The naiapithec origin of humankind

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© Leonard I. Ibraev

(Yoshkar-Ola, Russia)




A new theory of human origin from Pliocene riverside apes -- Naiapithecs -- is put forward.

Contrary to Darwin our direct ancestors were not hairy, small brained and awkward strangers from the forests in the savannah and contrary to A. Hardy “Aquatic Apes Hypothesis” they were not seaside naked amphibious apes, but big-headed and biped riverside semi-aquatic, therefore semi-terrestrial apes (but not at all aquatic apes).

They were wandering in shallow water, often swimming and diving, gathered, caught and ate mollusks, fish, crawfish, frogs, tortoises, rodents, birds' eggs, riverside fruits and berries, roots and insects. Naiapithecs used cleaved pebbles, sticks and bones to hunt and open shells.

This theory is proved by morphology, odontology, primatology, etholjgy, ecology and paleontology data.

The explanation of many contradictions and uncertainties of anthropogenesis is given. Unsolved problems of the Simial theory of anthropogenesis are analyzed: reconstruction of human ancestors’ morphology and mode of life, causes of transition to the upright posture, loss of hair, exceptional spatial movement coordination, orthognatism, reduction of teeth and forelimbs, protruding of the nose and chin, development of lips, cheeks and biological preconditions for speech, the bigger closeness to the modern people of earlier hominoids that later ones and others.

The process of human formation – anatomy, language, thinking – in connection with the progress in tools and methods of production, consumption and socialization – is shown.
Paradoxes of anthropogenesis

The origin of people from anthropoid apes is confirmed by the similarity of their anatomy, physiology, ethology, immunology and their genetic structure, and also by bone remains of intermediate fossils - Pithecanthropus - and, in general, it is causes no doubts in the natural sciences.

But in spite of it, in the simial hypothesis of anthropogenesis there are some serious contradictions and riddles. Sometimes they are silenced at all, or used by anti-Darwinists, or don’t get sight, are not paid attention to.

The whole bone-muscle system of the man, his too large and inflexible legs and weak arms evidently are not fit to quickly climb trees by means of swinging (brachiating), and it testifies - contrary to Darwin - to impossibility of brachiation among the closest man's ancestors. Both the morphology of fossil Praezinjanthropes and footprints in petrified volcano ash of Laetoli (in Tanzania) prove the fact that the upright posture preceded labour by millions of years. Labour led to the upright posture perfection, but the upright posture is a precondition for freeing forelimbs for labour. The man acquired hands thanks to his standing on his feet. But why did our ape ancestors after descending from the trees to the land chose such a strange manner of locomotion though the quadrapedal one is easier, quicker and all modern terrestrial apes use?

Why are the forelimbs of people reduced and weak though the strong arms gain an evident advantage in hunting and labour, especially when using primitive tools? Why didn’t the chimpanzees and the extinct Australopithecs, who had the upright posture for millions of years, consumed meat and often used sticks and bones, turn to labour?

The acute Little Red Riding Hood was very much surprised to see the strange teeth of the Wolf--Granny. But much more surprising are human teeth. If our ancestors were hunters and ate meat, why our teeth and jaws are so weak to eat raw meat and the bowels are twice as long as those of a carnivore? Moreover already the Praezinjanthropus had diminished jaws, though they didn't use fire and could not soften meat with it.

What did human ancestors feed on?

In danger birds fly up into the air, ungulate animals run away, apes climb up trees or rocks. How could human ancestors, being so slow and having no weapons but miserable sticks and stones, resist beasts of prey? M.F. Nesturkh and B.F. Porshnev frankly admit that they cannot imagine it. B.F. Porshnev draws a highly fantastic picture: the terrestrial primates managed to survive due to “interdiction” -- a signal way of communication with the beasts. Did they persuade animals? Or did they use a steady “hypnotizing look”? "The beasts of prey cannot bear a man's stare".

The latest paleoanthropological discoveries in the second half of the 20 – beginning of the 21st century in Africa created an even more paradoxical situation: in Olduvai Gorge and also near the lake Turkana (Rudolf), river Omo and in some other places in Kenya and Ethiopia L., M. and R. Leakey and other researchers found some bones of a creature named “Homo habilis” (“skillful human”) or Praezinjanthropus, - and these findings, by {almost} commonly accepted evaluation, have the antiquity of 2 million years, and generally are contemporaries of the Australopithecus, but morphologically they were much closer to humans and used split pebbles for instruments.

How could it be? These much earlier hominoids are to some extent closer to modern humans than the later pithecanthropes who had too long arms, big teeth and superciliary arches that many well-known paleoanthropologists refuse to recognize as a human ancestor.

To the unsolved problems of anthropogenesis we can also refer mysterious reasons of human hairlessness though even in tropics it is cold at nights and all the apes still have fur.

There is no explanation of the hair on the man's head, the advanced chin and nose with the turned downwards nostrils, the functional difference between the man's and other primates’ teeth, though they are both considered to be identically omnivorous, genetically incredible speed (it's believed to be 4--5 thousand years) of the Pithecanthropes' transformation into modern Homo sapiens and some other phenomena have not been still explained.

Such numerous mysteries in the man's original form reconstruction testify that in the modern theory of anthropogenesis there is a large fundamental gap.


I think that many contradictions and uncertainties in the comprehension of anthropogenesis can be eliminated by the theory of human origin from Pliocene riverside apes – Naiapithecs which was put forward by me in 1985.

Our direct ancestors were not hairy, small brained, awkward from the forest, but naked, big-headed and biped riverside apes. Let's call them Naiapithecus, – Naiapithecs (according to the name of river’ nymphs naiads in Greek myths).

They lived during the Neogene several million years ago on the river banks and lake shores in the semi-savannah of the fore hills. They wandered in shallow water, often swimming and diving, gathered, caught and ate mollusks, fish, crawfish, frogs, tortoises, rodents, birds' eggs, riverside fruits and berries, roots and insects. Naiapithecs used cleaved pebbles, sticks and bones to hunt and open shells and testae.

The former life on the trees, which helped to develop flexible and tenacious paws, the color binocular vision, exceptional spatial movement coordination, the enlarged cervical optical and parietal kinesthetic parts of the cerebral cortex whence their quick wits -- all this trained them well for such a riverside mode of life, that no other animal leads.

The actualistic proof of the Naiapithec theory of the man’s origin

As it should be in a theory the proof of the drawn picture of anthropogenesis is its consequences that give an explanation of many morph-physiological peculiarities of the man and the solution of the contradictions in modern concepts of the man's origin and the predictions of new directions and the geography of the search for ancient hominoid and hominids.

Water and the forelimbs occupied by food gathering prevented naiapithecs from knuckle-walking, and conditioned the upright style of locomotion bipedalism. The bottoms of shallow rivers, which are often soft, required wide and flat feet. Half aquatic existence in the hot tropical sun against which there was no forest shad, and overcooling from wet fur conditioned the loss of hair as in rhinoceros and elephant which both have semi-aquatic ancestors.

Diving developed a reflex slowing of the heart beat (bradycardia) when sinking into the water though it was not as slow as in the cetacean.

A similar explanation of the anthropoid's transition to the upright posture, bradycardia and the loss of hair was given in 1960 by the English biologist A. Hardy who argued that human ancestors were seaside apes that lived at the end of the Pliocene on the sand coasts of sea lagoons.

One can see that his surmise about the hydrogen nature of the peculiarities of a human organism is well-grounded. But the "marine enthusiasm” led the oceanographer to the belief in the seaside settlements of human ancestors, excessive likening them to marine mammals, even in such a completely aquatic, lake dolphins, whales and seals. It pushes some followers Hardy to even absurdities – right up the funny search the atavistic webbing between the fingers of people or the identification of underwater breath-holding divers with regulation of breathing whales and pinnipeds, though those at immersing not hold their but expel air from their lungs and the stockpile oxygen in the blood.

It led him away from well-known in paleontology petrified traces of anthropogenesis, thus depriving him of paleanthropological arguments. Consequently his “amphibious apes” transformed into fantastic and elusive ghosts and, no wonder, generally his idea has not been recognized by the science.

But it is not only the absence of proof. These seaside apes are impossible. The tropic sea coasts and lagoons are always overgrown with impracticable mangrove forests interlaced with stilted and air roots. Mangroves both come close to the water and go on far to the sea covering the all tidal strip - littoral, for apes there are only two ways out: either to climb up the trees or go to the sea. There are sandy or rocky coasts in such places where there is no fresh water or the surf is too big. How could apes slake thirst, which is frequent and strong in the equatorial sun heat? What could they eat during stormy days, weeks and months?

Thus we see that A.Hardy’s aquatic ape hypothesis on the whole contradicts the seaside biology. It's evident that semi-aquatic apes could not survive on the sea coasts.

As a natural result semi-terrestrial mammals such as minks and beavers do not exist in the littoral. The sea is too severe to endure anything half: fur-seals, seals, walruses, manatidae and other Pinnipedia, and also whales and dolphins had to go entirely to the sea, only some species go to land to rest and give birth.

Anthropomorphous features of the ape - ancestors of human were formed biologically as a result of natural selection and under definite conditions – hot coast. Though from fresh water reservoirs they could reach the shore as well.

Thus human ancestors were not seaside but riverside, lakeside and only semi-aquatic apes, therefore semi-terrestrial -- Naiapithecs. And it is fundamentally important, saves us from Hardy’s exaggeration and gives the necessary proofs of the man’s origin from Naiapithecs

It can also be explained by other noticeable peculiarities of human morphology and ethology.

Diving developed breath control, its long hold-up, and, in some way, non-oxygen (anaerobic) oxidation of carbohydrates with lactic acid secretion into the blood.

Diving probably also conditioned a human innate predisposition to short-sightedness, though it is not the permanent myopia characteristic of fishes and other inhabitants of the less transparent water medium; and also partial compensation of external hydrostatic pressure on the eyes by filling the arteries of the back chamber with blood resulting in eyes reddening after diving.

Protection from the sun and the counter water stream their noses were protruded with the nostrils directed downwards. The skin became darker because of the melanin generation that protected deep under the skin lying blood vessels from radiation. They had a developed subcutaneous fat layer though it was not as thick as that of pigs and hippopotamuses. The number of sweat glands came up to 2-5 million and extensive perspiration caused frequent drinking. The hair on the crown became thicker because it was more rarely immersed into the water and suffered more sun heat.

Female Naiapithecus' hair on the head became even thicker and stronger - because it served her not only as a shield from the sunrays, but also as traces for her babies. The modern ape's young hang on their mothers holding on to their fur. Apparently this semiaquatic mode of our ancestors' life accounts for the surprising phenomenon discovered not long ago: the ability of human infants to start swimming earlier than walking.

The necessity to split and open shells and testae and in close proximity of the smoothed by water stones – pebbles, naturally, had led naiapithecs to using them instead of instruments for obtaining food. Naiapithecs used cleaved pebbles and sticks which developed the flexibility of their fingers, hands, good eye and thinking. Even chimpanzees cannot crack or throw stones as far and as accurately.

They had to bite, scratch out of the shells and chew slippery and elastic shellfish or fish, easily moving them in the mouth cavity and holding them in from sliding out. This conditioned the main tooth-and-jaw (odontological) differences between hominids and apes – the loss of unnecessary sticking out fangs, reduction and development of spade shape front teeth, the increasing in number of prominences on molars from 4 to 5, teeth position not in the form of a quadrangle but arched; concavity of the palate and other peculiarities that are used as signs to determine of a species of a fossil but which haven’t yet been explained.

Finally, the Naiapithec’s jaws became shorter, their back ends – wider and the nose and the chin protruded relatively forward and the tongue as masticatory organs receives the increase of the mouth cavity and the higher loosing and mobility.

The same necessity of holding of food by eating and not letting the water into the mouth caused covering it with cheeks on the sides, higher mobility and tight closing of the lips. The other terrestrial mammals in order not to get choked when swimming have to hold their muzzles high above water and because of their fur they get wet, cold and do not like to swim.

The ratio of the bowels to the length of the man's body is 5.6 can be explained by the fact that ancestors’ food consisted mainly of mollusks, fish and crayfish and other crustaceans. This index is just between piscevorous (4.5) and omnivorous (6.8) and it is far from carnivorous (3.7) and cerealvorous (8.7), to say nothing of herbivorous (15.1).

In the water Naiapithecs could save themselves from tropical beasts of prey. Before the appearance of weapons they were almost powerless even in flocks. They were saved by riverside steeps and trees, shallows and sand spits, whirlpools and deep pools, small islands, cliffs and rocks, rush and bushes.

Because there was no danger from the prairie and forest fires - safe near water – they were not afraid of fire - which was a precondition for its future adaptation and usage.

Some of the similar morphological changes can be observed in modern big-nosed apes (Nasalis larvatus: Rinopithecs, Simians etc.) in South-East Asia. Though surely they aren’t the ancestors of people, they lived in the boggy mangrove forests, spending most of the time in the trees, eating leaves and fruits. But they have something in common with water naiapithecs: often they had to walk on a swampy ground on the hind limbs – which are twice as big as front legs with long flat feet. They dive well and can swim under water for about 12 metres; they have a long nose, short hair and a fat body. Their long tail serves as a rudder during the turns and jumps in the trees and it is not tenacious.

It seems that fossil anthropomorphous apes, found in the layers of the upper Miocene of the North Italy, hidden in the waterlogged forests, oreopithecs - as big as a chimpanzee, with a long skull and overhung nasal bones, with the combination of the ability for brachiation and two feet walking on hind limbs were somewhat close to them. That was 12 million years ago.

The cases of crab hunting in the river mouths was observed among the green marmosets in South Senegal, though they lived and fed in the trees of mangrove forest, also java macaques of Indochina, Malacca and archipelago Malayan – are named crab eaters for that. Sometimes they even used stones for hunting.

As the rest of terrestrial primates Naiapithecs lived in herds, and I suppose they were as noisy. Loud cries, shouting, squeal, screeches, heavy breathing, puffing, mewling, grunting, growl, roar, barking and hooting of contemporary apes serve as the expression of their fear, anger, joy, impatience and other feelings and also for signaling danger, appeal etc. However, their palate is low and flat, the tongue is thin, vocal cords are also thin, with uneven non-rounded edges (that's why their voice is harsh and hoarse) and they lack the tense muscles (m. thyreoarytenoidens). So they have no physiological basis for speaking and singing.

But in the high tropical grass and dense forest leaves and greenery only such sharp and loud sounds can be heard.

Naiapithecs owing to the specific features of their nutrition had relatively light jaws, moving tongue and lips, a clear resonator due to the volumetric, covered with cheeks, mouth cavity, big lungs of a swimmer, the ability to arbitrarily control their breath, and on the other hand nice acoustics of the water surface -- all these became the biological preconditions for the future development of phonation and articulation and transition from expressive and signal communication to speech.

Even the following subjective indicator such as our feeling better near water reservoirs, the man's desire to relax by the water basins, is another proof that this is the man’s native place, his ecological niche to which his organism is adapted best.

Unfortunately, in special ecological literature the man's original ecological niche hasn't been defined. For example, J.Winer comes from the fact that people live in the different existence conditions, but he pays no attention to that the modern humans live in different natural-climatic zones – from the tropics up to the Arctic – and it has become possible thanks to artificially created means and conditions of living. So we cannot call it biological adaptation. Though morphological observation of modern native people living in different natural zones -- tropical, desert, mild, continental, high mountainous, arctic -- reveal a definite biological adaptation of the man that includes both physiological processes: blood pressure, perspiration, metabolism, content of hemoglobin, erythrocytes, cholesterol, gamma-globulin fractions of protein, and the man's build: height, proportions of arms, legs and the head, muscle mass, etc. But even this biological accommodation is not primary. It happened later on in the process of anthropogenesis and can be referred not just to the environing nature but to the definite historical and geographical types of economics and culture.

Now we can see that the man's past is recorded in the texture of his organism and in the way of living.
The paleontological discovery and proof

of Naiapithecs

Naiapithec’s roots of the man are proved not only by actualistic method of the object history reconstruction according to his nowadays structure but also in accordance with direct material remains of Naiapithecs.

Does the modern paleontology know about such riverside apes?

The history of primates is known to the science still of course fragmentary but we have material proves of these apes. They do exist, though they haven’t been sighted. The problem is that till now we don't have a satisfactory interpretation, because at present there aren’t any similar apes in reality and therefore in our minds.

In Kashmir and Sivalick hills, foothills of the Himalayas and in East Africa along the rivers the researches discovered the petrified bones of Ramapithecus apes and forms off Keniapithecus, Proconsuls, closer to them. I don’t think that these monkeys were Naiapithecs. They lived at the end of Miocene, 14-8 million years ago when the period of drought, and savanna drive back the jungle, stretching along rivers and made them change the tree way of life to the ground one. We can also mention a characteristic feature – ramapithecs were distinguished by a short muzzle, round forehead without an eye roller, thin jaw which does not go forward too much; narrow, horseshoe type without the monkey shelf; more straight chin; not slant, as usual in apes, but plate beveled teeth; many protuberances on the chewing surface of the cheekteeth; lower corner teeth are little and upper corner teeth are difficult to distinguish from the human ones, – these are the indications of delicate food consuming. At the same time fangs, though they are smaller than other monkeys have, are longer than other teeth, cone-shaped with diastema for them in the lower teeth range; on the corona of cheekteeth there are enamel stripe (cingulum) which is not characteristic of people; nose bones are narrow and long; the heel bone is as the one of the straightened foot.

However, the found fragments of Ramaphitecus skeleton are not enough to treat about the morphology on the whole. Some researches consider ramapithecs to be 4 footed, the others – 2 footed, using the front extremities for holding the objects, and refer it even to hominid’s.

Considering their morphology and their existing in the water deposition, it is possible to suppose that ramapithecs and some other close to them forms were ancestors of Naiapithecs.

I think that the properly Naiapithecs, quite-developed semi water apes are represented apparently by the fossil hominoid beings in Olduvai Gorge (90 metres deep, 2 million years old), though L. Leakey himself called them “people” – "Homo habilis" or "Praezinjananthropus" – too optimistically.

Habilises are Naiapithecs according to both their morphology and ethology.

Rather a big brain (about 650 cubic centimeters), legs longer than arms, arched feet, ankle and pelvis texture, easy head balance on the neck and other signs of the upright posture; the absence of the sagittal crest hence weak masticatory muscles; smaller than Pithecanthropus' size of the face, jaw and teeth; unusually wide finger phalanxes that means a strong grip of hands able to hold pebble tools.

The cleaved pebbles, shells and tortoise, fish, flamingo, water rabbit, frog and other remains scattered around; petrified papyrus roots, their position in the clay deposits of water sediment, etc, – all this undoable proves that low Olduvai creatures were just riverside apes, one of the Naiapithec’s species and their further evolution confirms (and it can be seen in the upper layers) that they were human ancestors.

But in my opinion it is not correct to refer the habilises to the apes of the Australopithecus type. The long jaw of Australopithecus, his beveled chin, large molars, bigger even than a gorilla's, a huge sagittal crest, forelimbs longer than hind limbs, short fingers on a long metacarpus (that is their rough motoric), short half bent legs - all this speaks for different mode of life. Australopithecus africanus was apparently a savannah ape that hunted small and young animals and picked up bones after beasts of prey and cracked those using stones. Bigger Australopithecus robustus had even more impressive masticatory organs that were necessary to grind a lot of greenery, I think, this was a forest ape that used its forelimbs to bend down twigs and branches, to gather fruits, to dig out edible roots and tubers.

The life of our naiapithec’s ancestors on warm riversides is testified by the geography of the finds of the most ancient fossils hominoids. Hot tropical or subtropical climate, hilly savanna with separated thickets of trees and bushes, with river and lake valleys and rocky escapes – such were landscape, climate, flora and fauna of the two discovered hotbeds of the appearance of humans in Eastern Africa and Eastern Asia. This permits to take one’s courage in prediction of the other hotbeds of anthropogenesis somewhere in Western Asia and Southern Europe, having the similar conditions.

Scatterings of cleaved pebbles of the Low Olduvai type were found in Africa, in Southern Europe, in the Near East, in India, South-Eastern Asia and everywhere in river, lake and seaside deposits. One must think, this was not accidental, not only because their owners came to water to slake thirst. Naturally, australopithecs also consumed water but their remains were found far from water, in dry savannah, foothills and caves.

Low Olduvai habilises were just apes – the human ancestors, Naiapithecs, but we cannot consider them "people" (hominids) even though ancient and their pebble tools cannot considered a "culture". Properly speaking, the whole before Chellean (≡ before Abbeville period) Olduvai had only one tools – a chopper. Its "manufacture" comes to the simple cleaving of pebble without any special attention to the crack edge shape. Their diversiform and chance changeability evidence that here are known animal’s actions. Beavers and birds do the same. For thousands generations, during more than two million years, these tools have not been modernized, the “technology” has remained the same. The last speaks about the absence of any speech transfer and accumulation of its experience in these actions. And similarly during these million of years the apes themselves almost haven't changed in their physical type.

The use of tools by the riverside apes was going on these for million years but it does not mean that the use of tools is not an indication of the difference between a man and an animal – because for millions of years this has not been yet human labour, but just a biological phenomenon, animal actions based already not on the instinct (monkeys risen in captivity, as the observations of L.A.Firsov and other ethologists show, can not make nests for lodging for the night), but not yet on the speech notional thinking. In my opinion, the psychic of such actions among the upper animals is based on the figurative thinking – con-imagination and also learning by way of imitating.

The customary drawings of human ancestors with sticks and stones in hands winning wild horses and even elephants and cave bears in my view are fantastic. Hunt for such big animal was impossible for riverside monkeys and even for Archanthropes a very long time. Biped running is much slower than quadrupedal and they could not catch them, and using sticks and stones they would not be able to overcome them even by the whole herd. And what was the use of hunting such big animals it they were not able to eat them? No fangs to bite through their thick skin, no sharp instruments to dress the carcass, to cut joints, no teeth to chew this raw meat, and no stomach which was used to digest such kind of food.

How prepeople became people

The anthropogenesis process was long but not gradual; it is divided in two steep fractures (bounds, spurts, leaps).

The first bound was the transformation of Naiapithecs into prepeople (prehumans), high habilises, Pithecanthropus (“Homo erectus”), – about 1.3 - 1 million years ago.

The habilises of the second Chellean layer of Olduvai (90-60 m deep) already could be referred to the ancient forming people and to some extent justified the name "Homo habilis". Their tools are cleaved on 2 sides (bifaced) and are slimmer. They reveal the attention to the form and the beginning of technological development, though very slow.

The giraffe, antelope and elephant bones scattered about testify that these habilises passed on to the Australopithecus trade – they gathered bones and splinted them to extract marrow – the role of hunting increased. Apparently because the climate became dryer and the water reservoirs dried up too. Palinological data and fauna of those days testify to it.

If at first the naiapithecs hunted for small and young animals, but prehumans start hunting big animals; judging by the found bones, these were wild boars, sheep’s, antelopes, horses, even elephants. This became possible thanks to the perfection of tools: making big choppers, suitable (that can be proved experimentally) for dismember these animals and skin them, and also scrapers and punches, with the help of which it is possible to scalp an animal for fell processing. Perhaps at that time the first spears appeared -- just simple poles with sharpened and burnt ends.

No doubt that hunting big animals even then was difficult and dangerous. Prehumans rarely attacked them openly, but preferred to make ambushes or to pursue and drive a beast to bogs or precipices.

It’s significant at that time of Australopithecs disappeared. Probably they couldn't win this competition with unprecedented equipped and armed hunters or they just were destroyed and exterminated as game.

Habilis’s physical appearance is also changing. To the middle stratum, – approximately 60 metres deep, they are transforming into Olduvai Pithecanthropus (Homo erectus) – using the traditional term - though it would be precise to call such forming people (from upper habilises, pithecanthropes to the Neanderthals) prepeople.

The transition to hunting became a reason for resettlement of prepeople to the steppe. That is why the tools of pithecanthropes were not made of pebbles but of unrolled solid hard rocky races: quartzite, quartz, clinkers etc.

The progress of tools and ways of hunting changed material relations between prepeople.

In the processes of gathering and catch small animals the individual activity predominated. Therefore the former naiapithecs' horde was formed mostly on the basis of sexual and relative links and common necessity in looking the food and warning against danger. The connecting function is performed by the orientation towards the behaviour of the neighbour and the leader that facilitates the finding of food and protection from the enemies. All the naiapithecs in the flock play the role of the mutual chiefs and mutual guards.

Now ambushed and driving hunt of prepeople is the first cooperation (role sharing in the search of capture, pursuit, encirclement and attack) which is the same as the one in the flock of beasts of prey. However if carnivores hunt animals which are weaker in the physical aspect individually and their cooperation is only situational, though the prepeaple hunted even elephants, rhinoceros, bears and other giants, which are 10 times bigger, stronger and faster than any prehuman. That’s why they were able to overcome them only due to manufacturing and use of tools and complicated, stretched out in time and space, long labour cooperation – organization, which served as a precondition to the raising from an animal flock into society.

But the necessities of the social organization and the making of implements made expressions and signalization, typical of animals and limited by the situation, not sufficient and required the development of speech with its oversituation, abstraction, metaphorical case etc. It had led to the rise of signalization in the language and, accordingly, the conimagination - in the oversituational abstract thinking, able to foresee of series of their own and other actions and their complicated results. (See-“Problems of Linguistics”, M., 1981, N 1, pp. 17-35).

Physiological consequence of labour and of organization was the following cephalization (development of cerebral segment), the complication of cytoarchitecture and the growth of brain to 900 cc and then to 1300 cc and sometimes to 1600 cc.

The further evolution of prehuman beings went with the making tools. Their settlement from former natural areas in new places influenced by changes of climate was always possible due to mastering new means of production. The selective adaptation not only to the nature but also for a method of production and consumption began. Forming of the human body type came along with the development of the production.

Yet the progress in texture and volume of their brains was connected with regress of skull and hands.

Burnt bones which were rarely meet in the fires of Pithecanthropus and the state of their dents means that they couldn’t make food on fire; they ate either raw or burnt meat. Though masticating of praesapienses of rough fare lead to the permanent self purification of their teeth from the deposit of protein coatings, saliva minerals, food remains and microorganisms. That is why they rarely had dental calculus and caries. When scientists found in Brokenhille, Zimbabwe, one with caries, who perhaps was very fond of honey, they were very much surprised. But caries became a characteristic feature of the sapienses and the great curse of modern people. Up to 90 % of the population of all the continents suffers from it now. It is like payment for the use of mild boiled food and the surplus of carbohydrates in it.

But the chewing of uncooked fruits, hard raw meat of big animals and other kinds of rough food caused their jaw enlargement and thickening of the superciliary arch and skull – sometimes twice – as much, which deteriorated their speech articulation.

The absence of handles in Acheulean stone tools and holding them directly in hands led to their monstrous strengthening. They became wider, paws shaped, but were unable to fulfill fine motions.

The difference of local nature conditions caused the morphological difference of Pithecanthropes. One of those specializations was thickset, huge Neanderthals, who got used to beforeglacial tundra-steppes and cold semideserts, which covered the whole continents. Almost all the remains of these subarctical prehumans were found in the beforeglacial zones of Europe, Atlas, Caucasus, Zagros and others. In the cold Europe of other hominid species according to the paleontological data, did not exist.

However in the tropical zone, in the ecological niche near water basins habilises lived at the same time with the pithecantropes: in the middle layer of Olduvai there are their bones, which are more refined and making anthropologists doubt in the succession of the human evolution.

The second bound was the transformation of Pithecanthropes to people, Homo sapiens, about 200 - 40 thousand years ago that was conditioned by two acquisitions.

The first one - starting the everywhere use of fire.

Though the traces of that fire (bituminous coal, ash, burnt bones) appears from the Acheulean culture approximately 750 years ago (the cave Acheul in France, 7 metres layer of ash from sinanthropuses in the cave Cocetang by Chjou Kojdyan in China), but the fire was used only for warming up, frighten of beasts and in the driving hunt. The already everywhere use of fire and consequently its artificial making and cooking food on it began approximately 200-100 years ago and undoubtedly - with Mousterian culture

The reason for orthognathism (the loss of big projection of the facial part of skull) was just the ability of making food on fire. It gave the shortening and lightening of the jaw and superciliary arch.

The big jaw of Pithecanthropus with beveled chin, overeye roller and muscles relief are not present in the human embryo and are less indicated in the fossilized infant skull than in the skull of adult species. Does it mean that the above marked features of Pithecanthropus are not the initial ones, but the result of the later adaptation, caused by the passage of prehumans to hunting big animals? Then the incredible fast transformation of prehuman into Homo sapiens becomes understandable. It was a progress of the face by way of removal of certain sides of the then morphological stage – the loss of prognotism (the big projection of the facial part of skull), apparently accelerated by the hormone stop (retardation) of ontogenesis – that is partial return to the previous earlier infantile Naiapithec morphology and from that stage – the mutation-selective later lessening. It explains well paradoxes of bigger sapienty of earlier hominoids than later ones and genetically surprising rapidity of final evolution of pithecanthropes into modern people – though it longer than usual 4-5 thousands years.

Such controversy of the man’s origin shows that Pithecanthropus was both the extinct dead species and the ancestor of the man

The reduction - lessening of jaws and overeye roller lead to shortening and bowing up of the practically plate skull base and due to it – the descent of larynx and growth of the resonator camera near pharynx. The shortening of the scull base accommodate the brain the same volume needed the ascent of its arch and straightening of the forehead. These selective changes as physical preconditions of speech articulation caused the exceptional importance of the latter for surviving and the solution by this circumstance of the contradiction between the necessity to speak and morphological obstacles for it.

The perfection of speech and mind caused the second acquisition -- appearing of composite tools with wooden handles: stone axes, spears with flint tips. They made possible distant hunting even alone in the forest and allow the population of the forests of Europe, Siberia, Congo, Somali and others, increase the lissomness of hands and it became a morph functional precondition for the creation of the Cro-Magnon’s bow and arrows, bone needles and consequently for clothes, statuettes and rock paintings.

So at the end of the long contradictive anthropogenesis process having transformed the face, larynx, mouth, brain and hands, – the fire and the handle led the prepeople into people.

L.I.Ibraev. Naiapithecs and paradoxes of anthropogenesis. // Moscow: deposited in INION, 1986, N 23880, 44 р.

L.I.Ibraev. On simial theory of anthropogenesis // Filosofskie nauki (Philosophical Sciences). Moscow: Higher school, 1988, N 9, pp.37--46.

L.I.Ibraev. Naiapithecs are human ancestors. // Nauka i zhizn. (Science and Life). Moscow, 1989, N 9, pp. 147-150.

L.I.Ibraev. Who were human ancestors? // "Mari El yesterday, today, tomorrow". Yoshkar-Ola, 1994, N 3, pp.79-84.

L.I.Ibraev. Oversignness of Language. // Voprosy yazykoznania (Problems of Linguistics). Moscow: Academy of Sciences, 1981, N l, pp.17--35.

L.I. Ibraev. Who were Human Ancestors? Naiapithecs and Paradoxes of Anthropogenesis. // Internet: http: // /ibraev/ancestors.htm

L.I. Ibraev. Naiapithecs. The origin of Man. Yoshkar-Ola, 5-nd edition: “String”, 2009-10, - 112 p., ISBN 978-5-91716-035-1
More you can look in Russian version: Наяпитековое происхождение человека

© 1986. Ibraev, Leonard Ivanovich. Docent (Professor) of Philosophy Chair of Mari State University. Russia, 424002, Yoshkar-Ola, Ryabinin St., 7A-16. E-mail:

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