Tribe liptenini subtribe pentilina




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Alaena margaritacea. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 30mm. Haenertsburg, Transvaal, 1 Jan. 1994. M.C. Williams.



Type locality: South Africa: “Haenertzburg”.

Distribution: South Africa (Limpopo Province). Known only from very restricted areas in the vicinity of the type locality near Haenertsburg.

Specific localities:

Limpopo Province – Haenertsburg – Welcome Mine (Swanepoel, 1953).

Common name: Wolkberg Zulu.

Habitat: Rocky, grassy slopes.

Habits: The flight of the Wolkberg Zulu is weak, and close to the ground. During the warmer hours of the day males congregate at the bases of rocky ridges below the summit of hills. Large numbers of specimens may be found within the restricted colonies during the height of their emergence (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: Flies from December to early February, with peak numbers in the last week of December (Pringle et al., 1994).

Conservation status: Classified as critically endangered in the South African Red Data List.

Early stages:
Clark & Dickson, 1971: 237, plate 111 (in part) [as Alaena margaritacea; Wolkberg, Limpopo Province, South Africa].

"Egg: 0.9 mm diam. x 0.4 mm high. Laid singly or in small clusters on lichen-covered rocks. Of a purple-brown colour. Hatching takes place after 17 days. The discarded shell is not eaten. Eggs have four rings of 14 round indentations each. Those at the micropyle are narrow and elongated. Larva: 1st instar 0.8 mm, growing to 1.6 mm in 29 days, when the larva died. The larva is close to that of Al. amazoula but there are some small differences in the setae and in the disposition of some of them, and in the colouring of the body, as shown in the illustrations of the 1st-instar larvae of the two species. Close affinity to the larva of Pentila tropicalis is also apparent from the figures of the species concerned. In the first instar, the larva of A. margaritacea is of a purplish-brown colour, apart from the yellowish neck-shield and the white humps which bear the outer dorsal and lateral setae respectively. The head is practically of the same colour as the body of the larva. The arrangement of the setae, their relative lengths and their colouring can be seen in the accompanying plate - also those of the setae on the head of the larva. The cross-section of the larva is typical of this group of butterflies, taken as a whole. Recorded from eggs supplied by Mr. Swanepoel from the Wolkberg, N.E. Transvaal."


Larval food:

Rock lichens (Lichenes) [Clark & Dickson, 1971: 237].

Algae (Cyanophyta) on rocks [Pringle et al., 1994: 127].

Alaena ngonga Jackson, 1966
Alaena ngonga Jackson, 1966. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (13) 8: 527 (523-531).

Type locality: Kenya: “Ngong Escarpment”.

Diagnosis: Close to A. johanna. On the hindwing underside the white dots in A. ngonga are larger and better defined than those in A. johanna; the marginal lunules are also larger and better defined (Larsen, 1991). The ranges of these two species do not overlap (Larsen, 1991).

Distribution: Kenya (central), Tanzania (Masai, Serengeti).

Specific localities:

Kenya – Ngong Hills (TL); Lukenia Hills (Larsen, 1991); Longonot volcano (Larsen, 1991); Nairobi (Larsen, 1991); Ukambari (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania – Masai; Serengeti.

Common name: Ngong Zulu.

Habitat: Rocky hillsides in savanna (Larsen, 1991).

Habits: Occurs in localized colonies (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena nyassa Hewitson, 1877
Alaena nyassa Hewitson, 1877. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 14: 6 (5-6).

Type locality: “Lake Nyassa”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.

Common name: Pied Zulu.

Habitat: For the nominate subspecies: riverine woodland (in Mozambique) and grassy places in savanna regions (in Zimbabwe) (Pringle et al., 1994); montane grassland with rocky outcrops, along streams in Tanzania (Kielland, 1990). For subspecies major: forest margins, heavy woodland and rocky streams from 300 to 1 200 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: The Pied zulu flies weakly, often settling on grass stems (Pringle et al., 1994).

Flight period: Has been recorded in all months of the year, except June and July (Pringle et al., 1994).

Early stages:

Female observed laying eggs on rock lichen (Kielland, 1990).



Larval food:

Algae (Cyanophyta) on rocks [Pringle et al., 1994: 127].


Alaena nyassa nyassa Hewitson, 1877
Alaena nyassa Hewitson, 1877. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 14: 6 (5-6).

Type locality: “Lake Nyassa”.

Distribution: Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Kitesa Forest, near Lake Malawi (1 700 to 1 850 metres) (Kielland, 1990); Chivanje Estate, Tukuyu (750 metres) (Kielland, 1990).

Zimbabwe – Gwanda (Pringle et al., 1994); the Umwukwes (Pringle et al., 1994).
Alaena nyassa major Oberthür, 1888
Alaena major Oberthür, 1888. Études d’Entomologie 12: 7 (1-8).

Type locality: Tanzania: “Zanguebar”. [False locality.]

Distribution: Tanzania (north-east).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Usambaras (Kielland, 1990); Uluguru mountains; Nguu mountains (Kielland, 1990); Kanga Mt., Ulugurus (Kielland, 1990); Kimboza Forest, Ulugurus (Kielland, 1990); Mkomazi Game Reserve (Van Noort & Stone, Metamorphosis 11 (2): 77)).
Alaena nyassa marmorata Hawker-Smith, 1933
Alaena nyassa marmorata Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 1 (1-12).

Alaena nyassa marmorata. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 30mm. Kalambo Falls, Mbala, Zambia. 12:III:1974. A. Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).

Alaena nyassa marmorata. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 36mm. Miengwe, Zambia. 6:II:77. A. Heath. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “S.E. Congo: East Luvua Valley, Lake Mweru Dist., 4000-5000 feet”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Lomani, Lualaba), Zambia (Copperbelt to east and north-east).

Specific localities:

Zambia – Chisamba; Mumbwa; Miengwe; Kanona; Mbala (Heath et al., 2002).

Alaena oberthuri Aurivillius, 1899
Alaena oberthuri Aurivillius, 1899 in Aurivillius, 1898-9. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapakademiens Handlingar 31 (5): 256 (1-561).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “M’pala an der Westküste vom Tanganika”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (south-east - Haut-Lomani).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena ochracea Gifford, 1965
Alaena ochracea Gifford, 1965. A list of the butterflies of Malawi 41 (151 pp.). Blantyre.

Type locality: Malawi: “Zomba”.

Distribution: Malawi (south - Shire Highlands).

Habitat: Fringes of submontane evergreen forest.

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
ochracea Butler, 1894 (as var. of Alaena nyassae). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893: 659 (643-684). Malawi: “Zomba”.

Alaena picata Sharpe, 1896
Alaena picata Sharpe, 1896. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 17: 126 (125-127).

Type locality: Kenya: “Between the coast and Teita, East Africa”.

Distribution: Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi.

Certain individuals of the nominotypical subspecies approach the phenotype of subspecies interrupta (Ackery et al., 1995: 475). Collins, cited by Larsen (1991: 156), believes there may be as many as five subspecies in Kenya viz. i – on the coast and in the Shimba Hills; ii – in the Kasigau area; iii – ssp. interrupta Hawker-Smith, 1933 in the Teita foot-hills; iv – Meru area on the north-eastern slopes of Mt Kenya; v – at Sultan Hamud.



Habitat: Rocky stream beds in forest and forest margins from 300 to 1 500 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Occurs in very localized colonies, which may contain numerous individuals. Unlike other members of the genus, males often fly high above the ground (Larsen, 1991).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Possibly on tree lichens [Larsen, 1991: 156].


Alaena picata picata Sharpe, 1896
Alaena picata Sharpe, 1896. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 17: 126 (125-127).

Type locality: Kenya: “Between the coast and Teita, East Africa”.

Distribution: Kenya (south-east - including the coast), Tanzania (east)

Specific localities:

Kenya – Teita foot-hills (TL); Shimba Hills (Larsen, 1991); Kasigau area (Larsen, 1991); Meru area on north-eastern slopes of Mount Kenya (Larsen, 1991); Sultan Hamud (Larsen, 1991).

Tanzania - Uzungwa Rift (Kielland, 1990); Ukaguru Mts (Kielland, 1990); Uluguru Mts, including Kimboza Forest (Kielland, 1990); Nguru Mts (Kielland, 1990); Nguu Mts (Kielland, 1990); Usambara Mts (Kielland, 1990).
rollei Suffert, 1904 (as sp. of Alaena). Insektenbörse 21: 134 (134). Tanzania: “Tanga, Usambara”.
mulsa Thieme, 1904 (as sp. of Alaena). Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 49: 164 (164). Tanzania: “Nguelo (Usambara)”.
connectens Talbot, 1935 (as ssp. of Alaena picata). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 71: 69 (69-78, 115-127, 147-153). Kenya: “Wusi, about 16-20 miles west of Voi, open and hill country, about 4000 ft”.
Alaena picata interrupta Hawker-Smith, 1933
Alaena picata interrupta Hawker-Smith, 1933. Stylops 2: 2 (1-12).

Type locality: Malawi: “Nyasaland: Mt. Mlanje”.

Distribution: Malawi (south – south-western slopes of Mt Mlanje).

Alaena reticulata Butler, 1896
Alaena reticulata Butler, 1896. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (6) 18: 160 (159-163).

Alaena reticulata. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 27mm. Ndola, Copper Belt, Zambia. 25/xi/1979. A. Heath. (Gardiner Collection).

Alaena reticulata. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 31mm. Female. Ndola, Zambia. 21 February, 1976. A. Heath. (Gardiner Collection).
Type locality: Malawi: “Kasungu Mountain, 5400 feet alt., Nyika”; “Mtambwi Hill, Deep Bay”.

Distribution: Tanzania (extreme south), Malawi, Zambia.

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Sitebi Mt. (Kielland, 1990); Ntakatta (Kielland, 1990); Sabaga (Kielland, 1990); Lugufu River in Mpanda District (Kielland, 1990); Ntumbi gorge near Chimala (Congdon teste Kielland, 1990).

Malawi – Kasungu Mountain, 5 400 ft, Nyika (TL); Mtambwi Hill, Deep Bay (TL).

Zambia – Nyika (Heath et al., 2002); Ndola (Heath et al., 2002); Serenje (Heath et al., 2002).

Habitat: Rocky, wooded hillsides and open montane grassland from 1 000 to 1 950 metres (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena rosei Vane-Wright, 1980
Alaena rosei Vane-Wright, 1980 in d’Abrera, 1980. Butterflies of the Afrotropical region 416 (593 pp.). Melbourne.

Type locality: Angola: “10 miles east of Gabela”.

Distribution: Angola (known from near Gabela and in the vicinity of Sadabandeira).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Alaena subrubra Bethune-Baker, 1915
Alaena subrubra Bethune-Baker, 1915. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8) 16: 186 (186-203).

Type locality: Sudan: “Southern Sudan”.

Distribution: Sudan (south), Uganda (north), Central African Republic (Collins & Larsen, in Larsen, 1995a).

Habitat:

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food:

Rhus species (Anacardiaceae) (Ackery et al., 1995: 475). [Very doubtful].

Alaena unimaculosa Hawker-Smith, 1926
Alaena unimaculosa Hawker-Smith, 1926. Revue Zoologique Africaine 14: 237 (237-241).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sandoa, Belgian Congo”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba), Tanzania, Zambia.

Habitat: Ssp. auratiaca in Tanzania in rocky places in woodland and montane grassland, from 900 to 1950 m (Kielland, 1990).

Habits: Occurs in very localised colonies (Kielland, 1990).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Alaena unimaculosa unimaculosa Hawker-Smith, 1926
Alaena unimaculosa Hawker-Smith, 1926. Revue Zoologique Africaine 14: 237 (237-241).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “Sandoa, Belgian Congo”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Lualaba).
Alaena unimaculosa aurantiaca Butler, 1895
Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895: 262 (250-270). “Fwambo”.

Alaena unimaculosa aurantiaca. Male. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 25mm. Ilundangulu, 27K. W. Tabora, Tanzania, 1300m. 6.12.96. TCE/MH. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).

Alaena unimaculosa aurantiaca. Female. Left – upperside; right – underside. Wingspan: 26mm. Ilundangulu, 27K. W. Tabora, Tanzania, 1300m. 6.12.96. TCE/MH. (African Butterfly Research Institute, Nairobi).
Type locality: Tanzania: “Tabora, dans l’Ounyanyambé (Afrique orientale)”.

Distribution: Tanzania (south-west – Tabora Region), Zambia (north).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Mpanda (Kielland, 1990); Kigoma (Kielland, 1990); Ufipa (Kielland, 1990); Ilundangulu (ABRI).

Zambia – Mwinilunga; 100 km east of Solwezi; Kabompo River; Luanshya; Chingola; Chililabobwe; Mufulira; Bwingi Mfumu (Heath, et al., 2002).

Genus Ptelina Clench, 1965
In: Fox, et al., 1965. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society No. 19: 277 (438 pp.).

Type-species: Pentila carnuta Hewitson, by original designation.


A purely Afrotropical genus containing two species.

Ptelina carnuta (Hewitson, 1873)
Pentila carnuta Hewitson, 1873. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 10: 125 (122-125).

Type locality: Gabon: “Gaboon”.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria (south), Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo (Haut-Uele, Ituri, Tshopo, Equateur, Kinshasa, Sankuru, Lualaba), Uganda, Tanzania (north-west).

Specific localities:

Tanzania – Minziro Forest (very common at Kere Hill); Kikuru Forest; Munene Forest (Congdon and Collins, 1998).

Common name: Bordered buff.

Habitat: Forest, including secondary forest.

Habits: A common species that flutters around weakly in deep shade in the forest (Congdon & Collins, 1998). It is less localized than other poritiines and also appears to be non-gregarious, being encountered here and there as singles or couples (Larsen, 2005a). Both males and females feed, during the morning hours, at extrafloral nectaries of vine tendrils and bamboo (Callaghan, 1992). Up to four individuals, together with other liptenines and ants, were noted at these nectaries (Callaghan, 1992). Larsen (2005a) found specimens feeding from the extrafloral nectaries on shoots of plants belonging to the family Marantaceae.

Early stages:
Callaghan, 1992.

A female was observed ovipositing on leaf litter on the forest floor, five orange eggs being laid at about 15:30. The eggs were collected but did not hatch. The female (and other females collected subsequently) refused to lay eggs in captivity.


Larval food: Nothing published.
parva Kirby, 1887 (as sp. of Liptena). Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 362 (360-369). Cameroon: “Cameroons”. Treated as a synonym of P. carnuta (Hewitson, 1873) by Larsen, 2005a: 120.
kamitugensis Dufrane, 1945 (as sp. of Telipna). Bulletin et Annales de la Société Royale Entomologique de Belgique 81: 114 (90-143). Democratic Republic of Congo: “Kamituga”.

Ptelina subhyalina (Joicey & Talbot, 1921)
Telipna subhyalina Joicey & Talbot, 1921. Bulletin of the Hill Museum, Witley 1: 78 (40-166).

Type locality: Democratic Republic of Congo: “N. Ituri Valley, E. of Epula River between Penghe and Irumu”.

Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ituri, Equateur).

Known from only three specimens, the original type series of two females, and a single female from Ikela (Equateur) in the National Museum of Kenya.



Habitat: ?

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.

Note: Possibly only an aberration of P. carnuta (Hewitson) (Ackery et al., 1995: 476). Larsen (2005a) has inspected two specimens of this taxon in the ABRI collection and avers that P. subhyalina does appear to be a species distinct from P. carnuta.

Genus Pentila Westwood, 1851
In: Doubleday & Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 76 (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.).

Type-species: Tingra tropicalis Boisduval, by subsequent designation (Opinion 566, 1959. Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 20: 377-389.).


= Tingra Boisduval, 1847. In: Delegorgue, A., Voyage dans l’Afrique australe 2: 589 (585-602). Type-species: Tingra tropicalis Boisduval, by monotypy. [Suppressed for the purposes of the Law of Priority, Opinion 566, 1959 (Opinions and Declarations Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 20: 377-389).]
A purely Afrotropical genus containing 39 species. The genus was revised by Stempffer & Bennett in 1961. Most species are associated with specific ant-trees and populations are therefore localized; P. pauli appears to be an exception to this generalization (Larsen, 2005a).

Pentila abraxas (Westwood, 1851)
Liptena abraxas Westwood, 1851 in Doubleday and Westwood, [1846-52]. The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, London: pl. 77 [1851], 504 [1852] (1: 1-250 pp.; 2: 251-534 pp.). London.

Type locality: Ghana: “Ashanti”. [False locality]. The type was collected by the Wesleyan Mission, which was based in Ashanti. Larsen (2005a), however, avers that the type specimen is most probably from Sierra Leone, a country that was collected in by the Mission.

Distribution: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast (west).

Specific localities:

Ivory Coast – Man (Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a); Mount Peko (Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a); Yeale (Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a); Bereby (Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a); Tai (Warren-Gash teste Larsen, 2005a).

Common name: Three-dot pentila.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: Very scarce (Larsen, 2005a). Specimens fly slowly but high up (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
tripunctata Aurivillius, 1895 (as sp. of Pentila). Entomologisk Tidskrift 16: 197 (195-220, 255-268).

Pentila maculata (Kirby, 1887)
Tingra maculata Kirby, 1887. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 363 (360-369).

Pentila abraxas maculata (Kirby, 1887). Ackery et al., 1995.

Pentila maculata (Kirby, 1887). Larsen, 2005a: 124, stat. rev.

Type locality: Cameroon: “Cameroons”.

Distribution: Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Common name: Multi-spot pentila.

Habitat: Forest.

Habits: An uncommon species that may sometimes be found in communal roosts of up to 15 individuals (Larsen, 2005a). Mostly they fly high up, circling around tree trunks (Larsen, 2005a).

Early stages: Nothing published.

Larval food: Nothing published.
Pentila maculata maculata (Kirby, 1887)
Tingra maculata Kirby, 1887. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 19: 363 (360-369).

Pentila abraxas maculata (Kirby, 1887). Ackery et al., 1995.

Pentila maculata (Kirby, 1887). Larsen, 2005a: 124.
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