, and A. O. Alvarez

Changes in bird numbers on Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand, over the period of rat eradication 120

M. F. Graham and C. R. Veitch

Spartina anglica eradication and inter-tidal recovery in Northern Ireland estuaries. 124

M. E. R. Hammond and A. Cooper

Eradication of feral goats and pigs and consequences for other biota on Sarigan Island,
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
. 132

C. C. Kessler

The response of herbaceous vegetation and endemic plant species to the removal of feral sheep
from Santa Cruz Island, California

R. C. Klinger, P. Schuyler, and J. D. Sterner

Alien plant and animal control and aspects of ecological restoration in a small ‘mainland island’:
Wenderholm Regional Park, New Zealand
. 155

T. G. Lovegrove, C. H. Zeiler, B. S. Greene, B. W. Green, R. Gaastra, and A. D. MacArthur

Eradicating invasive plants: Hard-won lessons for islands 164

R. N. Mack and W. M. Lonsdale

Eradication of Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) from Whenua Hou Nature Reserve (Codfish Island),
Putauhinu and Rarotoka Islands, New Zealand
. 173

P. J. McClelland

Alien mammal eradication and quarantine on inhabited islands in the Seychelles 182

D. Merton, G. Climo, V. Laboudallon, S. Robert, and C. Mander

Eradication of rats and rabbits from Saint-Paul Island, French Southern Territories 199

T. Micol and P. Jouventin

Cat eradication and the restoration of endangered iguanas (Cyclura carinata) on Long Cay,
Caicos Bank, Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies

N. Mitchell, R. Haeffner, V. Veer, M. Fulford-Gardner, W. Clerveaux, C. R. Veitch, and G. Mitchell

Comparison of baits and bait stations for the selective control of wild house mice on Thevenard Island,
Western Australia

D. Moro

The eradication of the black rat (Rattus rattus) on Barrow and adjacent islands off the north-west
coast of Western Australia

K. D. Morris

Eradication of introduced Australian marsupials (brushtail possum and brushtailed rock wallaby)
from Rangitoto and Motutapu Islands, New Zealand

S. C. Mowbray

An attempt to eradicate feral goats from Lord Howe Island 233

J. P. Parkes, N. Macdonald, and G. Leaman

Red mangrove eradication and pickleweed control in a Hawaiian wetland, waterbird responses,
and lessons learned

M. J. Rauzon and D. C. Drigot

When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal? 249

M. Rejmánek and M. J. Pitcairn

Management of indigenous and alien Malvaceae on islands near Perth, Western Australia 254

E. Rippey, J. J. Rippey, and N. Dunlop

Practical concerns in the eradication of island snakes 260

G. H. Rodda, T. H. Fritts, E. W. Campbell III, K. Dean-Bradley, G. Perry, and C. P. Qualls

An ecological basis for control of the mongoose Herpestes javanicus in Mauritius: is eradication possible? 266

S. S. Roy, C. G. Jones, and S. Harris

Eradication of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on Santa Catalina Island, California, USA 274

P. T. Schuyler, D. K. Garcelon, and S. Escover

Eradication of potentially invasive plants with limited distributions in the Galapagos Islands 287

M. C. Soria, M. R. Gardener, and A. Tye

Island conservation in north-west Mexico: a conservation model integrating research, education
and exotic mammal eradication

B. R. Tershy, C. J. Donlan, B. S. Keitt, D. A. Croll, J. A. Sanchez, B. Wood, M. A. Hermosillo,
G. R. Howald, and N. Biavaschi

A history of ground-based rodent eradication techniques developed in New Zealand, 1959–1993 301

B. W. Thomas and R. H. Taylor

Early detection of invasive weeds on islands 311

S. M. Timmins and H. Braithwaite

Eradication of rabbits and mice from subantarctic Enderby and Rose Islands 319

N. Torr

Interactions between geckos, honeydew scale insects and host plants revealed on islands in
northern New Zealand, following eradication of introduced rats and rabbits

D. R. Towns

A strategy for Galapagos weeds 336

A. Tye, M. C. Soria, and M. R. Gardener

Eradicating Indian musk shrews (Suncus murinus, Soricidae) from Mauritian offshore islands 342

K. J. Varnham, S. S. Roy, A. Seymour, J. Mauremootoo, C. G. Jones, and S. Harris

Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from
Browns Island (Motukorea), Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

C. R. Veitch

Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from
Motuihe Island, New Zealand

C. R. Veitch

Eradication of Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) from Fanal Island, New Zealand. 357

C. R. Veitch

Eradication of Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) from Tiritiri Matangi Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand 360

C. R. Veitch

Eradication of alien plants on Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand 365

C. J. West

Removing cats from islands in north-west Mexico 374

B. Wood, B. R. Tershy, M. A. Hermosillo, C. J. Donlan, J. A. Sanchez, B. S. Keitt, D. A. Croll,
G. R. Howald, and N. Biavaschi

The evolution and execution of a plan for invasive weed eradication and control, Rangitoto Island,
Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand

S. H. Wotherspoon and J. A. Wotherspoon

Impacts and control of introduced small Indian mongoose on Amami Island, Japan 389

F. Yamada

It’s often better to eradicate, but can we eradicate better? 393

E. S. Zavaleta

Removing a diverse suite of invasive threats to recover an endangered Hawaiian bird species

and its dry forest habitat 406

P. C. Banko, S. Dougill, L. Gold, D. Goltz, L. Johnson, P. Oboyski, and J. Slotterback

Introduced Neotropical tree frogs in the Hawaiian Islands: Control technique development

and population status 406

E. W. Campbell, F. Kraus, S. Joe, L. Oberhofer, R. Sugihara, D. Lease, and P. Krushelnycky

Tackling tussock moths: strategies, timelines and outcomes of two programmes for eradicating

tussock moths from suburbs of Auckland, New Zealand 407

J. R. Clearwater

Recovery of invertebrate populations on Tiritiri Matangi Island, New Zealand following eradication

of Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) 407

C. J. Green

Restoration of tree weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) to a modified island 407

C. J. Green

Control of cats on mountain “islands”, Stewart Island, New Zealand 408

G. A. Harper and M. Dobbins

The status of invasive ant control in the conservation of island systems 408

P. D. Krushelnycky, E. Van Gelder, L. L. Loope, and R. Gillespie

The effectiveness of weeded and fenced ‘Conservation Management Areas’ as a means of maintaining

the threatened biodiversity of mainland Mauritius 408

J. R. Mauremootoo, C. G. Jones, W. A. Strahm, M. E. Dulloo, and Y. Mungroo

Preparation for the eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Campbell Island, New Zealand 409

P. J. McClelland

Island quarantine – prevention is better than cure 409

P. J. McClelland

The role of parasitoids in eradication or area-wide control of tephritid fruit flies in the Hawaiian Islands 410

R. H. Messing

Response of forest birds to rat eradication on Kapiti Island, New Zealand 410

C. Miskelly and H. Robertson

Sustained control of feral goats in Egmont National Park, New Zealand 410

D. M. Forsyth, J. P. Parkes, D. Choquenot, G. Reid, and D. Stronge

Pacific rats: their impacts on two small seabird species in the Hen and Chickens Islands, New Zealand 411

R. J. Pierce

Seabird re-colonisation after cat eradication on equatorial Jarvis, Howland, and Baker Islands, USA,

Central Pacific 411

M. J. Rauzon, D. J. Forsell, and E. N. Flint

Direct and indirect effects of house mice on declining populations of a small seabird, the ashy storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa), on Southeast Farallon Island, California, USA 412

K. L. Mills, P. Pyle, W. J. Sydeman, J. Buffa, and M. J. Rauzon

Managing pest mammals at near-zero densities at sites on the New Zealand mainland 412

A. Saunders

Control of feral goats (Capra hircus) on Santa Catalina Island, California, USA 412

P. T. Schuyler, D. Garcelon and S. Escover

Control of the invasive exotic yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean 413

D. J. Slip

Preventing rat introductions to the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA 413

A. L. Sowls and G. V. Byrd

Ecological restoration of islands in Breaksea Sound, Fiordland, New Zealand 414

B. W. Thomas

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