Tribe liptenini subtribe pentilina




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Type locality: Gabon: “lac Azingo”.

Distribution: Equatorial Guinea, Gabon.

Pentila pauli Staudinger, 1888
Pentila pauli Staudinger, 1888 in Staudinger and Schatz, 1884-8. Exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: 267 (333 pp.). Bayern.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Loko am Benuë-Niger”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe.

Common name: Paul’s buff; Paul’s pentila; Spotted pentila.

Habitat: Generally associated with deciduous woodland and forest margins. In Tanzania ssp. nyassana occurs at altitudes from 250 to 1 500 metres, and ssp. clarensis from 800 to 1 500 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: This species appears to be less tied to ant-trees and forest than are other species in the genus (Larsen, 2005a). Specimens flutter feebly in the shade, usually low down (Pringle et al., 1994). Often settles on grass stems (Kielland, 1990). Larsen (1991) records small groups of individuals clinging to the tips of elephant grass.

Flight period: Subspecies obsoleta has been recorded from December to March (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:
Paré, in Pringle et al., 1994: 128 [as Pentila pauli obsoleta].

"Paré reported that a female taken at Dichwe [Zimbabwe] laid a number of eggs, which he bred through on a piece of tree bark almost black with algal growth. The larvae fed happily on the algae and produced good-sized adults".


Bampton, in Pringle et al., 1994: 128 [Malawi – ssp. nyassana].

"Bampton noted females in Malawi ovipositing on any algae-bearing surface, including grass, building bricks, rocks and trees".


Larval food:

Very dark, blue-green (black) algae (Cyanophyta) on tree trunks [Paré in Pringle et al., 1994: 128].



Note: Kielland (1990) states that there are genitalic differences between some of the subspecies. Larsen (2005a) notes that there is partial distributional overlap between some of the subspecies, implying that valid species may exist within this complex.
Pentila pauli pauli Staudinger, 1888
Pentila pauli Staudinger, 1888 in Staudinger and Schatz, 1884-8. Exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: 267 (333 pp.). Bayern.

Type locality: Nigeria: “Loko am Benuë-Niger”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon (west).

Specific localities:

Guinea – Fouta Djalon (Larsen, 2005a).
radiata Lathy, 1903 (as sp. of Pentila). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1903: 195 (183-206). Nigeria: “Anambara Creek”.
multipunctata Lathy, 1903 (as sp. of Pentila). Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1903: 195 (183-206). Nigeria: “Anambara Creek”.
Pentila pauli abri Collins & Larsen, 2001 (manuscript name)
Pentila pauli abri Collins & Larsen, 2001. Manuscript.

Type locality:

Distribution: Senegal (south-east), Guinea (west).
Pentila pauli alberta Hulstaert, 1924
Pentila nyassana alberta Hulstaert, 1924. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 12: 116 (112-122, 173-194).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Albertville”.

Distribution: Tanzania (west), Democratic Republic of Congo (Tanganika).

Note: Treated as a form of Pentila pauli elisabetha Hulstaert by Berger, 1981.
Pentila pauli benguellana Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila nyassana benguellana Stempffer and Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1116 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Angola: “rivière Calweha”.

Distribution: Angola (Benguella and Bihe districts).
Pentila pauli clarensis Neave, 1903
Pentila clarensis Neave, 1903. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 39: 136 (136-138).

Type locality: Uganda: “Toro”.

Distribution: Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania.

Distribution overlaps with Pentila pauli multiplagata Bethune-Baker (Ackery et al., 1995: 479).



Specific localities:

Uganda – Toro (TL).

Kenya – Kitosh (Larsen, 1991); South Kavirondo (Larsen, 1991); Mumias (Larsen, 1991); Nandi (Larsen, 1991); Nasisi Hills (Larsen, 1991); Broderick Falls (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Mpanda (Kielland, 1990); Kigoma (Kielland, 1990); Bukoba (Kielland, 1990); ?Tukuyu (Kielland, 1990); Minziro Forest (Congdon & Collins, 1998).
Pentila pauli dama (Suffert, 1904)
? Suffert, 1904. ?

Type locality: Tanzania: ?

Distribution: Tanzania (southern coastal area).
Pentila pauli elisabetha Hulstaert, 1924
Pentila nyassana elisabetha Hulstaert, 1924. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 12: 116 (112-122, 173-194).

Pentila pauli elisabetha. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 35mm. Ndola, Zambia. 18.3.73. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H284).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Elisabethville”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Shaba, Sankuru, Kasai, Maniema), Zambia (north and west).
nigribasis Hulstaert, 1924 (as ab. of Pentila nyassana elisabetha). Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 12: 116 (112-122, 173-194). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Elisabethville”.
Pentila pauli leopardina Schultze, 1923
Pentila leopardina Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923. Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1154 (1113-1242).

Type locality: Congo: “Franz. Kongo: Nana (Ubangi-Gebiet)”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south), Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (Cataractes, Kinshasa, Equateur, Tshuapa, Mongala).
Pentila pauli multiplagata Bethune-Baker, 1908
Pentila multiplagata Bethune-Baker, 1908. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1908: 111 (110-126).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Makala, Congo Free State”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Uele, Ituri, Tshopo, North Kivu), Sudan (south).
Pentila pauli nyassana Aurivillius, 1899
Pentila amenaida var. nyassana Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 261 (1-561).

Pentila pauli nyassana. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 33mm. Nkhata Bay, Malawi, 1800'. 12.6.78. I. Bampton. (Henning collection - H285).
Type locality: Malawi: “Nyassaland”.

Distribution: Tanzania (most of the country, except in the north-east (Kielland, 1990)), Malawi, Zambia (east of the Luangwa Valley).
daina (?) Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Pentila amenaida). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 46 (12-107). Tanzania: “Lindi-Massasi”.
amenaidana Strand, 1911 (as f. of Pentila amenaida). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77: 193 (190-198). [Angola?]. [False locality?]
Pentila pauli obsoleta Hawker-Smith, 1933
Pentila nyassana obsoleta Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 3 (1-12).

Pentila pauli obsoleta. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 35mm. Victoria Falls, S. Rhodesia. 21.7.47. K.M. Pennington. (Transvaal Museum - TM3751).
Type locality: “Victoria Falls, Zambezi”.

Distribution: Zimbabwe (Lomagundi district - southern bank of the Zambezi River to the Victoria Falls; also at Dichwe, near Chinhoyi), Zambia.

Specific localities:

Zambia – Victoria Falls (Heath, et al., 2002).

Zimbabwe – Victoria Falls (Bourke); Lomagundi district (Stevenson); Dichwe Farm, near Chinhoyi (Pringle, et al., 1994).
cataractae Stevenson, 1940 (as var. of Pentila nyassana obsoleta). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 3: 101 (88-108). “Victoria Falls”.
Pentila pauli ras Talbot, 1935
Pentila nyassana ras Talbot, 1935. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 71: 70 (69-78, 115-127, 147-153).

Type locality: Ethiopia: “S.W. Abyssinia, Pokodi, 1700 ft., 738'N., 3442'E.”.

Distribution: Ethiopia (south-west).

Pentila petreia Hewitson, 1874
Pentila petreia Hewitson, 1874. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 13: 382 (380-383).

Type locality: Ghana: “between Mansu and the River Prah”.

Distribution: Sierra Leone, Liberia (central), Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria (west).

Specific localities:

Sierra Leone – Guma Valley, Freetown (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Danane area (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – between Mansu and the Prah Rvier, near Cape Coast (TL).

Common name: Common red pentila.

Habitat: Dense forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: A fairly common butterfly, which becomes scarce in the west of its range (Larsen, 2005a). Flies about slowly and is often encountered feeding from extrafloral nectaries (Larsen, 2005a). A female was noted ovipositing on tree roots at ground level (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
tripunctata Druce, 1888 (as sp. of Tingra). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 25: 109 (108-109). Ghana: “Addah, W. Africa”.

Pentila petreoides Bethune-Baker, 1915
Pentila petreoides Bethune-Baker, 1915. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 16: 187 (186-203).

Type locality: Ghana: “Coomassie (Friapere Forest)”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast (Warren-Gash, pers. comm., 2002), Ghana.

Specific localities:

Guinea – Macenta (Larsen, 2005a); Diorodougou (Larsen, 2005a); Nzerekore (Larsen, 2005a); Seredou (Larsen, 2005a); Nimba (Larsen, 2005a).

Sierra Leone – Loma Mountains (Larsen, 2005a).

Liberia – Zorzor (Larsen, 2005a).

Ivory Coast – Yeale (Larsen, 2005a); Mount Tonkoui (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Kumasi (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Western red pentila.

Habitat: Forests, usually in hilly country (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This is a scarce butterfly and nothing has been published concerning its habits (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila phidia Hewitson, 1874
Pentila phidia Hewitson, 1874. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 13: 383 (380-383).

Type locality: Ghana: “between Mansu and the River Prah”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast (central and east), Ghana, Togo.

Records from Sierra Leone are erroneous (Larsen, 2005a).



Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Banco (Larsen, 2005a); Tiassale (Larsen, 2005a); Dimbroko (Larsen, 2005a); Bossematie (Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – between Mansu and the River Prah, near Cape Coast (TL).

Common name: Ghana pentila.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: An uncommon butterfly that usually flies low down, less than 1 m above ground level, and appears to be less gregarious than other species of the genus (Larsen, 2005a). It is often found in more open situations than its congeners (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
nunu Karsch, 1893 (as sp. of Tingra). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 38: 215 (1-266). Togo: “Bismarckburg”.

Pentila picena Hewitson, 1874
Pentila picena Hewitson, 1874. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 13: 382 (380-383).

Type locality: Ghana: “between Mansu and the River Prah”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon? (Obudu area, Libert, 1992).

Larsen (2005a) believes that the Cameroon material may represent a distinct species.



Common name: Western cream pentila.

Habitat: Forest of various types (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: This is the commonest of the cream pentilas (Larsen, 2005a). Usually met as singles, flying weakly about 1.5 m above the ground. Up to five specimens have been found together, sucking fluid from an extrafloral nectary on a tendril (Larsen, 2005a). Callaghan (1992) noted that they are avid feeders at bamboo nectaries, with up to six individuals on the same stem. Males use large tree trunks as reference points, flying around them before alighting on a nearby branch. On landing the wings are flexed a couple of times (Callaghan, 1992). On a number of occasions females have been seen to lay eggs singly on live trees and woody stems covered with green lichens and moss. This took place between 13:20 and 15:00 (Callaghan, 1992).

Early stages:
Callaghan, 1992.

When first laid the eggs are white, becoming dark brown within a day. A captive female laid numerous eggs on the inside of a glass jar. No eggs, from the wild or from the captive female, hatched.


Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila picena picena Hewitson, 1874
Pentila picena Hewitson, 1874. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4) 13: 382 (380-383).

Type locality: Ghana: “between Mansu and the River Prah”.

Distribution: Ivory Coast, Ghana.

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Nyangon (Larsen, 2005a); Tai N.P. (ABRI teste Larsen, 2005a).

Ghana – Kakum N.P. (Larsen, 2005a).

Note: Larsen (2005a) does not consider the subspecies valid, prefering to consider variation in the species as clinal. He does not, however, formally sink the two described subspecies.
Pentila picena catori Bethune-Baker, 1906
Pentila catori Bethune-Baker, 1906. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7) 18: 339 (339-346).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Kabba Province, N. Nigeria”.

Distribution: Nigeria (central). Known only from the type locality (Ackery, et al., 1995: 479).
Pentila picena cydaria (Grose-Smith, 1898)
Tingra cydaria Grose-Smith, 1898. Novitates Zoologicae 5: 355 (350-358).

Type locality: Nigeria: “Warri”.

Distribution: Ghana, Nigeria (south and west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Iseyin (Larsen, 2005a).

Pentila preussi Staudinger, 1888
Pentila preussi Staudinger, 1888 in Staudinger and Schatz, 1884-8. Exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: 267 (333 pp.). Bayern.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leone”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast.

Common name: Ochreous red pentila.

Habitat: Drier forests (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Scarce in Ivory Coast, but commoner in Guinea (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: At Dubreka, in Guinea, the nominate ssp. and ssp. fayei are sympatric (Larsen, 2005a).
Pentila preussi preussi Staudinger, 1888
Pentila preussi Staudinger, 1888 in Staudinger and Schatz, 1884-8. Exotischer Schmetterlinge 1: 267 (333 pp.). Bayern.

Type locality: Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leone”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast (west).

Specific localities:

Guinea – Fouta Djalon (Larsen, 2005a); Conakry (Larsen, 2005a); Dubreka (Larsen, 2005a).
paucipunctata Kirby, 1890 (as sp. of Pseuderesia). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 6: 263 (261-274). Cameroon: “Cameroons”. [The true position of this taxon is open to doubt (Ackery, et al., 1995: 480)].
lunaris Weymer, 1892 (as sp. of Tingra). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 53: 95 (79-125). Sierra Leone: “Sierra Leone”.
Pentila preussi fayei Stempffer, 1963
Pentila preussi fayei Stempffer, 1963. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 25: 957 (954-964).

Type locality: Senegal: “forêt classée de Santiaba Mandjak”.

Distribution: Senegal, Guinea (coast).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (TL).

Guinea – Dubreka (Larsen, 2005a).

Pentila pseudorotha Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila pseudorotha Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1142 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroun anglais, Mamfe”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Okomu (Larsen, 2005a); Onitsha (Larsen, 2005a); Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a); Cross River Loop (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Large-spotted red pentila.

Habitat:

Habits: An uncommon species that is usually found sucking nectar from a tendril or roosting on a twig (Larsen, 2005a). A half-dozen specimens were observed circling incessantly on a hill-top but there was uncertainty as to whether this constituted hilltopping behaviour (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila rogersi (Druce, 1907)
Telipna rogersi Druce, 1907. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1907: 78 (77-82).

Type locality: Kenya: “British E. Africa, Fourteen miles N.W. of Mombasa, Rabai”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania.

Common name: Rogers’ pentila.

Habitat: Coastal forest (Larsen, 1991). Lowland forest at almost sea level to 900 metres in Tanzania (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The flight is very slow and weak and individuals keep to the shade, flying from two to three metres above the ground. They often settle on bare twigs, often in little groups (Kielland, 1990; Larsen, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila rogersi rogersi (Druce, 1907)
Telipna rogersi Druce, 1907. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1907: 78 (77-82).

Type locality: Kenya: “British E. Africa, Fourteen miles N.W. of Mombasa, Rabai”.

Distribution: Kenya (coast), Tanzania (coast).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Rabai (TL); Shimba Hills (Larsen, 1991); Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (Larsen, 1991).
Pentila rogersi parapetreia Rebel, 1908
Pentila parapetreia Rebel, 1908. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 58: 159 (155-160).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Uluguru-Bergen bei Zanzibar”.

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east – Uluguru and Usambara mountains).
derema Strand, 1911 (as var of Pentila parapetreia). Archiv für Naturgeschichte 77: 193 (190-198). Tanzania: “Derema”.

Pentila rondo Kielland, 1990
Pentila rondo Kielland, 1990. Butterflies of Tanzania 170 (363 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Tanzania: “Lindi, Rondo, 850 m., 10-IV-1986, J. Kielland”. Holotype (male) in the Natural History Museum, London. Described from a series of six males and four females, all from the type locality.

Original description:

Male. Upperside somewhat like P. fallax from Cameroon and French Congo, but paler orange (fallax reddish-orange). Differs from P. carcassoni from Malawi in the reduced f.w. orange patch, extending over half of spaces 1 and 2 and not reaching half-way into 3; the entire cell black; black basal dusting; h.w. somewhat like carcassoni and fallax, but marginal black band slightly wider; one black dor in cell. Underside less irrorated than in carcassoni, perhaps slightly less heavily marked. Female as the male, but reddish-orange area larger. Length of f.w., male 16-17.2 mm; female 16.9-18.3 mm. Male genitalia – Uncus four-pronged distally, with the two lateral lobes placed far behind the two central lobes. (In P. carcassoni the uncus is three-pronged distally, and the lobes are placed beside each other at apex). The process on the underside of the tegumen is single and curved (in carcassoni it is curved, but divided in two).”



Distribution: Tanzania (south-east - Rondo plateau, west of Lindi).

Habitat: Forest, at 800 to 850 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Has a feeble, fluttering flight. Settles on exposed twigs (Kielland, 1990).

Flight period: Type series recorded in February and April (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila rotha Hewitson, 1873
Pentila rotha Hewitson, 1873 in Hewitson, 1872-7. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 5: 85 (127 pp.). London.

Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Congo.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.
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