The Scope of Open Source Licensing




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Table 7: Regression analysis of characteristics of projects with and without restrictive license provisions. The sample consists of 38,610 projects included in the SourceForge database in May 2002. The dependent variable is a dummy denoting whether the project has restrictive licensing provisions. Because some projects are licensed under multiple licenses, the projects are separated as to whether all licenses are restrictive or not, and whether some licenses are restrictive or not. The independent variables include dummy variables capturing various features of the open source projects. All regressions employ probit specifications.





Dependent Variable:




All Licenses Restrictive?

Some Licenses Restrictive?




Coefficient

Standard Error

Coefficient

Standard Error

Development Stage













Pre-Alpha

-0.04

0.03

0.001

0.03

Alpha

-0.07

**0.03

-0.03

0.03

Beta

-0.04

0.03

0.003

0.03

Production/Stable

-0.12

***0.03

-0.09

**0.04

Mature

-0.33

***0.08

-0.25

***0.09

Environment













X11

0.18

***0.04

0.19

***0.04

MS Windows

-0.05

0.04

-0.04

0.04

Other

-0.22

***0.04

-0.18

***0.04

Internet

-0.04

0.03

-0.02

0.03

No Input/Output

-0.18

***0.04

-0.14

***0.04

Cocoa (MacOS)

-0.07

0.11

-0.08

0.11

Handhelds/PDAs

-0.01

0.21

-0.02

0.21

Intended Audience













End Users/Desktop

0.15

***0.03

0.18

***0.03

Developers

-0.07

***0.03

-0.05

0.03

System Administrators

0.02

0.03

0.05

0.03

Natural Language













French

0.07

0.05

0.13

**0.06

Spanish

0.17

**0.07

0.18

**0.08

Japanese

-0.44

***0.11

-0.30

***0.11

German

0.27

***0.05

0.26

***0.05

Russian

0.01

0.10

0.05

0.11

Operating System













POSIX

0.14

***0.04

0.17

***0.04

Microsoft

-0.07

**0.04

-0.05

0.04

OS/2

-0.31

0.25

-0.41

0.26

MacOS

-0.34

***0.07

-0.34

***0.07

BeOS

-0.24

*0.12

-0.28

**0.13

OS Independent

-0.06

*0.04

-0.04

0.04

PDA Systems

0.09

0.27

0.27

0.30

Topic













Communications

0.03

0.04

0.03

0.04

Security

-0.11

*0.06

-0.04

0.07

Software Dvlpmt.

-0.20

***0.04

-0.15

***0.04

Desktop Environ.

-0.09

0.06

-0.07

0.07

Text Editors

-0.08

0.07

-0.06

0.07

Database

0.08

0.05

0.07

0.05

Education

-0.15

**0.07

-0.13

*0.07

Internet

-0.07

**0.03

-0.06

*0.03

Scientific/Enging.

0.10

**0.05

0.09

*0.05

Multimedia

0.01

0.04

0.05

0.04

Office/Business

0.01

0.06

0.06

0.06

System Tasks

-0.03

0.03

0.01

0.04

Printing

-0.33

*0.17

-0.31

*0.18

Terminals

0.12

0.14

0.19

0.15

Games, et al.

0.06

0.04

0.09

**0.04

Constant

0.96

***0.05

0.86

***0.05

χ2-statistic

587.86




527.80




p-Value

0.000




0.000




Log Likelihood

-7,168.42




-6,733.77




Number of Observations

15,509




15,509





Definitions:

* = Significant at the 10% confidence level.

** = Significant at the 5% confidence level.

*** = Significant at the 1% confidence level.


In each regression, the following variables are omitted: the dummy variables denoting projects in the planning stage, those operating in a Console (Text) environment, those geared towards other audiences, those whose natural language is English, those geared toward an other operating system, and those with an other topic.

Table 8: Regression analysis of characteristics of projects with and without various license provisions. The sample consists of 38,610 projects included in the SourceForge database in May 2002. The dependent variable indexes denoting whether the project has various licensing provisions. In the first regression, the index takes on the value 4 if all licenses are highly restrictive; 3 if some are highly restrictive; 2 if all licenses are restrictive; 1 if some are restrictive; and 0 otherwise. In the second regression, the index takes on the value 2 if all licenses are highly restrictive; 1 if all are restrictive; and 0 otherwise. The independent variables include dummy variables capturing various features of the open source projects. All regressions ordered logit specifications.





Dependent Variable:




Five-Part Index

Three-Part Index




Coefficient

Standard Error

Coefficient

Standard Error

Development Stage













Pre-Alpha

-0.06

0.05

-0.08

*0.05

Alpha

-0.09

*0.05

-0.12

**0.05

Beta

-0.10

**0.05

-0.12

**0.05

Production/Stable

-0.21

***0.05

-0.24

***0.05

Mature

-0.51

***0.13

-0.56

***0.13

Environment













X11

0.14

**0.06

0.14

**0.06

MS Windows

-0.10

0.06

-0.11

*0.06

Other

-0.46

***0.05

-0.47

***0.05

Internet

-0.05

0.05

-0.05

***0.05

No Input/Output

-0.40

***0.06

-0.42

***0.06

Cocoa (MacOS)

-0.14

0.16

-0.11

0.16

Handhelds/PDAs

-0.26

0.29

-0.23

0.29

Intended Audience













End Users/Desktop

0.49

***0.04

0.46

***0.04

Developers

-0.37

***0.04

-0.38

***0.05

System Administrators

0.21

***0.05

0.19

***0.05

Natural Language













French

0.16

*0.08

0.14

*0.08

Spanish

0.33

***0.11

0.33

***0.11

Japanese

-0.64

***0.16

-0.74

***0.16

German

0.38

***0.07

0.39

***0.07

Russian

0.13

0.15

0.08

0.15

Operating System













POSIX

0.29

***0.05

0.26

***0.05

Microsoft

-0.22

***0.06

-0.22

***0.06

OS/2

-0.24

0.42

-0.20

0.42

MacOS

-0.58

***0.10

-0.59

***0.10

BeOS

-0.43

**0.18

-0.41

**0.19

OS Independent

-0.21

***0.05

-0.22

***0.05

PDA Systems

0.39

0.42

0.31

0.42

Topic













Communications

-0.003

0.05

0.0004

0.05

Security

-0.13

0.10

-0.17

0.10

Software Dvlpmt.

-0.51

***0.05

-0.52

***0.05

Desktop Environ.

-0.21

**0.09

-0.23

**0.09

Text Editors

-0.05

0.11

-0.05

0.11

Database

0.04

0.07

0.04

0.07

Education

-0.18

*0.11

-0.18

*0.11

Internet

-0.13

***0.05

-0.13

***0.05

Scientific/Enging.

-0.07

0.07

-0.06

0.07

Multimedia

-0.19

***0.06

-0.19

***0.06

Office/Business

-0.03

0.09

-0.05

0.09

System Tasks

-0.04

0.05

-0.06

0.05

Printing

-0.70

***0.26

-0.70

***0.26

Terminals

0.03

0.21

0.004

0.21

Games, et al.

0.12

*0.06

0.10

*0.06

χ2-statistic

1,393.70




1,352.98




p-Value

0.000




0.000




Log Likelihood

-13,064.97




-11,662.26




Number of Observations

15,509




15,509





Definitions:

* = Significant at the 10% confidence level.

** = Significant at the 5% confidence level.

*** = Significant at the 1% confidence level.


In each regression, the following variables are omitted: the dummy variables denoting projects in the planning stage, those operating in a Console (Text) environment, those geared towards other audiences, those whose natural language is English, those geared toward an other operating system, and those with an other topic.
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