Topics: 1 Africa 2 Asia

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Gymnázium, Brno, Slovanské nám. 7, WORKBOOK – GEOGRAPHY 3


Subjekt: GEOGRAPHY 3

Teacher: Mgr. Tomáš Sargánek

Student: …………………………………………..

School year: …………../…………………………….


1 Africa

2 Asia

3 Solar System, Earth science

4 Athmosphere

4 Hydrosphere

5 Lithosphere

6 Biosphere

7 Pedosphere

1 Africa

1.1 Africa – map skills
Students will be able to locate in a blank map:
Map (

Blank map (

Velká Syrta (G.of Sarda), Malá Syrta(G.of Gabes), Džerba - Djerba, Gibraltarský průliv – Sraight of Gibraltar, Madeira, Kanárské ostrovy – Canary Islands, Kapverdy – Cape Verdes Islands, Bioko, o. Sv. Tomáše – Sao Tome, Princův o. – Island de Principe,o. Sv. Heleny – St Helena, mis Dobré naděje – Cape of , Střelkový mis, Madagaskar - Madagascar, Mosambický průliv- Mosambique Channel, Komory - Comoros, Seychely - Seychelles, Maskarény – Réunion, Martinigue - Mauritius, Pemba, Mafia, Zanzibar, Sokotra - Socotra, Bab – al Mandab, Adénský záliv – G of Aden, Sueský průplav – Suez Canal

Atlas (Džabal Tubkal – 4165m n.m. – Dlabal Toubkal), Sahara (znát příklady pouští), Arabská – Arabian Desert, Nubijská poušť – Nubian Desert

Tassili, Tibesti, Darfur, Fako,Aralská proláklina -155 – Aral basin, Riftové údolí – Great rift valley, Etiopská vysočina – Ethiopian Highlands, Konžská pánev – Congo Basin, Východoafrická vysočina – Eastafrican Highlands,Dračí hory - Drakensberg, Makgadikgadi, Luanda katanga – Katanga plate, Nabib, Kalahary - Kalahari

Řeky: Nil – Kagera (Modrý Nil – Blue Nile, Bílý Nil – White Nile, Asuánská nádrž – Lake Nasir), Niger, Kongo - Congo, Zambezi – Viktoriiny vdp. – Victoria falla, Limpopo, Oranje - Orange, vádí

Jezera: Čadské – lake Chad, Viktoriino (Ukerewe) – lake Victoria, Tanganika - Tanganyika, Malawi (Nasa),Tana, Turkana, bažiny Okawango – Okavango delta.

NP: Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Okavango, Msai mara

2 Asia
2.1.1 Map skills
Place and locate list of items below in a blank map. As help use map:

Map (

Blank map (

ISTAMBUL, ANKARA,IZMIR, Taurus mts, Pontine mts, Anatolia, Sea of Marmara,

Syria – Damascus, Syria Desert, Lebanon – Bejrut, Jordan – Amman,


Jerusalem, Tel – Aviv, Gaza strip, West Bank, Golan Hights, Dead Sea, Jordan river

Saudi Arabia

Nafud Desert, Rub Al Khali, Ryiadh, Mecca, Medina,


Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaiman,

Kuwait – Kuwait, Bahrain – Al Manamah, Qatar – Doha, Oman – Muscat, Yeman – Sana, Aden


Mesopotamia, Tigris, Euphrates, Bagdad, Basra, - Kurdistan


Zagros, Iranian Highlands, Tehran,

Afghanistan – Pamir, Hindu Kush, Kabul , Kandahár/ Qandahar
Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Aden, Bab el Mandab,

2.1.2 Theory

  • Oil-based ekonomy - Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses more than 20% of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC

  • Sharia - Sharia has been defined as:"Muslim or Islamic law, both civil and criminal justice as well as regulating individual conduct both personal and moral. The custom-based body of law based on the Quran and the religion of Islam. Because, by definition, Muslim states are theocracies, religious texts are law, the latter distinguished by Islam and Muslims in their application, as Sharia or Sharia law."[7]

  • Shari’a is the comprehensive body of Islamic laws that should regulate the public and private aspects of the lives of the Muslims. Shari’a is not a single code of laws; rather, it consists of four sources that legal experts refer to. The first two sources are the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and the other two complementary sources are consensus (ijma) and analogy (qiyas). Moreover, some schools of thought accept other additional sources as secondary sources where the first four primary sources allow.[5]

¨The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC; pronounced /oʊ.pɛk/, oh-pek) is a cartel of twelve countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC has maintained its headquarters in Vienna since 1965,[2] and hosts regular meetings among the oil ministers of its Member Countries. Indonesia withdrew its membership in OPEC in 2008 after it became a net importer of oil, but stated it would likely return if it became a net exporter in the world again.[3]



2.3.1 SOUTH EAST ASIA – map skills
Place and locate list of items below in a blank map. As help use map:


Blank map

Coast line:

Zadní Indie-Indochina Peninsula, Malajský poloostrov-Malaysian peninsula, Nikobary – Nicobar Is., Andamany – Andaman Is., Andamanské moře – Andaman Sea, Malacký půliv – St. of Malacaa, Thajský záliv – G. of. Thailand, Jihočínské moře – South China Sea,

Velké Sundy – Greater Sunda Islands (Sumatra - Sumatra, Jáva - Java, Borneo/Kalimantan - Borneo, Sulawesi/Celebes - Sulawesi,) Malé Sundy – Leader Sunda Is. (Bali, Flores, Sumba, Timor), Filipíny – Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao), Moluky - Molucca

Arakánské pohoří – Arakan mt., Anamaské pohoří – Annam Highland, Krakatau


Salwin, Iravadi, Menan, Mekong,

2.3.1 SOUTH EAST ASIA – theory
Key terms: Vietnam war, Pol Pot, total regime: military junta of Myanmar, Krakatoa (zone of subduction), rubber tree, terrace fields, irrigation monsoon agriculture, tourism
The Khmer Rouge (RUDÍ KMÉROVÉ) (Khmer: ) was the name given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, the totalitarian ruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, led by Pol Pot, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan. The regime led by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979 was known as the Democratic Kampuchea.

This organization is remembered primarily for its policy of social engineering and the genocide this caused. Its attempts at agricultural reform led to widespread famine, while its insistence on absolute self-sufficiency, even in the supply of medicine, led to the deaths of thousands from treatable diseases (such as malaria). Brutal and arbitrary executions and torture carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during purges of its own ranks between 1976 and 1978, are considered to have constituted a genocide.

Khmer Rouge means "Red Khmer" in French, the administrative language of colonial-era Cambodia (the Khmer people are the major ethnic group in Cambodia).[1] The term was originally coined by Prince Norodom Sihanouk, the Cambodian Head of State between 1955 and 1970, to describe the Cambodian left. Prior to their 1975 victory, the Khmer Rouge guerrilla forces were officially known as the Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces (CPNLAF). After the fall of Phnom Penh, they were renamed Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea (RAK). The clandestine Communist Party of Kampuchea itself constituted the secret leadership of the Khmer Rouge, as its official name was known only to a few insiders: it called itself the Angkar (the organization) and only announced officially its existence in 1977, almost two years after the establishment of Democratic Kampuchea. After the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime, the organization's remaining guerrilla forces became known as the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. In 1981 the party itself was dissolved, and substituted by the Party of Democratic Kampuchea.(

Saloth Sar (May 19, 1928[2][3][4][5][6] – April 15, 1998), better known as Pol Pot, (Khmer), was the leader of the Cambodian communist movement known as the Khmer Rouge[7] and was Prime Minister of Democratic Kampuchea from 1976–1979.

Pol Pot became leader of Cambodia in mid-1975.[2] During his time in power, Pol Pot imposed a version of agrarian collectivization, forcing city dwellers to relocate to the countryside to work in collective farms and forced labor projects, toward a goal of "restarting civilization" in a "Year Zero". The combined effects of slave labor, malnutrition, poor medical care, and executions resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1.7 to 2.5 million people, approximately 21% of the Cambodian population.[8]

In 1979, after the invasion of Cambodia by neighbouring Vietnam in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, Pol Pot fled into the jungles of southwest Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge government collapsed.[9] From 1979 to 1997 he and a remnant of the old Khmer Rouge operated from the border region of Cambodia and Thailand, where they clung to power and United Nations recognition as the rightful government of Cambodia.

Pol Pot died in 1998 while held under house arrest by the Ta Mok faction of the Khmer Rouge. Since his death, rumours that he was poisoned have persisted.(

rubber tree

The Pará rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), often simply called rubber tree, is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae and the most economically important member of the genus Hevea. It is of major economic importance because its sap-like extract (known as latex) can be collected and is the primary source of natural rubber.In the wilderness, the tree can reach a height of up to 144 feet (44 m). The white or yellow latex occurs in latex vessels in the bark, mostly outside the phloem. These vessels spiral up the tree in a right-handed helix which forms an angle of about 30 degrees with the horizontal, and can grow as high as 45 ft.In plantations, the trees are kept smaller, up to 78 feet (24 m) tall, so as to use most of the available carbon dioxide for latex production.[1]The tree requires a climate with heavy rainfall and without frost.

2.4. EAST ASIA: Japan, Korean peninsula
2.4.1 EAST ASIA: Japan, Korean peninsula – map skills
Place and locate list of items below in a blank map. As help use map:


Blank map:


Japonské moře – Sea of Japan, Východočínské moře – East China Sea, Žluté moře – Yellow Sea, Tichý oceán – Paccific Ocean,

Rjúkjú – Ryukyu Is. (Okinawa), Kjúšú - Kyushu, Šikoku - Shikoku, Honsú - Honshu, Hokkaidó - Hokkaido, Korejský polostrov – Korean peninsula, Korejský průliv – Korean Strait,

Fuji - San (3 776 m), Diamantové hory – Taebaek Mt.,


Pchjongjang - Pyongyang, Soul - Seoul, (Megalopolis of TOKAJDO: Tokio - Tokyo , Jokohama - Yokohama, Nagoja - Nagoya, Kobe - Kobe, Kjoto - Kyoto), Sapporo, Nagasaki, Hirošima - Hiroshima, Nagano.

2.4.2 EAST ASIA: Japan, Korean peninsula – theory
Key terms: natural hazards and risks (volcanos, earthquakes– subduction zone), ekocomy of Japan – „Japan miracle“, speed train, relationship – Notrh/South Korea (38. north paralel),
2.5 EAST ASIA – China
2.5.1 EAST ASIA: China – map skills
Taiwan – Taiwan(Formosa), Tchajwanský průliv – Taiwan Strait, Východočínské moře – East China Sea, Žluté moře – Yellow Sea , Huang He – Huang ho, Chang Jiang – Yangtze river, Xi Jiang – Xun Jiang, v.n. Tři soutěsky – Tree Gorges Dam, Amur - Amur

Džungarská pánev – Dzungarian Basin, Tarimská pánev – Tarim Basin, poušť Taklamakan – Takla Makan, Kumlun Shann – Kumlun Shan, Tibetská náhorní plošina – Tibet plateau, Himaláj - Himalay (Transhimaláj) Severočínská hornatina – North China Highland, Sečuánská pánev – Hechuan Basin, Jihočínská hornatina – South China Highland, Velká čínská nížina Great China lowland/Great Plain of China, Altaj - Altai, Gobi,

Peking - Beiijing, Šanghaj - Shanghai, Hongkong – Hong Kong, Macao - Macau, Kanton - Guangzhou, Nanjing, Lhasa
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric river dam that spans the Yangtze River in the town of Sandouping, located in the Yiling District of Yichang, at the Hubei province, China. It is the world's largest electricity-generating plant of any kind.[2]

The dam body was completed in 2006. Except for a ship lift, all of the originally planned components of the project were completed on October 30, 2008 when the 26th generator was brought into commercial operation. Currently, it contains 26 completed generators in the shore power plant, each with a capacity of 700 MW.[3] Six additional generators in the underground power plant are being installed and are not expected to become fully operational until around 2011. Coupling the dam's 32 main generators with 2 smaller generators (50 MW each) to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam will eventually reach 22,500 MW.[4] The project produces hydroelectricity, increases the river's navigation capacity, and reduces the potential for floods downstream by providing flood storage space. From completion until September 2009 the dam has generated 348.4 TWh of electricity, covering more than one third of its project cost.[5]

The project management and the Chinese state regard the project as an historic engineering, social and economic success,[6] with the design of state of the art large turbines,[7] and a move toward the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.[8] However, the dam has also flooded archaeological and cultural sites and displaced some 1.3 million people, and is causing significant ecological changes, including an increased risk of landslides.[9] The building of the dam has been a controversial topic both in China and abroad.(

2.5.2 EAST ASIA: China – theory

For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the Communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. China since the early 1990s has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.


1,338,612,968 (July 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 1

Han Chinese 91.5%, Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uyghur, Tujia, Yi, Mongol, Tibetan, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Korean, and other nationalities 8.5% (2000 census)

Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist, Christian 3%-4%, Muslim 1%-2%

note: officially atheist (2002 est.)
One child policy“

The one-child policy – “ literally "policy of birth planning") is the population control policy of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The Chinese government refers to it under the official translation of family planning policy.[1] It officially restricts the number of children married urban couples can have to one, although it allows exemptions for several cases, including rural couples, ethnic minorities, and parents without any siblings themselves.[2] A spokesperson of the Committee on the One-Child Policy has said that approximately 35.9% of China's population is currently subject to the one-child restriction.[3] The policy does not apply to the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, or Tibet.

The Chinese government introduced the policy in 1978 to alleviate social, economic, and environmental problems in China,[4] and authorities claim that the policy has prevented more than 250 million births from its implementation to 2000.[2] The policy is controversial both within and outside China because of the manner in which the policy has been implemented, and because of concerns about negative economic and social consequences. The policy has been implicated in an increase in forced abortions and female infanticide, and has been suggested as a possible cause behind China's gender imbalance.[5] Nonetheless, a 2008 survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center showed that over 76% of the Chinese population supports the policy.[6]

The policy is enforced at the provincial level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. Population and Family Planning Commissions (Chinese: 计划生育委员会) exist at every level of government to raise awareness about the issue and carry out registration and inspection work. Despite this policy, there are still many citizens that continue to have more than one child.[7]

China's National Population and Family Planning Commission has said that the policy will remain in place for at least another decade. (


Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)

Administrative units:

23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural)

provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan)

autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet)

municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin

note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong 1997 (UK) and Macau 1999 (Portug)


China's economy during the past 30 years has changed from a centrally planned system that was largely closed to international trade to a more market-oriented economy that has a rapidly growing private sector and is a major player in the global economy. Reforms started in the late 1970s with the phasing out of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, the foundation of a diversified banking system, the development of stock markets, the rapid growth of the non-state sector, and the opening to foreign trade and investment. Annual inflows of foreign direct investment rose to nearly $108 billion in 2008. China has generally implemented reforms in a gradualist or piecemeal fashion. (

2.6.1 POST SOVIET COUNTRIES – Central Asia – map skills

Place and locate list of items below in a blank map. As help use map:


Blank map:


Kaspická nížina – Caspian Depression, Turánská nížina – Turan lowland, Kazašská plošina – Sarygarda upland, pouště Kyzylkum+Karakum, Fergamská kotlina – Bergam basin, Hindúkuš – Hindu Kush, Pamir - Pamirs, ŤAN ŠAN – Tian Shan,


Kaspické moře+KARABOGAZGOL – Kaspian Sea , Aralské jezero – Aral Sea, j. Balchaš - Balkhhash, Amudarja, Syrdarja, Karakulský kanál – Karakul Chanel,

2.6.2 POST SOVIET COUNTRIES – Central Asia – theory

Shrinking of Lake ARAL – cotton fields, Celina, Bajkonur, sheep breeding

The Aral Sea is an endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. The name roughly translates as "Sea of Islands", referring to more than 1,500 islands that once dotted its waters.

Once among the five largest lakes of the world with an area of 68,000 km2, the Aral Sea has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s after the rivers that fed it were diverted by Soviet Union irrigation projects. By 2007 it had declined to 10% of its original size, splitting into three lakes[2] – the North Aral Sea and the eastern and western basins of the once far larger South Aral Sea. By 2009, the south-eastern lake had disappeared and the south-western lake retreated to a thin strip at the extreme west of the former southern sea.[3] The maximum depth of the North Aral Sea is 42 metres (138 ft) (as of 2008).[1]The region's once prosperous fishing industry has been virtually destroyed, bringing unemployment and economic hardship. The Aral Sea region is also heavily polluted, with consequent serious public health problems. The retreat of the sea has reportedly also caused local climate change, with summers becoming hotter and drier, and winters colder and longer.[4]There is now an ongoing effort in Kazakhstan to save and replenish the North Aral Sea. As part of this effort, a dam project was completed in 2005; in 2008, the water level in this lake had risen by 12 metres from its lowest level in 2003.[1] Salinity has dropped, and fish are again found in sufficient numbers for some fishing to be viable. The outlook for the remnants of the South Aral Sea remains bleak.

Lake Aral Sea

Animation of lake ARAL shrinking

August 2009

2.7 POST SOVIET COUNTRIES – Caucasus region
2.7.1 POST SOVIET COUNTRIES – Caucasus region – map skills

Place and locate list of items below in a blank map. As help use map:


Blank map:
Landscape, waters, regions

Velý Kavkaz (Elbruz 5642 m n.m.) – Caucasus Mts, Malý Kavkaz – Lesser Causasus, Kura - Kür, Araks, jezero Sevan, regions: Osetie - Osetia, Abcházie - Abchazia, Náhorní Karabach – Nagorno Karabakh, Nachičevan - Nakhchivan, Čečensko - Chehenia, Ingušsko - Ingushetia, Dagestán - Dagestan

2.7.2 POST SOVIET COUNTRIES – Caucasus region – theory
Náhorní Karabach je území o rozloze 4400 km² v jihozápadním Ázerbájdžánu, z jehož cca 145 000 obyvatel je cca 95 % Arménů. Metropolí oblasti je Stepanakert/Chankendi. Arménie a Ázerbájdžán vedou o toto území dlouholetý spor, který v 90. letech 20. století vygradoval v regulérní válečný konflikt. V současné době se Náhorní Karabach nachází pod vojenskou kontrolou Arménie. Republiku, vyhlášenou místními Armény na území Karabachu a přilehlého koridoru k Arménii, mezinárodně nikdo neuznal

Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. The region is mostly mountainous and forested and has an area of 8,223 square kilometres (3,175 sq mi).

Most of the region is governed by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, an unrecognized, de facto independent state established on the basis of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast within the Azerbaijan SSR of the Soviet Union. The territory is internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, which has not exercised power over most of the region since 1991. Since the end of the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1994, representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group on the region's status.

Nachičevanská autonomní republika známá jako Nachičevan je vnitrozemská exkláva Ázerbájdžánu. Má rozlohu 5 500 km² a hraničí na severu s Arménií (221 km), na západě s Tureckem (9 km) a na jihu s Íránem (179 km). Hlavním městem je Nachičevan, kde se také nachází Nachičevanská státní univerzita.

The Nakhchivan Autonomous is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. The region covers 5,363 km² and borders Armenia (221 km) to the east and north, Iran (179 km) to the south and west, and Turkey (15 km) to the northwest. The capital is Nakhchivan City. (

2.8.1 POST SOVIET COUNTRIES – map skills

Place and locate list of items below in a blank map. As a help use map:

Blank map:


Barentsovo moře – Barents Sea, Bílé moře – White Sea, Nová země – Novaya Zemlya, Karské moře – Kara Sea, Severní země – Severnaya Zemlya, Moře Laptěvů – Lapte Sea, Novosibiřské ostrovy – New Siberian Islands, Čukotské moře – Chukot Sea, Čukotský poloo. – Chukot pen., Beringova úžina – Bering Strait, Kamčatský popoo. – Kamchatka pen., Ochotské moře – Okhotsk Sea, Sachalin - Sakhalin, Kurily – Kuril Isl.


Východoevropská nížina – European Plain, Kaspická nížina – Kaspian depression , Povolžská vrchovina – Volga heights, Středoruská vrchovina – Central Russian Height, Ural (Narodnaja 1895 m n.m.) – Ural Mts (Narodnaya), Velký Kavkaz (Elbrus 5642 m n.m.) – Caucasus Mts., Karelská jezerní plošina – Karelina lake plain, Západosibiřská rovina – West Siberian Plain, Středosibiřská vysočina – Central Siberian Plateau, Věrchojanského pohoří – Verkhoyansk Range, Černského pohoří – Chernski Range, Kolymského pohoří – Kolyma Range, Čukotské pohoří – Chukot range, Altaj, Jablonovyj chrebet – Yablonovyy Range, Stanovoj chrebet – Stanovy Chrbet, Středokamčatské pohoří (Ključevskaja 4750 m n.m.) – Sredinny Range.

Waters: Volha - Volga, Don - Don, Ural -Ural, Emba - Emba, Severní Dvina – North Dvina, Pečora - Pechora, Ladožské jezero – L. Ladoga, Oněžské jezero – L. Onega, Ob+Irtyš – Ob+Irtysh, Jenisej+Angara – Yenisey+Angara, Lena - Lena, Indigirka - Indigirka, Kolyma - Kolyma, Bajkal - Baikal

Moskva - Moscow, Petrohrad – St. Perersburg, Soči - Sochi, Niž. Novgorod – Nizhniy Novgorod , Kazaň – Kazan, Samara - Samara, Archangelsk - Arkhangelsk, Jekateringurg - Yekaterinburg, Čeljabinsk - Chelyabinsk, Magnitogorsk - Magnitogorsk, Omsk - Omsk, Novosibirsk - Novosibirsk, Irkutsk - Irkursk, Vladivostok - Vladivostok

You will be able to explain:

3.1 The Universe comprises everything perceived to exist physically, the entirety of space and time, and all forms of matter and energy. The term Universe may be used in slightly different contextual senses, denoting such concepts as the cosmos, the world, or Nature.

The word Universe is usually defined as encompassing everything. However, using an alternative definition, some cosmologists have speculated that the "Universe" composed of expanding space-as-we-know-it, is just one of many disconnected "universes", which are collectively called the multiverse[1]. For example, in the many-worlds hypothesis, new "universes" are spawned with every quantum measurement[citation needed]. These universes are usually thought to be completely disconnected from our own and therefore impossible to detect experimentally[who?]. Observations of older parts of the universe (which are far away) suggest that the Universe has been governed by the same physical laws and constants throughout most of its extent and history. However, in bubble universe theory, there may be an infinite variety of "universes" created in various ways, and perhaps each with different physical constants.

Throughout recorded history, several cosmologies and cosmogonies have been proposed to account for observations of the Universe. The earliest quantitative geocentric models were developed by the ancient Greeks, who proposed that the Universe possesses infinite space and has existed eternally, but contains a single set of concentric spheres of finite size – corresponding to the fixed stars, the Sun and various planets – rotating about a spherical but unmoving Earth. Over the centuries, more precise observations and improved theories of gravity led to Copernicus's heliocentric model and the Newtonian model of the Solar System, respectively. Further improvements in astronomy led to the realization that the Solar System is embedded in a galaxy composed of millions of stars, the Milky Way, and that other galaxies exist outside it, as far as astronomical instruments can reach. Careful studies of the distribution of these galaxies and their spectral lines have led to much of modern cosmology. Discovery of the red shift and cosmic microwave background radiation revealed that the Universe is expanding and apparently had a beginning.

Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction.[1] Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of the boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathematics one examines 'spaces' with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe although disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework.

Many of the philosophical questions arose in the 17th century, during the early development of classical mechanics. In Isaac Newton's view, space was absolute - in the sense that it existed permanently and independently of whether there were any matter in the space.[2] Other natural philosophers, notably Gottfried Leibniz, thought instead that space was a collection of relations between objects, given by their distance and direction from one another. In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant described space and time as elements of a systematic framework which humans use to structure their experience.

In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine non-Euclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat. According to Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, space around gravitational fields deviates from Euclidean space.[3] Experimental tests of general relativity have confirmed that non-Euclidean space provides a better model for the shape of space.

The Big Bang is the cosmological model of the initial conditions and subsequent development of the Universe that is supported by the most comprehensive and accurate explanations from current scientific evidence and observation.[1][2] As used by cosmologists, the term Big Bang generally refers to the idea that the Universe has expanded from a primordial hot and dense initial condition at some finite time in the past (best available measurements in 2009 suggest that the initial conditions occurred around 13.3 to 13.9 billion years ago),[3][4] and continues to expand to this day.


The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It has a diameter of about 1,392,000 kilometers (865,000 mi) (about 109 Earths), and its mass (about 2 × 1030 kilograms, 330,000 times that of Earth) accounts for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System; the remainder consists of the planets (including Earth), dwarf planets, satellites, small Solar System bodies and dust in orbit.[10] About three-quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen, while most of the rest is helium. Less than 2% consists of other elements, including iron, oxygen, carbon, neon, and others.

An illustration of the structure of the Sun:

1. Core
2. Radiative zone
3. Convective zone
4. Photosphere
5. Chromosphere
6. Corona
7. Sunspot
8. Granules
9. Prominence

A planet (from Greek πλανήτης, alternative form of πλάνης "wanderer") is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.[a][1][2]

Planets and dwarf planets of the Solar System. (Sizes to scale, distances not to scale)

The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science, mythology, and religion. The planets were originally seen by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of the gods. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System. This definition has been both praised and criticized, and remains disputed by some scientists

A galaxy is a massive, gravitationally bound system that consists of stars and stellar remnants, an interstellar medium of gas and dust, and an important but poorly understood component tentatively dubbed dark matter.[1][2] The name is from the Greek root galaxias [γαλαξίας], meaning "milky," a reference to the Milky Way galaxy. Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million[3] (107) stars up to giants with one trillion[4] (1012) stars, all orbiting the galaxy's center of mass. Galaxies may contain many multiple star systems, star clusters, and various interstellar clouds. The Sun is one of the stars in the Milky Way galaxy; the Solar System includes the Earth and all the other objects that orbit the Sun.

NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 17,000 parsecs in diameter and approximately 20 million parsecs distant

A comet is a relatively small, rocky, and icy mass in the Solar System, usually larger than a meteoroid,[citation needed] that, when it is close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma (a thin, fuzzy, temporary atmosphere), and sometimes also a tail, both because of the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei are loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles, ranging from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers across. Comets have been observed since ancient times and have historically been considered bad omens. The number visible to the naked eye averages to roughly one per year, though many of these are faint and unspectacular.[1] Particularly bright or notable examples are called "Great Comets".

Halley's Comet depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry which shows King Harold I being told of Halley's Comet before the Battle of Hastings in 1066

Comets have a wide range of different orbital periods, ranging from just a few years to hundreds of thousands of years. Some rare hyperbolic comets have been found by calculations in celestial mechanics to pass only once through the inner Solar System before being thrown out into interstellar space along hyperbolic trajectories.

Comet McNaught (C/2006 P1)

A meteoroid is a sand- to boulder-sized particle of debris in the Solar System. The visible path of a meteoroid that enters Earth's (or another body's) atmosphere is called a meteor, or colloquially a shooting star or falling star. If a meteor reaches the ground and survives impact, then it is called a meteorite. Many meteors appearing seconds or minutes apart are called a meteor shower. The root word meteor comes from the Greek meteōros, meaning "high in the air".

Willamette Meteorite discovered in the U.S. state of Oregon

Kepler's laws were discovered empirically, around 1605, by Johannes Kepler who found them by analyzing the astronomical observations of Tycho Brahe.[2] Almost a century later, Isaac Newton proved that relationships like Kepler's would apply exactly under certain ideal conditions approximately fulfilled in the solar system, as consequences of Newton's own laws of motion and law of universal gravitation, using classical Euclidean geometry.[3][4]

Kepler's laws are:

  1. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at a focus.

  2. A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.[1]

  3. The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

Illustration of Kepler's three laws with two planetary orbits. (1) The orbits are ellipses, with focal points ƒ1 and ƒ2 for the first planetƒ1 and ƒ3 for the second planet. The Sun is placed in focal point ƒ1. (2) The two shaded sectors A1 and A2 have the same surface area and the time for planet 1 to cover segment A1 is equal to the time to cover segment A2. (3) The total orbit times for planet 1 and planet 2 have a ratio a13/2 : a23/2.


Because of the nonzero planetary masses and resulting perturbations, Kepler's laws apply only approximately and not exactly to the motions in the solar system.[3][5]

Voltaire's Eléments de la philosophie de Newton (Elements of Newton's Philosophy) was in 1738 the first publication to call them "laws".[6]

Kepler's laws and his analysis of the observations on which they were based, the assertion that the Earth orbited the Sun, proof that the planets' speeds varied, and use of elliptical orbits rather than circular orbits with epicycles—challenged the long-accepted geocentric models of Aristotle and Ptolemy, and generally supported the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus (although Kepler's ellipses likewise did away with Copernicus's circular orbits and epicycles).[2] Together with Newton's mathematical theories, they are part of the foundation of modern astronomy and physics. [3] after Isaac Newton showed[4] that relationships of similar form would apply exactly as consequences of the laws of motion and gravitation under certain ideal conditions (not exactly fulfilled in the solar system).

A 1610 portrait of Johannes Kepler by an unknown artist

Figure of the EARTH

Flat Earth

15th century adaptation of a T and O map. This kind of medieval mappa mundi illustrates only the reachable side of a round Earth, since it was thought that no one could cross a torrid clime near the equator to the other half of the globe.

The spherical Earth seen from Apollo 17.

The Flat Earth model is a view that the Earth's shape is a flat plane or disk. Various cultures have had conceptions of a flat Earth, such as Babylon, Ancient Egypt, pre-Classical Greece, pre-Classical India and pre-17th century China.Beginning from ancient Greek astronomy, the paradigm of a round (or more accurately, spherical) earth gradually spread around the world supplanting the older cosmological belief in a flat earth.]The false belief that medieval Christianity believed in a flat earth has been referred to as The Myth of the Flat Earth.[5] In 1945, it was listed by the Historical Association (of Britain) as the second of 20 in a pamphlet on common errors in history.[6] The myth that people of the Middle Ages believed that the Earth was flat only entered the popular imagination in the 19th century, thanks largely to the publication of Washington Irving's fantasy The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1828.Although the hypothesis of the flat Earth has long been generally dismissed, there are still occasional modern advocates of the hypothesis.

Spherical Earth

Medieval artistic representation of a spherical Earth - with compartments representing earth, air, and water (c. 1400).

The concept of a spherical Earth dates back to ancient Greek philosophy from around the 6th century BCE,[1] but remained a matter of philosophical speculation until the 3rd century BC when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the earth as a physical given. The Greek paradigm was gradually adopted, either directly or via later European science, by all major civilizations and world regions, becoming the dominant concept of modern times.[2][3][4][5] The final, practical demonstration of Earth's sphericity was achieved by Ferdinand Magellan's expedition's circumnavigation (1519−1521).[6]

The concept of a spherical Earth displaced earlier beliefs in a flat Earth: In early Mesopotamian mythology, the world was portrayed as a flat disk floating in the ocean and surrounded by a spherical sky,[7] and this forms the premise for early world maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus. Other speculations on the shape of Earth include a seven-layered ziggurat or cosmic mountain, alluded to in the Avesta and ancient Persian writings (see seven climes), or a wheel, bowl, or four-cornered plane alluded to in the Rigveda.[8]

As determined by modern instruments, a sphere approximates the Earth's shape to within one part in 300. An oblate ellipsoid shape with a flattening of 1/300 matches even more precisely. Recent measurements from satellites suggest that the Earth is, in fact, slightly pear-shaped

When a ship is at the horizon its lower part is invisible due to Earth's curvature. This was one of the first arguments favoring a round-Earth model.

Reference ellipsoid

In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically-defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body. Because of their relative simplicity, reference ellipsoids are used as a preferred surface on which geodetic network computations are performed and point coordinates such as latitude, longitude, and elevation are defined.


Map of the undulations of the geoid, in meters (based on the EGM96 gravity model and the WGS84 reference ellipsoid).[1]

The geoid is that equipotential surface which would coincide exactly with the mean ocean surface of the Earth, if the oceans were in equilibrium, at rest, and extended through the continents (such as with very narrow canals). According to C.F. Gauss, who first described it, it is the "mathematical figure of the Earth," a smooth but highly irregular surface that corresponds not to the actual surface of the Earth's crust, but to a surface which can only be known through extensive gravitational measurements and calculations. Despite being an important concept for almost two hundred years in the history of geodesy and geophysics, it has only been defined to high precision in recent decades, for instance by works of Petr Vaníček and others. It is often described as the true physical figure of the Earth, in contrast to the idealized geometrical figure of a reference ellipsoid.


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