The most diverse group of vertebrates




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Phylum Chordata: Subphylum Vertebrata - Fishes 16.

Lab #16 -- Biological Sciences 102 – Animal Biology


THE MOST DIVERSE GROUP OF VERTEBRATES
~ THE FISHES ~
LAB PROCEDURE
NAME: LAB SCORE:
Refer to the textbook regarding fishes for diagrams, illustrations and reference text for this lab.




Subphylum Vertebrata or Craniata


  • In the space below, briefly describe some important characteristics of the Subphylum Vertebrata:



Superclass Agnatha




Class Myxini: Hagfish


  • In the space below, briefly describe some important characteristics of this class of vertebrates.



Identify and note the location or importance of the following structures or lack of structures in a hagfish:

(you should be able to identify a hagfish for the laboratory practicum)



  • slime glands

  • lack of paired appendages

  • lack of any type of gill covering

  • single pair of common gill apertures (openings)

  • lack of biting jaws

  • sensory tentacles around the mouth

  • reduced (degenerative eyes)


Superclass Agnatha
Class Cephalaspidomorphi
(or Petromyzontida): Lamprey




  • In the space below, briefly describe some important characteristics of this class of vertebrates.


Your instructor will briefly review with you the basic lifecycle of a typical lamprey.




Identify and note the location or importance of the following structures or lack of structures in a lamprey:

(you should be able to identify a lamprey for the laboratory practicum)




  • lack of paired appendages

  • single, median nasal aperture (opening)

  • horny teeth around mouth

  • lack of any scale covering

  • 7 pairs of external gill apertures (openings)

  • moderately developed eyes

Superclass Gnathostomata


  • How do members of the Superclass Agnatha differ from members of the Superclass Gnathostomata?



  • Regarding the basic classification of fishes, be sure you are aware of the major distinguishing characteristics specific to each of the following taxa – see the poster and lab handout:




  • Class Chondrichthyes




  • Subclass Elasmobranchii




  • Subclass Holocephali







  • Class Actinopterygii




  • Provide the taxonomy from Superclass to Order as requested for each of the following fishes: (this may require that you check ITIS or the poster displayed in lab).


Salmon
Phylum
Class
Subclass
Superorder
Ratfish
Superclass
Class
Subclass
Dogfish (Squalus)
Subphylum
Class
Subclass

Sturgeon
Subphylum
Class
Subclass
Surf Perch
Superclass
Class
Order
Manta Ray
Phylum
Class
Subclass
Lamprey
Superclass
Class
Goldfish
Superclass
Class
Subclass
Infraclass
Examine the model of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae on display.


  • What anatomical features might have preadapted the ancestors of this modern species for a terrestrial existence?



  • Fish Classification


Of the nearly 51,000 different species of vertebrates, nearly 24,000 are the various fish species
Phylum Chordata (chordates)

Suphylum Vertebrata (vertebrates; cranium and spinal column/backbone)
Superclass Agnatha (jawless vertebrates; cartilaginous skeleton with persistent notocord; lack paired fins)
Class Myxini (hagfishes; four pairs of tentacles around mouth; nasal sac with duct to pharynx; slime glands present; poorly developed eyes)
Class Cephalaspidomorphi (lampreys; buccal funnel with keratinized teeth; nasal sac not connected to pharynx; fairly well developed eyes)
Superclass Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates; paired appendages present; partial or complete replacement of notocord with centra (body) of spinal column)
Class Chondrichythes (fish with a cartilaginous skeleton; teeth not fused to jaw; no swim bladder; spiral valve in intestines; claspers in males)
Subclass Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates & rays; placoid scales usually present; five to seven gill arches & slits; upper jaw not fused to cranium)
Subclass Holocephali (chimaeras & ratfishes; scales absent; four gill slits covered by an operculum; upper jaw fused to cranium)
Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes; ossified skeleton; single gill opening covered by an operculum; paired fins supported by dermal rays; limb musculature within body; swim bladder mainly a hydrostatic organ)
Subclass Chondrostei (bichirs, paddlefishes & sturgeons; heterocercal caudual fin, ganoid scales if present; spiral valve in intestines)

Subclass Neopterygii (gars, bowfin, teleosts; bony skeleton; caudal fin usually homocercal; scales usually cycloid or ctenoid; fin ray number equal to their supports in dorsal and anal fins) = most fish
Class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes; ossified skeleton; single gill opening covered by operculum; paired fins with internal skeleton and musculature within the limb; diphycercal tail; spiral valve in intestines; usually

lung-like swim bladder)

  • FISH SCALE OBSERVATION:


Briefly observe the following slides of examples of scale types under the microscope, make a simple sketch of each scale type and list one species displayed in the lab that possesses this type of scale:

Placoid Scale

Species example =


Ganoid Scale

Species example =


Ctenoid Scale

Species example =


Cycloid Scale

Species example =


  • FISH SKELETAL SYSTEM OBSERVATION:


On one of the fish skeletons displayed in lab, identify the following skeletal structures on a bony fish: (refer to exercise #18 in lab manual)


  • otoliths

  • maxilla

  • dentary (“mandible”)

  • operculum

  • orbit

  • pectoral girdle

  • pelvic girdle

  • vertebrae

  • ribs

  • fin rays


FISH SPECIMEN OBSERVATION:

For at least 8 of the live or preserved specimens displayed in the lab indicate the following:




1. Genus
Class
Common Name

2. Genus
Class
Common Name

3. Genus
Class
Common Name

4. Genus
Class
Common Name

5. Genus
Class
Common Name

6. Genus
Class
Common Name

7. Genus
Class
Common Name

8. Genus
Class
Common Name

DOGFISH (Squalus) SHARK DISSECTION
Refer to the photos on the course website and the supplementary lab atlas regarding this dissection.



External Structures (entire fish)

  • nostril

  • eye

  • mouth

  • spiracle

  • external gill slits (how many are there?)

  • lateral line

  • claspers (which sex has these?)

  • caudal peduncle

  • cloaca

  • ampullae/organs of Lorenzini

  • dorsal fins (anterior and posterior)

  • pectoral fins

  • pelvic fin

  • caudal fin




  • Why is the dorsal side of the shark darker in color relative to the ventral side?


Internal Structures

  • liver

  • Why is the liver so important to buoyancy in sharks?


Abdominal Organs

  • stomach

  • rugae of stomach

  • duodenum

  • spiral valve

  • colon

  • rectal gland

  • spleen

  • pancreas (inferior to stomach)

  • gallbladder

  • testes

  • seminal vesicles (males)

  • ovaries (females)

  • ductus deferens (males)

  • oviducts (females)



  • What is the importance of the spiral valve relative to digestive processes in sharks?


Thoracic Organs



Cranial Structures

  • eye

  • brain

  • optic nerve

  • spinal cord

  • otoliths



LABORATORY NOTES ON THE SQUALUS DISSECTION:
PERCH, ROCKFISH OR OTHER BONY FISH DISSECTION



Refer to the supplementary lab atlas and the Internet regarding this dissection.



External Structures (entire fish)

  • nostril LABORATORY NOTES ON

  • eye THE BONY FISH DISSECTION:

  • mouth

  • operculum

  • lateral line

  • caudal peduncle

  • cloaca

  • dorsal fins (anterior and posterior)

  • pectoral fins

  • pelvic fin

  • caudal fin

  • anal fin


Internal Structures
Abdominal Organs

  • swim/air bladder

  • liver

  • stomach

  • pyloric cecum

  • intestine

  • testes (males)

  • ovaries (females)

  • oviducts (females)


Thoracic Organs

  • heart

  • gill arches

  • gill rakers

  • gill filaments


Cranial Structures

  • eye

  • brain

  • spinal cord



Types of fish caudal fins

Teleostei by Haeckel




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