The Scope of Open Source Licensing




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Table 5: Tabulation of characteristics of projects with and without restrictive license provisions. The sample consists of 38,610 projects included in the SourceForge database in May 2002. The table summarizes the percentage of projects with and without restrictive licensing provisions, classified along a number of dimensions. Because some projects are licensed under multiple licenses, the projects are separated as to whether all licenses are restrictive or not, and whether some licenses are restrictive or not. Some projects may be classified into multiple categories. The significance level from a χ2-test is reported in each case where the null hypothesis of no difference is rejected.





All Licenses Restrictive?

Some Licenses Restrictive?




Yes

No

Yes

No

Development Stage













Planning

31.6

***29.6

31.7

***29.0

Pre-Alpha

21.5

*20.3

21.6

***19.8

Alpha

18.9

19.8

19.0

19.7

Beta

22.2

22.7

22.3

22.2

Production/Stable

16.5

***19.5

16.6

***19.0

Mature

1.5

***3.1

1.6

***2.8

Environment













Console (Text)

30.2

***34.6

30.6

***33.3

X11

31.2

***21.3

31.1

***20.6

MS Windows

23.7

24.6

23.7

24.3

Other

12.3

***18.3

12.6

***17.7

Internet

30.7

***33.1

30.7

***33.3

No Input/Output

9.8

***12.8

10.0

12.3

Cocoa (MacOS)

0.9

***1.4

0.9

***1.4

Handhelds/PDAs

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Intended Audience













End Users/Desktop

58.2

***46.3

58.1

***45.6

Developers

61.8

***73.1

62.2

***72.5

System Administrators

27.5

27.7

27.7

26.6

Other

14.0

14.6

14.1

14.0

Natural Language













English

95.6

***97.1

95.7

***97.1

French

5.9

***4.7

5.9

***4.4

Spanish

3.3

***2.3

3.3

***2.2

Japanese

0.9

***1.9

0.9

***1.7

German

10.1

***5.7

10.0

***5.6

Russian

1.2

*1.6

1.3

1.6

Operating System













POSIX

59.5

***49.0

59.6

***47.2

Microsoft

27.9

***30.7

28.0

***30.4

OS/2

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

MacOS

3.0

***5.7

3.1

***5.7

BeOS

0.8

***1.4

0.8

***1.5

OS Independent

35.1

***43.4

35.2

***44.0

Other

1.8

***2.9

1.9

***2.5

PDA Systems

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

Topic













Communications

16.3

*15.2

16.3

15.2

Security

3.1

**3.7

3.1

3.4

Software Dvlpmt.

15.8

***25.5

16.0

***25.5

Desktop Environ.

4.8

***3.4

4.8

***3.3

Text Editors

2.8

3.2

2.8

3.1

Database

6.8

7.2

6.8

7.3

Education

3.1

3.5

3.1

*3.6

Internet

23.5

***26.1

23.6

***26.2

Scientific/Enging.

8.6

**7.5

8.5

*7.7

Multimedia

12.0

***10.0

12.0

***9.8

Office/Business

5.3

**4.6

5.3

**4.5

System Tasks

19.8

20.1

20.0

19.0

Printing

0.5

*0.7

0.5

0.6

Terminals

0.8

0.6

0.8

0.6

Other

2.9

***3.8

2.9

***3.9

Games, et al.

15.9

***12.7

15.8

***12.7


Definitions:

* = Significant at the 10% confidence level.



** = Significant at the 5% confidence level.

*** = Significant at the 1% confidence level.

Table 6: Regression analysis of characteristics of projects with and without highly restrictive license provisions. The sample consists of 38,610 projects included in the SourceForge database in May 2002. The dependent variable is a dummy denoting whether the project has highly restrictive licensing provisions. Because some projects are licensed under multiple licenses, the projects are separated as to whether all licenses are highly restrictive or not, and whether some licenses are highly restrictive or not. The independent variables include dummy variables capturing various features of the open source projects. All regressions employ probit specifications.





Dependent Variable:




All Licenses Highly Restrictive?

Some Licenses Highly Restrictive?




Coefficient

Standard Error

Coefficient

Standard Error

Development Stage













Pre-Alpha

-0.06

*0.03

-0.01

0.03

Alpha

-0.07

**0.03

-0.02

0.03

Beta

-0.09

***0.03

-0.04

0.03

Production/Stable

-0.15

***0.03

-0.11

***0.03

Mature

-0.34

***0.08

-0.28

***0.08

Environment













X11

0.05

0.03

0.10

***0.04

MS Windows

-0.07

*0.04

-0.07

*0.04

Other

-0.32

***0.03

-0.30

***0.03

Internet

-0.03

0.04

-0.02

0.03

No Input/Output

-0.28

***0.04

-0.23

***0.04

Cocoa (MacOS)

-0.06

0.10

-0.15

0.10

Handhelds/PDAs

-0.21

0.19

-0.20

0.19

Intended Audience













End Users/Desktop

0.32

***0.03

0.37

***0.03

Developers

-0.24

***0.03

-0.18

***0.03

System Administrators

0.14

***0.03

0.16

***0.03

Natural Language













French

0.08

*0.05

0.11

***0.05

Spanish

0.18

***0.07

0.18

***0.07

Japanese

-0.46

***0.10

-0.38

***0.11

German

0.23

***0.04

0.19

***0.04

Russian

0.08

0.10

0.10

0.10

Operating System













POSIX

0.16

***0.03

0.21

***0.03

Microsoft

-0.15

***0.03

-0.15

***0.04

OS/2

-0.01

0.25

-0.04

0.26

MacOS

-0.36

***0.06

-0.32

***0.06

BeOS

-0.27

**0.12

-0.24

**0.12

OS Independent

-0.16

***0.03

-0.14

***0.03

PDA Systems

0.23

0.26

0.33

0.26

Topic













Communications

-0.01

0.03

-0.003

0.03

Security

-0.08

0.06

-0.06

0.06

Software Dvlpmt.

-0.40

***0.03

-0.36

***0.03

Desktop Environ.

-0.15

***0.06

-0.12

**0.06

Text Editors

-0.01

0.07

-0.01

0.07

Database

0.005

0.04

0.03

0.05

Education

-0.09

0.06

-0.10

*0.06

Internet

-0.08

***0.03

-0.08

**0.03

Scientific/Enging.

-0.08

*0.04

-0.06

0.04

Multimedia

-0.16

***0.04

-0.12

***0.04

Office/Business

-0.04

0.05

-0.001

0.05

System Tasks

-0.04

0.03

0.01

0.03

Printing

-0.44

***0.17

-0.43

**0.17

Terminals

-0.03

0.13

0.09

0.14

Games, et al.

0.05

0.04

0.07

*0.04

Constant

0.80

***0.05

0.72

***0.05

χ2-statistic

1,580.35




1,494.92




p-Value

0.000




0.000




Log Likelihood

-8,580.97




-8,141.81




Number of Observations

15,509




15,509





Definitions:

* = Significant at the 10% confidence level.

** = Significant at the 5% confidence level.

*** = Significant at the 1% confidence level.


In each regression, the following variables are omitted: the dummy variables denoting projects in the planning stage, those operating in a Console (Text) environment, those geared towards other audiences, those whose natural language is English, those geared toward an other operating system, and those with an other topic.
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