The Global Preservation and Sharing of Seabuckthorn Germplasm Resources



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The Global Preservation and Sharing of Seabuckthorn Germplasm Resources

(Henry) Shunguang LU Zhengping JIN Hai GUO Xiufeng WEN Yong ZHONG

China Administration Center for Seabuckthorn Development (CACSD)

Ministry of Water Resources, 100038, Beijing, P. R. China
Abstract

As one of the counties owning the most abundant seabuckthorn germplasm resources, China has the responsibility, necessity and conditions to establish the germplasm databases with species, subspecies and other improved varieties of seabuckthorn, distributed in China. Some Chinese institutes have already contributed a lot on access and collection of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in China since 1985. Subsequently, we are going to emphasize on the protection and utilization of seabuckthorn germplasm resources, via in search of financial support and collaborations with professional experts in the worldwide. China Administration Centre for Seabuckthorn Development (CACSD) carried out the first project of seabuckthorn breeding in 1999, and the preservation of seabuckthorn germplasm resources was regarded as the vital task. Jiuchenggong seabuckthorn research station was founded, more than 100 improved varieties and 60,000 cultivars were well preserved and collected there, such as H.rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. salicifolia Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. mongolica Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. turkestanica Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. rhamnoides Rousi, within an area of approx 120 ha in total. It is one of the best conservation and collection of seabuckthorn germplasm resources research stations in China so far. This article introduces the research and preservation of seabuckthorn germplasm by CACSD in Jiuchenggong in Inner Mongolia, and a brief review circumstances the main progress of the preservation of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in the world, which proposes a tentative plan of the collaboration on the preservation and sharing of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in the global area.

Keywords: Seabuckthorn, Preservation of seabuckthorn germplasm resources, International cooperation

Seabuckthorn is one of the most interesting and rare plants. Nowadays, it attracts more attention in the worldwide. The establishment of seabuckthorn orchard for the material production and improved quality and quantity seabuckthorn breeding are based on the seabuckthorn germplasm resources. The international seabuckthorn research collaborations have flourished rapidly since the 21st century, which provide a wonderful surrounding for the development of seabuckthorn germplasm resource sharing and preservation globally.

Jiuchenggong seabuckthorn research station was founded in Erdos in Inner Mongolia by China Administration Centre for Seabuckthorn Development (CACSD). The research of seabuckthorn germplasm resource conservation combining seabuckthorn breeding is in progress there. In the meantime of introducing the development of our program to international colleagues, a tentative plan of cooperation of seabuckthorn germplasm resource sharing and preservation in the worldwide is proposed, we heartily anticipant the communication and collaboration with professional experts from all over the world.

1. The significance and mission of seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation

Facing the serious trend of increasing destroyed biodiversity, soil desertification and losing of biological resources year by year, the value of seabuckthorn on ecology and economy is rising to an obvious point. Seabuckthorn, as a fortune of humans, should be well protected and properly utilized by investigators, and that is the vital mission of us.

Seabuckthorn germplasm resources comprise all species and subspecies disturbed in different climate geographical types and population types in the world. As the reason of disturbed by human’s actions, including production gathering and research collection, some rare populations and potential excellent individuals are becoming extinct, or moved from the original habitat to strange regions, new seabuckthorn varieties are developing via access and hybridization breeding. Therefore, the breeding materials and seabuckthorn varieties departing from in situ should be conserved as the artificial germplasm resources.

Seabuchthorn germplasm resources can be classified as in situ preservation and ex situ preservation. Along with the severe disturbed by the actions of human beings, inconvenient of the traffic and lack of funds, the natural distribution of wild type seabuckthorn germplasm resources in situ meet the difficulty in conservation. Wherefore, the artificial seabuckthorn varieties ex situ are coming into the vital manner of seabuckthorn germplasm resources.

We benefit from the preservation and collection of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in at least two aspects. One is advantageous to bio-ecological characterization and economical value from phenotype, cellular and even gene level of the research and the comparison of different species and subspecies in situ and ex situ, which provide the scientific basis for the better preservation and utilization of seabuckthorn. The other is good for obtaining improved varieties breeding materials with high adaptability, good quality nutrition content, and significant biological products. For instance, H.rhamnoides ssp. Sinensis contents high vitamin C and amino acid and shows good aridity resistance; H.rhamnoides ssp. Mongonica is a little punctures, large fruit, cold resistance and highly grease content varieties; H.rhamnoides ssp. Rhamnoides is humidity resistant and thick pericarp; H.rhamnoides ssp. Turkestanica is good aridity resistant, and H.salicifolia is little punctures and high vitamin C content etc. All these are precious gene resources of seabuckthorn.

Every corresponding work should be carried out as soon as possible to discover the potential strategies and plans of seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation, to exchange seabuckthorn germplasm resources materials, and to build the research stations for seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation, via international collaborations.

2. The current research and seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation in Jiuchenggong station

In China, the main enterprises persisting on continuous seabuckthorn breeding are Dengkou seabuckthorn research station of Inner Mongolia, Desert Forest Experimental Centre of the Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), Maoxian Research Station of Mountain Ecosystem, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yangling Seabuckthorn Research Station of Shanxi, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suileng Berry Research Institute, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Bakouzi Seabuckthron Research Station of Huhhot, Inner Mongolia Hydraulic Research Institute, Fuxin Seabuchthron Research Station of Liaoning, and CACSD Jiuchenggong Seabuckthorn Research Station etc. in the present. They selected and accessed improved varieties of H.rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi and H.rhamnoides L.subsp. salicifolia Rousi from Chinese natural seabuckthorn forest, and improved varieties of H.rhamnoides L.subsp. mongolica Rousi and H.rhamnoides L.subsp. rhamnoides Rousi from Russia, Mongolia, Sweden, Germany and Canada since 1980’. Corresponding research on selective improved varieties seedling progeny and hybrid seabuckthorn breeding have achieved significant results. All those provided abundant data and experiences of seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation and research.

The first project of seabuckthorn breeding was set up in progress by CACSD in 1999, and CACSD fastened the attention upon the preservation of seabuckthorn germplasm resources. Jiuchenggong was founded as the seabuckthorn research station, more than 100 improved varieties and 60,000 cultivars were well preserved and collected there, such as H.rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. salicifolia Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. mongolica Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. turkestanica Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. rhamnoides Rousi, the area is approximate 120 hectare in total. It is one of the best conservation and collection of seabuckthorn germplasm resources research stations in China so far.



2.1 The environment of Jiuchenggong station

Jiuchenggong seabuckthorn research station is located along Jiuchengong valley in Dongsheng district in Erdos in Inner Mongolia. The station is situated on Erdos altiplano, the highest altitude is 1506m, and lowest altitude is 1400m. The yearly average temperature is 7.3ºC from 1999 to 2004, and average precipitation is 380mm, 70% of which takes place from July to September. Year transpiration rate is 1994mm, few rain and arid in spring. The wind is extremely powerful in spring, besides ladders and gentle slopes on both banks of Jiuchenggong valley; there is much eolian deposit sands. The whole valley river system is seasonal rivers and anhydrous perennially, and the underground diving is 3m below the ladders on both riverbanks. In 1999, the first seabuckthorn plantation was established with 30hm2 irrigation system on the gentle slopes and ladders on south bank in the middle and lower reaches Jiuchenggong river course (as in Fig.1). Afterwards seabuckthorn from domestic and overseas were accessed and planted there.



2.2 The survey of seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation and research

2.2.1 The preservation and collection of seabuckthorn germplasm resources


The collection, preservation and research of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in Jiuchenggong are doing in the company with seeds access and hybridization breeding. Consequently, all established access orchard with improved seabuckthorn clones, improved seabuckthorn seedling progeny and hybrid seabuckthorn filial generation determination forest are conserved as germplasm resources orchards. The preserved seabuckthorn germplasm resources in Jiuchenggong station since 1999 are listed in table 1, which are placed in 10 plantations (as in Fig.2)

2.2.2 Newly established seabuckthorn germplasm resources orchard


In order to create a well conditions for growth of accessed and preserved seabuckthorn, to obtain biological, ecological and economical characterizations, the sand in four orchards in the new established seabuckthorn germplasm resources field and the hybrid seabuckthorn filial generation determination forest in Jiuchenggong station. No.5, No.7, No.8 and No.9 orchards were optimized and improved, and all the four orchards were equipped with new irrigation system.

3. The tentative plan of international seabuckthorn germplasm resources collaboration

3.1 The current situation of seabuckthorn germplasm resource preservation and research in countries around the world

The collection, preservation, research and utilization of biology germplasm resources are the common emphases in countries around the world. Fruit trees here as a case in point, since 1980’ in China, according to the different ecological distribution of fruit trees varieties, 16 fruit tree orchards were established, and more than 30 varieties, over 10,000 cultivars are conserved for the establishment of national fruit tree resources databases. Eight National Clonal Germplasm Repository of fruit tree were set up one after another since 1981 in USA [1]. Seabuckthorn germplasm resources are added in fruit tree section in National Gene-bank in Germany, and 59 seabuckthorn varieties are well preserved there right now [2].



H.rhamnoides L.subsp. mongolica Rousi is a plenty of seabuckthorn resource in Russian far east Siberia area. In long-term investigation and study, it is sorted into 7 populations by Russian seabukthorn experts: Katong population, Chuleishman population, Chuyiskaya population, Shayan population, Tongjins population, Baigar population and Da'ur population etc.. Above 100 new cultivars were cultivated by geography distant hybridization between different populations.

In 70’ in the last century, German seabuckthorn breeding experts made use of local abundant H.rhamnoides L.subsp. rhamnoides Rousi resources in state farms of Baumschulenweg in Berlin and Dresden to cultivate high production and adaptable sea-buckthorn new variety which transplant to the large-scale plantation, aiming at breeding seabuckthorn new varieties, and established special germplasm resources station in IPK Gatersleben in Dresden in German National Genebank. Prof M. Fischer bred the first generation totally 5 seabuckthorn female varieties in 1979, via selective breeding. First promotion was the late mature variety named “Leikora”, which has large fruit and contain significant vitamin C and oil content. But the fruits drop off hardly which brought much trouble in harvest. Later on, several varieties came into present: middle mature variety “Hergo” is a short fruit stem, easily for harvest; “Frugana” and “Askola” are the early mature varieties with fast growth, another major characteristic of “Askola” is the extremely high tartaric acid content; “Dorana” contains high vitamin C but grow slowly, only can be grown in a certain large plantation limitedly [2].

Also in Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Romania, Mongolia, Finland and India, it is rich in natural seabuckthorn resources, and a number of breeding experts are focusing on the related research.

The author of this article has ever proposed a dissertation of ex situ preservation area of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in the worldwide [3][5]. China, as one of the countries owning the most abundant seabuckthorn germplasm resources, has the responsibility, necessity and conditions to establish the germplasm databases with species, the subspecies and other improved varieties of seabuckthorn, which distributed in China. In the view of the fact, some Chinese institutes have already contributed a lot on access and collection of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in China since 1985. Subsequently, we are going to emphasize on the protection and utilization of seabuckthorn germplasm resources, via in search of financial support and collaborations with professional experts in the worldwide.


3.2 The advantages of Jiuchenggong station


According to author’s view, several advantages for developing seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation in Jiuchenggong station are described below.

3.2.1 Jiuchenggong owns the best suitable surroundings for the growth of H.rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi, as situated on Erdos altiplano, half drought (average precipitation 380mm), comparative temperature (yearly average temperature 7.3ºC), plus essential management measures, which also can ensure H.rhamnoides L.subsp. mongolica Rousi, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. turkestanica Rous, H.rhamnoides L.subsp. rhamnoides Rousi and other improved varieties to grow normally.

As a result of climate transition characteristic, the hybrids of seabuckthorn species and subspecies grow up very well in Jiuchenggong station. The single plants with good characters were selected from the first hybrid generations of H.rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi and H.rhamnoides L.subsp. mongolica Rousi during grain filling [5][6][7].

A case specially needs to point out, the original plant of H.rhamnoides L.subsp. salicifolia Rousi can not survive in such cold winter (the lowest temperature -26ºC) in principle, however, the hybrid of H.rhamnoides L.subsp. salicifolia Rousi and H.rhamnoides L.subsp. mongolica Rousi X H.rhamnoides L.subsp.sinensis Rousi can appear excellent growth to over winter. Thus, Jiuchenggong is an ideal station to preserve hybrid cultivars of seabuckthorn germplasm resources, especially on the preservation of seabuckthorn original plants and the hybrids via access, domestication and hybridization.

3.2.2 The landform and soil type are various in Jiuchenggong station, involving knoll slopes, river ladders, eolian deposit sands, arsenic sandstone, loess, sand and blacksoil etc. which are advantageous to the natural differentiation and mutate of seabuckthorn, the selection of seabuckthorn with good development and resistance in different local growth is feasible. At the meantime, new cultivars can be generated under this condition.

3.2.3 After several years work on collecting and conserving certain number of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in Jiuchenggong station, the previous experiences are indeed helpful for the further research on seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation.

3.2.4 In the present seabuckthorn research stations, Jiuchenggong is close to Beijing (500km), along with the convenient traffic; researchers can easily travel between the station and Beijing.

3.2.5 The open policy and rapid development of society and economy in China provide the continuous developing of Jiuchenggong station.

Early to 1999, CACSD started to access the improved seabuckthorn from different countries and work on seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation. CACSD successively met the seabuchthorn experts and experts of conservation of water and soil, coming from Russia, Mongolia, India, US, Canada, Bolivia, World Bank United Nations Development Program and so on. This year, a new project named EAN-buckthorn supported by EU started on 24th Aug. 2005, under the endeavor of Germany, Russia and China. At the same time, a project supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of the P.R. China, China-Romania collaboration of utilization of seabuckthorn germplasm resources is under implementing. With the increasing communication and exchange visits between various countries, the international cooperation and the sharing seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation and research work are becoming mature day by day. We warmly welcome experts to explore collaborations with us, and provide the essential foundation conditions.



3.3 The tentative plan of developing international collaboration of seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation and sharing

The suggestion is to organize international experts to investigate Jiuchenggong station, deliberate and make plans on seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation and sharing international cooperation, which coordinated by the international sea-buckthorn association science and technology committee, According to the conditions, we intent to develop the following four collaborations:



  • The present situation investigation, appraisal and resources sharing of seabuckthorn germplasm resources preservation, collection and research in all countries.

  • Exchange, access test and evaluation of international seabuckthorn germplasm resources.

  • Genetic finger print study oof different seabuckthorn species and subspecies, varieties.

  • Developing a global breeding research in Jiuchenggong station between China and other countries.

References


[1]SHEN Dexu,The Fruit Tree Breeding[M]China Agriculture Press, Beijing, 2000

[2]M. Fischer et.al., The Seabuckthorn Collection in Germany – an Example for the Necessity of Keeping and Sustainable Using of Genetic Resources, Proceeding of the First International Seabuckthorn Association Conference, Berlin, 2003

[3]WEN Xiufeng, LU Shunguang, JIN Zhengping, The Strategy Research on Seabuckthorn Germplasm Conservation in China[J], International Seabuckthorn Research and Development, 2003,1

[4]AN Baoli, LU Shunguang, Conservation and Utilization of Germplasm Resources of Seabuckthorn[J], International Seabuckthorn Research and Development, 2004,6(2)

[5]LU Shunguang, Jin Zhengping, WEN Xiufeng, Research of Seabuckthorn Breeding for the Purpose of Leave Utilization, the Selection Standard and Variation Research on F1 Progeny Male Plants of Mongolia X Chinese Seabuckthorn[J], International Seabuckthorn Research and Development, 2003,1(2)

[6]JIN Zhengping, LU Shunguang, WEN Xiufeng, The Superior Individual Selection of Seabuckthorn Varieties for Leaves Utilization[J], International Seabuckthorn Research and Development, 2004,2(1)

[7]LU Shunguan, JIN Zhengping, WEN Xiufeng, Study on Breeding of Eco-economical Seabuckthorn Types, the Selection Standard and Variation Research on F1 Progeny Female Plants of Mongolia X Chinese Seabuckthorn [J], International Seabuckthorn Research and Development, 2005,3(1)

Table 1 The preservation of seabuckthorn germplasm resources in Jiuchenggong station



Species & subspecies

Kind of seedling

Female

Male

Number

of species or hybrid match



Time of preservation


H.rhamnoides ssp.sinensis

Improved plant clone







10

2002-2004

H.rhamnoides ssp. mongonica

Improved variety clone







25

2002-2004

Seedling progeny

Improved plant clones









6

1999-2004







Improved Seedling progeny

子代








5

2002-2004

H.rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides

Improved Seedling progeny







1

2004

H.salicifolia

Seedling progeny clone







1

2005

Hybridize varieties

F1 Seedling

H.rhamnoides ssp. mongonica

H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis

sinensis sinensis

20

1999-2004

H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis


H.rhamnoides ssp. mongonica

4

2002-2004

H.rhamnoides ssp. Turkestanica

H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis





1999

H.rhamnoides ssp. mongonica×H.rhamnoides ssp.sinensis

H.salicifolia

10

2004

H.rhamnoides ssp. sinensis


H.salicifolia

1

2004

H.rhamnoides ssp. mongonica

subsp. caucasia Rousi

2

2003

H.rhamnoides ssp. mongonica

H.rhamnoides ssp. mongonica

10

2002-2004

















Fig.1 Jiuchenggong seabuckthorn station of CACSD













9

No9







5

7

8

No8

No1



No2

No7



4


No3


No4



3




orchard pool road dam house




No10

N011





Fig.2 The distribution of Jiuchenggong seabuckthorn station of CACSD

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