This draft has only been discussed superficially

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75  Pyrolaceae (Draft: B.A. Yurtsev)

75.1  Pyrola L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 396.
The Pyrola rotundifolia aggregate (P. grandiflora, P. incarnata, P. rotundifolia)


(1) The races [species?] of this aggregate are not quite well demarcated, which has led some authors (e.g. Skvortsov 1980, 1981) to a broadest concept of P. rotundifolia, that can hardly be accepted. The aggregate needs a special critical revision. (Yurtsev)

(2) The order of taxa has been changed from Yurtsev's draft. (Elven)

75.1.1  Pyrola rotundifolia L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 396.



(1) The majority of authors do not report P. rotundifolia s. str. [subsp. rotundifolia] from the Arctic. The indication of it for the Kanin-Pechora area (Kobeleva 1977) could refer to a form of P. grandiflora Rad. with lighter corolla and more robust scapes. Hultén & Fries (1986), on the map of the range of P. rotundifolia subsp. rotundifolia, shade all the woodland areas of northeastern Europe along with the valley of the Yenissei River up to 69N (dots are not given). (Yurtsev)

(2) Subsp. rotundifolia approaches but does not reach the Arctic in Norway. If it is included, a report of 2n=46 (Knaben & Engelskjøn 1968 Norw) should be added. The deviating plants of 'P. grandiflora' from Kanin-Pechora should be checked against subsp. norvegica as the characters mentioned above are such that separate between this race from P. grandiflora. (Elven)  Pyrola rotundifolia L. subsp. norvegica (Knaben) Hämet-Ahti (1984), Ann. Bot. Fenn. 21: 209.

B P. norvegica Knaben (1943), Bergens Mus. Årb., Naturv. R. 6: 5.

S P. grandiflora Radius subsp. norvegica (Knaben) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1961), Bot. Not. 114: 54.

2n= 46 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list five Scandinavian counts.



(1) The status of subsp. norvegica should be discussed. It differs from P. rotundifolia s. str. in several assumed independently inherited characters: (a) blade/petiole ratio, (b) blade shape, (c) shape of stem leaves, (d) bract/pedicel ratio, (e) base of calyx, (f) shape of calyx lobes, (g) size of anthers and especially of pore, and (h) absence/presence of a disc beneath stigma). The variation seems to be discontinuous in several of these (c, d, f, g, h). These characters, and their assumed independence, are much more than used for recognition of species in many other cases throughout the checklist draft. Intermediates are rare, if they occur at all. Its relations to P. grandiflora might be closer than to P. rotundifolia s. str. The reduction of P. norvegica to a subspecies of P. rotundifolia might be an expression of ignorance (exemplified e.g. by Elven in Lid & Lid 1994). (Elven)

(2) We agree that this entity is best treated as a species (again). (Yurtsev & Elven)

WARNING! Might be raised to species level (again).
75.1.2  Pyrola incarnata (DC.) Freyn (1902), Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 52: 401.

B P. rotundifolia L. var. (b) incarnata DC. (1839), Prodr. 7: 773.

S P. asarifolia Michx. [(1803), Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 251] subsp. incarnata (DC.) E. Murr. (1982), Kalmia 12: 24; P. rotundifolia L. subsp. incarnata (DC.) Kryl. ***; P. asarifolia Michx. var. purpurea (Bunge) Fern. (1950), Manual 1112.

2n= 46 (2x).

2nD Zhukova & Tikhonova (1973); Zhukova et al. (1973 Sib).



(1) Penetrates up to zone C in North Chukotka. (Yurtsev)

(2) This entity seems to be less clearly delimited from P. asarifolia s. str. than subsp. norvegica is from P. rotundifolia s. str. Its status should be re-evaluated. It should also be checked whether P. asarifolia s. str. occurs in the Arctic. Hultén (1968) maps it from one site in Brooks Range (N Alaska), probably within the Arctic as we have delimited it. The plants in the Hudson Bay area need confirmation; neither taxon is indicated from here by Hultén (1958) but Porsild & Cody maps P. asarifolia s. lat. from the area and Scoggan (1978) reports P. asarifolia s. lat. from York Factory, northernmost Ontario (both within the Arctic) and Ungava Bay.

Löve & Löve (1975) report this race (as P. rotundifolia subsp. incarnata) from Europe and Russian Far East and as replaced by P. rotundifolia subsp. asarifolia in Siberia, (Far East) and NW America. Opinions? (Elven)

(3) Possibly best treated as a subspecies of P. asarifolia. (Yurtsev & Elven)

WARNING! Will probably be reduced to a subspecies of P. asarifolia in the next version if good arguments for status as species are not forthcoming.
75.1.3  Pyrola grandiflora Radius (1821), Diss. 27.

S P. rotundifolia L. var. grandiflora (Rad.) Fern. ex Khokhr. (1991), Sosud. Rast. Sovet. Dal'nego Vostoka 5: 162.

2n= (1) 24. (2) 46 (2x).

2nD (1) ? (2) Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, many as arctic.



(1) The maximum northward advance of the species is recorded in North Greenland, zone B. (Yurtsev)

(2) The 2n=24 chromosome count included in Yurtsev's draft is strongly aberrant and improbable as the basic number in the genus is assumed to be x=23. It will be omitted if not documented. (Elven)

75.1.4  Pyrola chlorantha Sw. (1810), Kungl. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl., n. s., 31: 190.


2n= 46 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list three non-arctic counts.



(1) Seems to reach the Arctic in the Ungava Peninsula area and perhaps in the Mackenzie River delta (Scoggan 1978, Porsild & Cody 1980).

(2) Why does Scoggan (1978) use the name P. virens Schweigg. for this species, with P. chlorantha Sw. as a synonym? There is a P. virens Koerte that is considered a synonym of it. (Elven)
75.1.5  Pyrola minor L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 396.


2n= 46 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, some as arctic.



(1) Low arctic populations with compact spikes of few flowers (white to reddish) can be referred to as var. conferta (Fisch. ex Cham. & Schltdl.) Khokhr. (1991), Sosud. Rast. Sovet. Dal'nego Vostoka 5: 161 [basionym: P. conferta Fisch. ex Cham. & Schltdl. [1826-1836] ***, or acc. to Index kewensis: Fisch. ex Ledeb. (1846), Fl. Ross. 2: 930] (Khohkhryakov & Mazurenko 1991). (Yurtsev)

(2) Gunvor Knaben also became interested in the south/north variation in this species in her last years. She believed that she found some taxonomic important variation, but her results were never published. We need supporting evidence of discontinuity before we formally should accept zonal taxa here but a note is very relevant. (Elven)

75.2  Orthilia Raf. (1840), Autik. Bot. 103.

S Ramischia Opiz ex Garcke (1858), Fl. N. Mitt. Deutschland, ed. 4, 32.

The Orthilia secunda aggregate (O. obtusata, O. secunda)


(1) The two taxa proposed by Yurtsev as full species are problematic for three reasons. (a) They are sympatric through much of their ranges, probably a major reason for Yurtsev when he recognizes them as species. (b) They do not seem to be ecotypical; at least in Alaska they occur in the same types of habitats. (c) At least in Alaskan material they intergrade; of the material collected in 1998 and 2000 more than a third is difficult to place in any of them based on the criteria given in the relevant floras. The differential characters seem to be mainly or entirely quantitative and overlapping. I would prefer level of subspecies. If we keep them as species, we need to add an aggregate with a full comment, as done here. (Elven)

(2) I much prefer treatment as two specues. (Yurtsev)

75.2.1  Orthilia secunda (L.) House (1921), Amer. Midl. Naturalist 7: 134.

B Pyrola secunda L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 396.

S O. secunda (L.) House subsp. secunda; Ramischia secunda (L.) Garcke (1858), Fl. N. Mitt. Deutschland, ed. 4, 222.

2n= 38 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list several counts, one Icelandic.


75.2.2  Orthilia obtusata (Turcz.) Hara *** [(Turcz.) Jurtz. (1978), Arkt. Fl. Obl. 95]

B Pyrola secunda L. var. obtusata Turcz. (1846), Fl. Baic.-Dahur. 2: 213.

S O. secunda (L.) House subsp. obtusata (Turcz.) Böcher (1961), Bot. Tidsskr. 57: 31.

2n= 38 (2x).

2nD Löve & Löve (1975) list four counts, three as arctic from NE As, N Am and Grl.



(1) The set of zones is different in different sectors, the widest in East Siberia - Russian Far East - from the boreal (taiga) to zone C. (Yurtsev)

(2) The Orthilia combination seems to have been made by Hara before Yurtsev. Please check. (Elven)

WARNING! Might be reduced to a subspecies of O. secunda.

75.3  Moneses Salisb. ex Gray (1821), Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 396.
75.3.1  Moneses uniflora (L.) A. Gray (1848), Manual 273.

B Pyrola uniflora L. (1753), Sp. Pl. 397.


2n= (1) 24. (2) 26 (2x). (3) 32.

2nD (1) Wcislo in Skalinska et al. (1971). (2) Löve & Löve (1975) list four non-arctic counts. (3) Krogulevich & Rostovtseva (1984 - near the polar woodland line).



(1) The record from eastern Chukchi Peninsula (Hultén 1968) has not been confirmed by intensive recent floristic studies in Chukotka. A few new records from Beringian Alaska are all from spruce riparian groves in the forest-tundra ecotone. (Yurtsev)

(2) The 2n=32 chromosome count is strongly aberrant as the basic number is assumed to be x=13. The 2n=24 count might be aneuploid or a miscount. (Elven)

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