The Scope of Open Source Licensing




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Table 2: Characteristics of the SourceForge sample. The table summarizes percentage of projects classified along a number of dimensions of the 38,610 projects included in the SourceForge database in May 2002. Panel A presents the distribution for the entire sample; Panel B for the subset of 9,257 observations where SourceForge has data on software contributions. Some projects may be classified into multiple categories.


Panel A: Percentage Distribution of Entire Sample

Development Stage

Environment

Intended Audience

Natural Language

Operating System

Topic

Planning

31.8

Console (Text)

30.7

End Users/Desktop

55.8

English

95.8

POSIX

57.1

Communications

16.2

Pre-Alpha

21.3

X11

29.0

Developers

64.1

French

5.7

Microsoft

28.6

Security

3.2

Alpha

18.9

MS Windows

24.1

System Administrators

24.5

Spanish

3.1

OS/2

0.2

Software Dvlpmt.

17.6

Beta

22.0

Other

13.5

Other

14.2

Japanese

1.1

MacOS

3.5

Desktop Environ.

4.5

Production/Stable

16.8

Internet

31.4







German

9.2

BeOS

0.9

Text Editors

2.8

Mature

1.8

No Input/Output

10.3







Russian

1.3

OS Independent

36.8

Database

6.9







Cocoa (MacOS)

1.0













Other

2.0

Education

3.2







Handhelds/PDAs

0.3













PDA Systems

0.1

Internet

24.0































Scientific/Enging.

8.3































Multimedia

11.5































Office/Business

5.1































System Tasks

19.8































Printing

0.5































Terminals

0.7































Other

3.1































Games, et al.

15.4

Panel B: Percentage Distribution of Sample with Activity Data

Development Stage

Environment

Intended Audience

Natural Language

Operating System

Topic

Planning

8.1

Console (Text)

32.7

End Users/Desktop

53.1

English

96.7

POSIX

57.9

Communications

15.3

Pre-Alpha

12.4

X11

30.2

Developers

66.5

French

5.4

Microsoft

29.8

Security

3.6

Alpha

22.0

MS Windows

25.1

System Administrators

28.5

Spanish

2.9

OS/2

0.3

Software Dvlpmt.

21.2

Beta

36.2

Other

13.1

Other

12.6

Japanese

1.2

MacOS

3.7

Desktop Environ.

5.1

Production/Stable

32.0

Internet

27.9







German

8.7

BeOS

1.0

Text Editors

3.4

Mature

3.3

No Input/Output

10.6







Russian

1.7

OS Independent

36.4

Database

7.1







Cocoa (MacOS)

1.2













Other

1.9

Education

2.7







Handhelds/PDAs

0.3













PDA Systems

0.2

Internet

24.1































Scientific/Enging.

9.5































Multimedia

14.3































Office/Business

4.6































System Tasks

20.4































Printing

0.9































Terminals

0.9































Other

2.4































Games, et al.

12.2





Intended Audience




End Users/




System







Desktop

Developers

Administrators

Other

Communications

13.3%

9.2%

13.5%

11.6%

Security

1.8%

1.9%

5.0%

2.3%

Software Dvlpmt.

4.9%

18.4%

6.8%

7.5%

Desktop Environ.

4.7%

2.5%

1.9%

2.0%

Text Editors

2.3%

2.3%

1.2%

1.5%

Database

4.2%

5.4%

6.2%

4.5%

Education

2.9%

1.8%

1.3%

4.8%

Internet

14.5%

17.3%

25.2%

18.3%

Scientific/Enging.

5.9%

6.3%

1.3%

10.2%

Multimedia

10.2%

7.5%

2.2%

6.6%

Office/Business

4.9%

2.9%

3.0%

4.8%

System Tasks

11.6%

13.0%

27.3%

11.3%

Printing

0.5%

0.3%

0.4%

0.3%

Terminals

0.6%

0.5%

0.8%

0.5%

Other

2.8%

1.9%

1.3%

3.5%

Games, et al.

14.7%

8.7%

2.6%

10.2%
Table 3: Cross-tabulation of intended audience and project topic. The table summarizes the distribution of projects classified along two dimensions of the 38,610 projects included in the SourceForge database in May 2002. Each column indicates the percentage of projects geared to each intended audience with that particular topic.
Table 4: Tabulation of characteristics of projects with and without highly restrictive license provisions. The sample consists of 38,610 projects included in the SourceForge database in May 2002. The table summarizes percentage of projects with and without highly restrictive licensing provisions, classified along a number of dimensions. Because some projects are licensed under multiple licenses, the projects are separated as to whether all licenses are highly restrictive or not, and whether some licenses are highly restrictive or not. Some projects may be classified into multiple categories. The significance level from a χ2-test is reported in each case where the null hypothesis of no difference is rejected.





All Licenses Highly Restrictive?

Some Licenses Highly Restrictive?




Yes

No

Yes

No

Development Stage













Planning

32.2

***28.9

32.4

***28.1

Pre-Alpha

21.7

**20.3

21.8

***20.0

Alpha

18.6

***20.1

18.8

**19.8

Beta

21.8

***23.5

22.0

**23.3

Production/Stable

16.3

***18.8

16.5

***18.6

Mature

1.4

***2.7

1.5

***2.6

Environment













Console (Text)

30.3

***32.8

31.0

31.3

X11

31.2

***24.7

31.6

***22.9

MS Windows

22.7

***26.5

22.9

***26.5

Other

10.9

***19.5

11.4

***19.4

Internet

31.2

31.0

30.9

31.9

No Input/Output

9.5

12.5

9.8

12.1

Cocoa (MacOS)

0.9

***1.3

0.9

***1.4

Handhelds/PDAs

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.4

Intended Audience













End Users/Desktop

62.3

***42.0

62.0

***40.2

Developers

57.3

***78.5

58.3

***78.4

System Administrators

29.5

***23.3

29.6

***22.2

Other

14.7

***12.8

14.8

***12.2

Natural Language













English

95.4

***97.1

95.5

***97.2

French

6.0

***4.8

6.0

***4.7

Spanish

3.5

***2.4

3.4

***2.3

Japanese

0.8

***1.7

0.9

***1.6

German

10.4

***6.6

10.2

***6.5

Russian

1.2

*1.5

1.3

1.5

Operating System













POSIX

61.3

***48.9

61.6

***46.6

Microsoft

27.0

***31.6

27.2

***31.6

OS/2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

MacOS

2.8

***5.1

2.9

***5.2

BeOS

0.7

***1.4

0.8

***1.4

OS Independent

33.1

***44.8

33.1

***46.1

Other

1.8

***2.5

1.9

2.2

PDA Systems

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

Topic













Communications

17.0

***14.1

16.9

***14.1

Security

3.2

3.1

3.3

2.9

Software Dvlpmt.

12.2

***29.6

12.8

***30.3

Desktop Environ.

4.9

***3.9

4.9

***3.7

Text Editors

2.8

3.0

2.8

3.0

Database

6.6

***7.7

6.6

***7.7

Education

3.3

*2.9

3.3

3.0

Internet

24.1

23.9

23.9

24.4

Scientific/Enging.

7.9

***9.3

8.0

***9.4

Multimedia

11.4

12.0

11.5

11.7

Office/Business

5.5

***4.4

5.5

***4.3

System Tasks

20.4

***18.6

20.8

***17.4

Printing

0.4

**0.7

0.5

0.6

Terminals

0.8

0.6

0.8

**0.5

Other

3.1

3.2

3.0

3.3

Games, et al.

16.6

***12.3

16.5

***12.1


Definitions:

* = Significant at the 10% confidence level.

** = Significant at the 5% confidence level.

*** = Significant at the 1% confidence level.


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