Tribe liptenini subtribe pentilina




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Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria (from Lagos to the Cross River loop), Cameroon (west).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a); Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Edea.

yaunda Karsch, 1895 (as sp. of Pentila). Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 292 (289-322). Cameroon: “Yaúunde-Station”.
hedwiga Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Pentila). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 43 (12-107). Cameroon: “Bipindi, Süd-Camerun”.
telesippe Grünberg, 1910 (as sp. of Pentila). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 473 (469-480). Cameroon: “Kribi, S. Kamerun”; Equatorial Guinea: “Makomo, Span. Guinea”.
elpinice Grünberg, 1910 (as sp. of Pentila). Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 474 (469-480). Cameroon: “Kribi, S. Kamerun”.
Pentila maculata pardalena Druce, 1910
Pentila pardalena Druce, 1910. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 357 (356-378).

Pentila abraxas pardalena Druce, 1910. Ackery et al., 1995.

Pentila maculata pardalena Druce, 1910. Larsen, 2005a: 124

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitje, Ja river, Cameroons, 2000 ft”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Island of Bioko, Mbini), Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Mayumbe, Haut-Uele, Tshopo).
affixa Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923 (as ab. of Pentila abraxas). Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1157 (1113-1242). Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun: Malén”; Equatorial Guinea: “Fernando Po: San Carlos”.
Pentila maculata subochracea Hawker-Smith, 1933
Pentila subochracea Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 4 (1-12).

Pentila abraxas subochracea Hawker-Smith, 1933. Ackery et al., 1995.

Pentila maculata subochracea Hawker-Smith, 1933. Larsen, 2005a: 124

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo: Upper Kasai District”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Sankuru, Tshopo, Bas-Uele, West Kivu).

Note: Larsen (2005a) believes that subochracea is possibly a distinct species.

Pentila alba Dewitz, 1886
Pentila alba Dewitz, 1886: 428. [No reference in Ackery, 1995 for 1886.]

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Uele, North Kivu, Sankuru, Lualaba), Uganda, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest, especially Kere Hill (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Seldom flies high above the ground (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Flight period: Recorded in December and January (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila amenaida Hewitson, 1873
Pentila amenaida Hewitson, 1873 in Hewitson, 1872-7. Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies 5: 85 (127 pp.). London.

Type locality: Angola: “Angola”.

Distribution: Angola.

Misattributed to the Madagascar fauna (Stempffer, 1954).



Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila amenaidoides (Holland, 1893)
Tingra amenaidoides Holland, 1893. Entomological News 4: 23 (22-28).

Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon; Kangwé”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south), Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (north - Paulis).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila auga Karsch, 1895
Pentila auga Karsch, 1895. Entomologische Nachrichten. Berlin 21: 293 (289-322).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Yaúnde-Station”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila bennetti Collins & Larsen, 2003
Pentila bennetti Collins & Larsen, 2003. Metamorphosis 14 (3): 68 (63-110).

Pentila bennetti. Male, Guinea. Photo ex Torben Larsen.

Pentila bennetti. Female, Guinea. Left – upperside; right – underside. Photos ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Guinea: “Conakry, Dubreka, ix.1999”. Holotype (male) in the African Butterfly Collection, Nairobi; genitalia SCC 468.

Distribution: Guinea.

Specific localities:

Guinea – Dubreka near Conakry (TL); Labe area of the Fouta Djalon (H. Warren-Gash teste Collins, et al., 2003).

Habitat: Forest (Collins et al., 2003).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila bitje Druce, 1910
Pentila bitje Druce, 1910. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 358 (356-378).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitje, Ja river, Cameroons, 2000 ft”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south), Congo, Equatorial Guinea.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila camerunica Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila camerunica Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1196 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroun anglais, Mamfe”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon (south).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – near Ikom in the Cross River loop (Larsen, 2005a); Old Ekuri in the Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Mamfe (TL).

Common name: Cameroon cream pentila.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Nothing published.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila carcassoni Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila carcassoni Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1167 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Malawi: “Nord Nyassaland, Mkuwazi, Forest Reserve au bord du lac Nyassa entre Nkata Bay”.

Distribution: Malawi (north).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila christina Suffert, 1904
Pentila christina Suffert, 1904. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 45 (12-107).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bipinde, Süd-Camerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, North Kivu).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila cloetensi Aurivillius, 1898
Pentila cloetensi Aurivillius, 1898. EntomologiskTidskrift 18: 214 (213-222).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congogebiet: Beni Bendi am Sankuru Fluss”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Tanzania.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Often flies high up, but weakly, in dark parts of the forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Flight period: November and December (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila cloetensi cloetensi Aurivillius, 1898
Pentila cloetensi Aurivillius, 1898. EntomologiskTidskrift 18: 214 (213-222).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congogebiet: Beni Bendi am Sankuru Fluss”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Mongala, Bas-Uele, Equateur, Kasai, Sankuru, Lualaba).
elfrieda Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Pentila). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 46 (12-107). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Mukenge, Central-Africa (6S.B. 22 O.L. von Greewich)”.
Pentila cloetensi albida Hawker-Smith, 1933
Pentila aspasia albida Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 4 (1-12).

Type locality: Uganda: “Daro Forest, Toro, 4000-4500 feet”.

Diagnosis: As the subspecific name suggests, it is paler than the other subspecies (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Distribution: Uganda (forested areas, except the Bwamba Valley), Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).
elfriedana Strand, 1918 (as ab. of Pentila cloetensi). Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 12: 101 (101-104). Uganda: “Tale”.
Pentila cloetensi aspasia Grünberg, 1910
Pentila aspasia Grünberg, 1910. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1910: 474 (146-181).

Type locality: Equatorial Guinea: “Alcu, Span. Guinea”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south), Gabon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea.
Pentila cloetensi catauga Rebel, 1914
Pentila catauga Rebel, 1914. Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen Museums. Wien 28: 263 (219-294).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Beni und Ukaika”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Uele, Ituri, North Kivu), Uganda (west - Bwamba Valley).
congoensis Joicey and Talbot, 1921 (as ssp. of Pentila auga). Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 81 (40-166). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Itoa River, Ituri Forest”.
ueleensis Stempffer and Bennett, 1961 (as ssp. of Pentila cloetensi). Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1190 (1098-1211). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo ex-belge, Uele, Paulis”.
Pentila cloetensi latefasciata Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila cloetensi latefasciata Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1188 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo ex-belge, Kivu: Kabunga, Kamituga.- Maniéma: Kindu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (North Kivu, Maniema).
latefascia Dufrane, 1953 (as ab. of Pentila cloetensi). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 89: 47 (41-57). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kabunga”.
Pentila cloetensi lucayensis Schultze, 1923
Pentila lucayensis Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923. Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1158 (1113-1242).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Belg. Kongo: Kimuenza”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa).

Pentila condamini Stempffer, 1963
Pentila condamini Stempffer, 1963. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 25: 954 (954-964).

Type locality: Senegal: “Basse Casamance: forêt clasée de Santiaba Mandjak”.

Distribution: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, ?Ivory Coast (west).

Specific localities:

Senegal – Basse Casamance (TL).

Sierra Leone – Loma Mountains (Belcastro teste Larsen, 2005a).

Liberia – Ganta (Clench, 1965).

?Ivory Coast – Gagnoa (Stempffer, 1969) [identity of this specimen uncertain according to Larsen (2005a)].

Common name: Condamin’s red pentila.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila fallax Bethune-Baker, 1915
Pentila fallax Bethune-Baker, 1915. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 16: 187 (186-203).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitje, Cameroons”.

Distribution: Cameroon, Congo.

Recorded from Nigeria by Cornes (1969) but Larsen (2005a) avers that this is a probable misidentification for P. pseudorotha.



Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila fidonioides Schultze, 1923
Pentila fidonioides Schultze, 1923 in Schultze and Aurivillius, 1923. Ergebnisse der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral-Afrika Expedition 1(17): 1155 (1113-1242).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Süd-Kamerun: M’batschongo; Adjela”.

Distribution: Cameroon (south).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila glagoessa (Holland, 1893)
Tingra glagoessa Holland, 1893. Entomological News 4: 22 (22-28).

Type locality: Gabon: “Talaguga, Upper Valley of the Ogove”.

Distribution: Nigeria (east and south), Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Uele, Tshopo, Equateur, Sankuru), Uganda.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Butatong in Okwangwo (Larsen, 2005a); Mkpot 1 in the Oban Hills (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Immaculate cream pentila.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: This species is scarce in Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a). The flight is weak and on the wing it resembles many of the day-flying cream moths (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila hewitsoni (Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1887)
Tingra hewitsoni Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92. Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 1: 3 (183 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: [“Old Calabar”].

Distribution: Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Hewitson’s cream pentila.

Habitat: Deep forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Habits: Scarce in the western parts of its range but commoner in Nigeria (Larsen, 2005a). They are often encountered in groups of threes or fours, slowly circling each other without much apparent movement of their wings. They usually fly from four to five metres above the ground, under closed forest canopy (Larsen, 2005a). Small aggregations are readily seen on Marantochloa tendrils, feeding from extra-floral nectaries (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
laura Kirby, 1890 (as sp. of Tingra). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 6: 267 (261-274). Nigeria: “Lagos”.
Pentila hewitsoni hewitsoni (Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1887)
Tingra hewitsoni Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1887-92. Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 1: 3 (183 pp.). London.

Type locality: Nigeria: [“Old Calabar”].

Distribution: Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria (south).

Specific localities:

Guinea – Fouta Djalon (Larsen, 2005a).
Pentila hewitsoni limbata (Holland, 1893)
Tingra limbata Holland, 1893. Entomological News 4: 23 (22-28).

Synonym of Pentila hewitsoni (Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1887). Ackery et al., 1995.



Pentila hewitsoni limbata (Holland, 1893). Larsen, 2005a: 125.

Type locality: Gabon: “Kangwé, Ogové Valley”.

Distribution: Nigeria (Cross River loop), Cameroon, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo (Mongala).

Specific localities:

Pentila inconspicua Druce, 1910
Pentila inconspicua Druce, 1910. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910: 357 (356-378).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Upper Kasai district, Congo Free State”.

Diagnosis: Similar to P. tropicalis but smaller and is allopatric with respect to the former (Larsen, 1991).

Distribution: Cameroon (south), Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo (Mongala, Haut-Uele, Ituri, North Kivu, Tshopo, Equateur, Kinshasa, Sankuru, Lualaba), Uganda, Kenya (west), Tanzania (west – Kigoma and bordering areas of Mpanda).

Specific localities:

Democratic Republic of Congo – Upper Kasai district (TL).

Kenya – Kakamega (Larsen, 1991); near Kisii (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (Congdon & Collins, 1998).

Common name: Inconspicuous pentila.

Habitat: Primary forest. In Tanzania from the level of Lake Tanganyika (780 metres) to 1 500 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Fairly common in heavy evergreen forest. Settles on dry twigs (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila landbecki Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila landbecki Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1165 (1098-1211).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Congo ex-belge, Upper Kasai district (probablement Haut Lomani)”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Sankuru, Lulua).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila mesia Hulstaert, 1924
Pentila mesia Hulstaert, 1924. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine 12: 115 (112-122, 173-194).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Bitje Riv. Dja, Kamerun”.

Distribution: Cameroon. Known only from the type locality.

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila nero (Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1894)
Tingra nero Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1894 in Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1892-7. Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 2: 119 (261 pp.). London.

Type locality: Congo: “Kuilu”.

Distribution: Congo, Cameroon?

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
bertha Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1894 in Grose-Smith and Kirby, 1892-7 (as sp. of Tingra). Rhopalocera exotica, being illustrations of new, rare and unfigured species of butterflies 2: 120 (261 pp.). London. Congo: “Kuilu”.

Pentila nigeriana Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila nigeriana Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1158 (1098-1211).


Pentila nigeriana. Male, Nigeria. Left – upperside; right – underside. Photos ex Torben Larsen.
Type locality: Nigeria: “Ogoja, Afikpo”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south).

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Afikpo (TL); Lagos (Larsen, 2005a); Gashaka-Gumpti (Larsen, 2005a); Cross River loop (Larsen, 2005a); Kagoro Forest (Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Nigerian red pentila.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: A rather uncommon species, whose behaviour is similar to the much commoner, sympatric P. petreia (Larsen, 2005a). Adults of both sexes feed from extrafloral nectaries on bamboo and vines between 10:00 and 12:00 (Callaghan, 1992). Males perch around the trunks of prominent trees on the edge of small clearings in the forest between 11:00 and 13:30. They circle these trees with a slow, fluttering flight at a height of 4 to 5 metres, before alighting on a nearby dry branch. Upon alighting they flex their wings a few times before folding them over the back (Callaghan, 1992). A female was observed to lay eggs singly on dried branches near the forest floor at 13:40 (Callaghan, 1992).

Early stages:
Callaghan, 1992.

A female kept in a plastic bag laid many reddish-brown eggs on a lichen-covered stick in the bag. The eggs did not hatch.


Larval food: Nothing published.

Pentila occidentalium Aurivillius, 1899
Pentila occidentalium Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 262 (1-561).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon.

Common name: Unmarked red pentila.

Habitat:

Habits: An uncommon butterfly, usually met with singly (Larsen, 2005a). A female was observed ovipositing low down on the trunk of a tree with a diameter of 10 cm; there were no ants evident nearby (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila occidentalium occidentalium Aurivillius, 1899
Pentila occidentalium Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 262 (1-561).

Type locality: Cameroon: “Kamerun”.

Distribution: Nigeria (south), Cameroon.

Specific localities:

Nigeria – Cross River loop (Larsen, 2005a).

Cameroon – Korup (Larsen, 2005a).
immaculata Suffert, 1904 (as ssp. of Pentila occidentalum). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Iris 17: 46 (12-107). Cameroon: “Victoria; Barombi-Station, Camerun”.
congoana Strand, 1918 (as ab. of Pentila occidentalum). Internationale Entomologische Zeitschrift 12: 102 (101-104). Democratic Republic of Congo: “345 km von Kindu”. [The status and type locality of this taxon remain doubtful, see Berger, 1981.]
Pentila occidentalium gabunica Stempffer & Bennett, 1961
Pentila occidentalium gabunica Stempffer & Bennett, 1961. Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (A) 23: 1157 (1098-1211).
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