Tribe liptenini subtribe pentilina




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Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila rotha rotha Hewitson, 1873
Pentila rotha Hewitson, 1873 in Hewitson, 1872-7. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 5: 85 (127 pp.). London.

Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Gabon, Congo.
Pentila rotha marianna Suffert, 1904
Pentila marianna Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 43 (12-107).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Barombi Station, Camerun, Bipindi, Süd-Camerun und Ebea”.

Distribution: Cameroon.

Pentila subfuscata Hawker-Smith, 1933
Pentila subfuscata Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 3 (1-12).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Belgian Congo: Katanga; Upper Kasai District”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kasai, Lualaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila swynnertoni Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila tropicalis swynnertoni Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1112 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Mozambique: “Afrique orientale portugaise: Mont Selinda”.

Diagnosis: Darker orange, larger and more heavily marked than P. tropicalis (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Distribution: Mozambique, Zimbabwe. Ackery, et al., 1995: 480, give South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), based on Stevenson’s false locality (see below).

Specific localities:

Mozambique – Musapa River Forest (Pinhey).

Zimbabwe – Mount Selinda (Sheppard; TL).

Common name: Swynnerton’s buff.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Similar to those of P. tropicalis but often flies higher up in the forest canopy. Occurs in discrete, widely spaced colonies in the Chirinda Forest on Mount Selinda (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Flight period: February is the only month recorded (Pringle, et al., 1994).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Algae (Cyanophyta) on trees [Pringle et al., 1994: 128].


swynnertoni Stevenson, 1940 (as f. of Pentila amenaida). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 3: 101 (88-108). South Africa: “Gungunyanabush”. [False locality].

Pentila tachyroides Dewitz, 1879
Pentila tachyroides Dewitz, 1879. Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 4 (2): 201 (173-212).

Type locality: Angola?: “Guinea aus dem 10S.B., zwischen dem 17-22 O.L. Greenw.”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania.

Recorded, in error, from Ivory Coast by Ackery et al., 1995 (Larsen, 2005a).



Common name: Mylothrid pentila.

Habitat: Forest of good quality (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Small assemblages of five to eight individuals may rest together on dry twigs (Larsen, 1991). Flies high up, but weakly, in dark parts of the forest (Congdon & Collins, 1998). Larsen (2005a) states that it usually flies a couple of metres above the ground.

Flight period: November and December (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila tachyroides tachyroides Dewitz, 1879
Pentila tachyroides Dewitz, 1879. Nova Acta Academiae Caesarea Leopoldino-Carolinae Germanicum Naturae Curiosorum 4 (2): 201 (173-212).

Type locality: Angola?: “Guinea aus dem 10S.B., zwischen dem 17-22 O.L. Greenw.”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Abakaliki (Larsen, 2005a); Cross River loop (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Kenya – Kakamega Forest (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Minziro Forest, especially Kere Hill; Kikurur Forest (Congdon & Collins, 1998).
mylothrina Butler, 1888 (as sp. of Tingra). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888: 67 (56-85). Democratic Republic of Congo?: “Monbuttu”.
roidesta Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Pentila tochyroides [sic] ). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 47 (12-107). Cameroon: “Johan Albrechthöhe. N. Camerun”.
Pentila tachyroides isiro Berger, 1981
Pentila tachyroides isiro Berger, 1981. Les Papillons du Zaire 229 (543 pp.). Bruxelles.

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kisangani (Stanleyville)”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Mongala, Uele, Ituri, Kivu, Tshuapa, Equateur, Sankuru).

Note: If the type locality for T. mylothrina Butler, “Monbuttu”, is indeed in Democratic Republic of Congo, it would appear to be the oldest available name for this race (Ackery, et al., 1995: 480). Larsen (2005a), however, doubts the validity of this subspecies but does not formally sink it.

Pentila torrida (Kirby, 1887)
Tingra torrida Kirby, 1887. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 364 (360-369).

Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Gabon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Bas-Fleuve).

Listed for Nigeria by Cornes (1969) but, according to Larsen (2005a), this is in error.



Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
lavinia Kirby, 1890 (as sp. of Tingra). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 6: 267 (261-274). Gabon: “Gaboon; Ogowe”.

Pentila tropicalis (Boisduval, 1847)
Tingra tropicalis Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 589 (585-602).

Pentila tropicalis tropicalis. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 30mm. La Lucia, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, March 2000. M.C. Williams.
Type locality: South Africa: “Baie de Port Natal”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999).

Kielland (1990) gives Zambia but the species is not given in Heath et al. (2002).



Common name: Spotted buff; spotted pentila; tropical pentila.

Habitat: Forest and coastal bush (Pringle et al., 1994). In Tanzania forests up to an altitude of 900 metres are inhabited (ssp. mombasae) (Kielland, 1990). Subspecies fuscipunctata occurs in subtropical and riverine forest (Pringle et al., 1994).

Habits: The spotted buff is a slow flying species which often perches in small groups on twigs or grass stems. It mostly flies under the forest canopy, in the shade (Pringle et al., 1994). Large numbers of individuals have been recorded feeding from the nectaries of a species of Crotalaria (Fabaceae) in the Chyulu Hills in Kenya. These nectaries were concurrently being utilized by ants, aphids and specimens of Ornipholidotos peucetia (Hewitson, 1866) (Larsen, 1991).

Flight period: November to April but commonest in November-December and March-April (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Clark & Dickson, 1971: 233, plate 109 [as Pentila tropicalis tropicalis; south of Umhlanga Rocks, KwaZulu-Natal].

"Egg: 0.6 mm diam. x 0.4 mm high. Laid singly or in small clusters. There are from 6-8 indentations round the sunken micropyle. Below these there is a ring of 11-16 indentations, and two lower rings with 16-20 indentations, depending on the spacing above them. The egg is finally of a brown colour. Eggs are laid on tree roots, bark on the trunk or dead leaves. They hatch after 12-21 days. Larva: 1st instar 0.9 mm, growing to 2 mm. The larva is light yellow on emerging from the egg and bears numerous, slender, finely barbed setae, many of which are extremely long laterally and at the ends of the body, especially at the posterior end. The general arrangement of these setae and their exact position on segment 7 can be seen in the accompanying plate. The setae are for the most part of a brownish colour or light golden-brown in the case of the finer ones. Some of the setae on the head of the larva are fairly long. The observations on the early stages of this species were confined to the egg and 1st instar larva. When keeping females under observation, S. of Umhlanga Rocks, it has been noticed that these have chosen spots near the ground and amongst undergrowth and grass, when laying their eggs. One specimen selected the exposed horizontal root of a tree and deposited eggs on the partially lichen-covered bark of this root. After placing two females in a small closed cardboard box, three eggs were laid in this box. Recorded from eggs from S. of Umhlanga Rocks, Natal."


Larval food:

Tree lichen (Lichenes) [Clark & Dickson, 1971: 233].



Algae (Cyanophyta) on trees [Pringle et al., 1994: 127].
Pentila tropicalis tropicalis (Boisduval, 1847)
Tingra tropicalis Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 589 (585-602).

Pentila tropicalis tropicalis. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 30mm. La Lucia, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, March 2000. M.C. Williams.
Type locality: South Africa: “Baie de Port Natal”.

Distribution: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal - coast), Swaziland (Duke et al., 1999).

Specific localities:

KwaZulu-Natal – Oribi Gorge (Swanepoel, 1953); Umkomaas (Swanepoel, 1953); Isipingo (Swanepoel, 1953); Durban (Swanepoel, 1953); St Lucia (Swanepoel, 1953); Hluhluwe (Swanepoel, 1953).
Pentila tropicalis chyulu van Someren, 1939
Pentila amenaida chyulu van Someren, 1939. Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society 14: 145 (130-151).

Type locality: Kenya: “Chyulu Range”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-east – Chyulu Hills).
Pentila tropicalis fuscipunctata Henning & Henning, 1994
Pentila tropicalis fuscipunctata Henning & Henning, 1994. In: Pringle, Henning, and Ball [eds]. Pennington’s butterflies of southern Africa 2nd edition: 127 (800pp.). Struik-Winchester, South Africa.

Type locality: South Africa: “Tchatchingo Potholes, near Thohoyandou, Venda, 16 Apr. 1988, G.A. Henning.” Holotype in Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.

Diagnosis: Male forewing upperside with apical patch and submarginal black spots much larger than in the nominate subspecies; discal spots larger and striations along costa more extensive. Hindwing with large, well-developed submarginal spots which may extend to the outer margin and a prominent discocellular spot; these markings are absent in nominate tropicalis. Female forewing upperside with black apical patch which is absent in the nominate subspecies (Pringle et al., 1994).

Distribution: Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe (east), South Africa (Limpopo Province - north-east).

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Tchatchingo Potholes, near Thohoyandou (the Pringles; TL); Mpaphuli N.R..
Pentila tropicalis mombasae (Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1889)
Tingra mombasae Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1889 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92. Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 1: 31 (183 pp.). London.

Type locality: Kenya: “Mombasa”.

Distribution: Kenya (coastal forest); Tanzania (coastal forest).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Mombasa (TL); Tana River (Larsen, 1991); lower Meru Forest (Larsen, 1991); Nyambeni Hills (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Pare Mts (Kielland, 1990); Usambara Mts (Kielland, 1990); Uluguru Mts. (Kielland, 1990); Pugu Hills (Kielland, 1990); Masagati Forest (Kielland, 1990); Rau Forest at Moshi (Cordeiro teste Kielland, 1990).

Note: The populations in the Ngezi Forest on Pemba Island and those above the Usa River on Mount Meru may represent undescribed subspecies (Kielland, 1990: 170).
lasti Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1889 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92 (as sp. of Tingra). Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 1: 31 (183 pp.). London. Kenya: “Mombasa”.
sigiensis Strand, 1910 (as ab. of Pentila mombassae). Societas Entomologica 25: 6 (5-6). Tanzania: “Sigi”.

Pentila umangiana Aurivillius, 1898
Pentila umangiana Aurivillius, 1898. Entomologisk Tidskrift 19: 181 (177-186).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congogebiet: Umangi”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, to Sudan, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia.

Habitat: Forest. Subspecies mpanda occurs at altitudes between 1 100 and 1 400 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila umangiana umangiana Aurivillius, 1898
Pentila umangiana Aurivillius, 1898. Entomologisk Tidskrift 19: 181 (177-186).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congogebiet: Umangi”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Mayumbe, Mongala, Bas-Uele, Tshopo, Ituri, Tshuapa, Equateur, Sankuru).
Pentila umangiana connectens Hulstaert, 1924
Pentila petreia connectens Hulstaert, 1924. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 12: 115 (112-122, 173-194).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kwesi à Kilo”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo (south-eastern Ituri), Tanzania (north-west – Bukoba Region).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (Congdon & Collins, 1998).
Pentila umangiana fontainei Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila umangiana fontainei Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1153 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo ex-belge, Uele; Paulis”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Uele).
Pentila umangiana meridionalis Berger, 1981
Pentila umangiana meridionalis Berger, 1981. Les Papillons du Zaire 229 (543 pp.). Bruxelles.

Pentila umangiana meridionalis. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 30mm. Zambezi Bridge, Ikelenge, Zambia. 24 March, 1981. A.J. & M.W. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).

Pentila umangiana meridionalis. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 36mm. Female. Zambezi Bridge, Ikelenge, Zambia. 18.XII.1983. A.J. Gardiner. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Lualaba: Kapanga”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba, Lualaba), Zambia (Mwinilunga District).
Pentila umangiana mpanda Congdon, Kielland & Collins, 1998
Pentila umangiana mpanda Congdon, Kielland & Collins, 1998. Supplement to Kielland’s butterflies of Tanzania: 58 (143 pp.). Abri and Lambillionea.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Mpanda, Lugufu, 6.iv.1980, J Kielland.” Place of deposition of holotype not specified.

Diagnosis: Similar to P. inconspicua but it has more rounded wings and the genitalia are diagnostic. Differs from ssp. connectens in being larger and in the more heavily marked upperside in the male (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Tanzania (Mpanda district).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Lugufu River (Kielland, 1990); Mishamu (Kielland, 1990).
Pentila umangiana prodita Schultze, 1923
Pentila prodita Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923. Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1156 (1113-1242).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun: Likunda (Sanga); Likilemba (Sanga); Molundu; N’ginda; Kumilla; Yukoduma; Momos; Assobam-Urwald; Lomie; Kungulu-Urwald; Kulembembe”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo.

Pentila umbra Holland, 1892
Pentila umbra Holland, 1892. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 10: 285 (284-294).

Type locality: Gabon: “Upper valley of the Ogové (or Ogowé)”.

Distribution: Gabon. Known only from the type specimen. Probably a form of Pentila rotha Hewitson (Ackery, et al., 1995: 481).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Genus Liptenara Bethune-Baker, 1915
Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 16: 186 (186-203).

Type-species: Liptenara batesi Bethune-Baker, by original designation.


A purely Afrotropical genus containing three species.

Liptenara batesi Bethune-Baker, 1915
Liptenara batesi Bethune-Baker, 1915. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 16: 187 (186-203).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitje, Cameroons”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Equateur, Tshuapa, Tshopo).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Liptenara hiendlmayri (Dewitz, 1887)
Pentila hiendlmayri Dewitz, 1887. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 30: 429 (427-430).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”.

Distribution: Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Lulua, Sankuru), Uganda (west - Bwamba and Budongo forests).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Liptenara schoutedeni (Hawker-Smith, 1926)
Pentila schoutedeni Hawker-Smith, 1926. Revue Zoologique Africaine 14: 238 (237-241).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sandoa; Kayombo”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-east - Lualaba).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Genus Telipna Aurivillius, 1895
Entomologisk Tidskrift 16: 198 (195-220, 255-268).

Type-species: Liptena acraea Westwood, [1851] by original designation.


A purely Afrotropical genus containing 28 species. The genus was revised by Jackson in 1969 and, more recently, by Libert in 2005.
Species of this genus inhabit dense forest, and many species are scarce, with restricted distributions. They are mimics or co-mimics of the geometrid genus Aletis, as well as related genera of this moth family. All species fly low down, rarely more than a metre above the ground, and therefore inhabit forest with little understorey (Larsen, 2005a). They spend long periods sitting on the ends of twigs or feeding from extrafloral nectaries on Marantaceae. The flight is slow and usually not sustained. The larvae are usually black with dense hairs. They feed on algae on tree trunks and appear not to be associated with ants (Jackson, 1969).
T. acraea group
T. acraea subgroup
Telipna acraea (Westwood, [1851])
Liptena acraea Westwood, 1851 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 77 [1851], 504 [1852] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”. Holotype female in N.H.M., London. Neallotype: male, Likpe, Ghana, 1 II 1963 (Th. Maessen); M.H.N.H., Paris (Libert, 2005).

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Common telipna.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Not uncommon, and well spread within blocks of forest (Larsen, 2005a). Ones or twos are often seen perched on twig ends or at extrafloral nectaries. They seem to be reluctant to fly (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Telipna acraea acraea (Westwood, [1851])
Liptena acraea Westwood, 1851 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 77 [1851], 504 [1852] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon (west).

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Banta (Libert, 2005); Moyamba (Libert, 2005).

Liberia – Ganta (Libert, 2005); Wanau (Libert, 2005).

Ivory Coast – Numerous localities (Libert, 2005); Mount Tonkoui (Libert, 2005).

Ghana – Numerous localities (Libert, 2005); Ashanti (TL)

Togo – Badou (Libert, 2005).

Nigeria – Lagos (Libert, 2005); Calabar (Libert, 2005); Mkpot (Libert, 2005); Ikom (Libert, 2005); Obudu (Libert, 2005).

Cameroon – Mamfe (Libert, 2005).
bimacula Plötz, 1880. nomen dubium. Libert (2005: 16).
echo Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1890 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92 (as sp. of Liptena). Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 1: 40 (183 pp.). London. Ghana: “Gold Coast”. Type in Z.M.H.U., Berlin.
conjuncta Jackson, 1969 (as ssp. of Liptena acraea). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Entomology) 23: 5 (1-23). Nigeria: “Benin Prov., Ubiaja”. Type in N.H.M., London. Synonymized with T. acraea avraea by Libert (2005: 16}.
Telipna acraea fervida (Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1890)
Liptena fervida Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1890. in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92 (as sp. of Liptena). Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 3: 39 (183 pp.).
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