The Effect of Electricity on the Germination of Raphanus sativus




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The Effect of Electricity on the Germination of Raphanus sativus Seeds


Mahir Chowdhury and Danny Havern
Macomb Mathematics Science Technology Center
Biology 1 – 9B
Mr. Acre, Mrs. Duddles, Mr. Estapa
June 5, 2012

T


able of Contents
Introduction 1
Problem Statement 4
Experimental Design 5
Data Observations 9
Data Analysis and Interpretation 13
Conclusion 18
Acknowledgement 21
Works Cited 22

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ntroduction

Living cells, tissues, and animal species all use electricity and electrical charges to move things in and out of cells and to transmit messages throughout the nervous system (Jeanty). The use of electricity to make plants grow has been a topic of interest for a very long time. “Since the eighteenth century, many scientist and entrepreneurs have explored the idea of using electricity to make plants grow faster” (Kinahan). Even though there is no established research on the topic, the effects of electricity will help or hurt plant life and overall health. Most experiments show that plant growth will increase. It is known that electricity effects plants, but in what ways? This experiment intends to find the results of electricity on the growth of plants.

There are many methods used to aid plants in their growth and development. Many farmers use fertilizers and pesticides on their crops. Certain amounts of water and sunlight are given to plants to control their growth. Scientists and entrepreneurs have given plants treatments of different sounds and types of magnetism. Another form of helping plants grow would be electoculture. Electroculture is the use of natural electromagnetic energy to stimulate plant growth (Goss).

Plants reproduce by creating seeds. As a seed matures, it dehydrates and enters a state of dormancy, a condition of extremely low metabolic rates and a suspension of growth and development (Campbell and Reece). Most seeds germinate when there is a suitable environment and conditions, usually after a sufficient amount of rainfall. When dormancy is broken, materials need to be transported throughout existing cells and new cells need to be created. These processes and the metabolism require energy. One major form of energy is electrons, which are a part of electricity.


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Germination is the stage in which a living thing starts to sprout, grow, and develop (Goss). A dormant plant seed will germinate under the right growing condition. The seed absorbs water, which triggers enzymes and an increase in cellular respiration, which leads to the development of the plant embryo. Chemical energy that is stored as starch needs to be converted to sugar. Certain atoms, specifically electrons, are used in this process. Soon the plant will grow and develop into its roots, stems, and leaves.

Voltage plays a vital role in the experiment. Voltage affects plants because of the plant’s metabolism. During growth and photosynthesis, plants use electrons in the metabolism and to produce certain materials (Dickey). If the electrons are further stimulated, with electricity, the metabolic process of the will also be stimulated (Gabdrakhmanova and Qussiny). This stimulation will make the plant grow faster, stronger, or even tougher. Another vital part in the experiment is how long the electricity is applied to the subject. According to other experiments, the longer the subject is electrified, the greater the effect of the electricity is on it (Goss). When the electricity affects the plant for longer, the faster/harder its metabolism will work. The result of these two variables working together will make the plant/seeds grow quicker.

Based off other amateur tests, an experiment was developed (Warner). Five sets of seeds will determine the effect of the variables on the plant. Each set of 10 seeds will be given a different treatment. The voltage and time electrified is how each set will vary. To run the test, wires are attached to the positive terminal (+) and negative terminal (-) of a battery. The seeds are placed in a certain amount of water. The wires are then inserted into the water, electrifying the seeds, for a certain amount of time. Then the seeds are taken out and placed in a paper towel and plastic bag to germinate. In 24 hours, the amount of seeds germinated for each set is recorded. The greater the number of seeds germinated, then the greater the effect of electricity is on the plant.

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his experiment is important for several reasons. According to some electroculture experiments, certain methods can enhance plant health, crop yield and quality, or cold-hardiness of the crop, and better resistance to disease and pests (Goss). If the results of the experiment are as expected, then farmers, gardeners, and other crop/plant growers can put it to good use. Farmers will use the concept to increase crop production, gardeners to make flowers grow quicker, and others can use it to grow food rapidly, and donate to the less fortunate in severe times.

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roblem Statement

Problem:

How does the time and voltage of electricity affect the germination of Raphanus sativus seeds?



Hypothesis:

If the plant seed is electrified at the highest voltage for the longest time, then the plant Raphanus sativus seed will germinate faster than a seed given low voltage and a short electrification time.



Data measurement:

The two independent variables are the amount of time (seconds) the plant is electrified and the measure of voltage (volts) applied to the seeds. The dependent variable is the growth/germination of the plant measured in millimeters (mm). The statistical method used to analyze the data was a two-factor Design of Experiment (DOE). The Design of Experiment factors are voltage and time electrified. The voltage values are 6 volts, 9 volts, and 12 volts. These values were determined after research online was conducted on the topic. Past experiments used batteries with voltages of 90, 110, 120, and generators. The only values that would be safe to use in a high school environment would be any values around the 9 volts, 110 and 120 volts are too dangerous. So, it was decided that the standard would be 9 volts and the other values would be 6 volts and 12 volts, so that they are of equal value difference from 9. The other factor is time electrified. From the past experiments, there was much variation in the values determined. The most common times used were 30 seconds, 1 minute, and 1.5 minutes. Since these values occurred the most, they were chosen to be used in the experiment.

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xperimental Design
Materials:


(50) Raphanus sativus (Radish) seeds

(5) Sheets of Paper Towel

250 ml Water

(5) Ziploc Plastic Sandwich Size Bags

Batteries (6-volt, 9-volt, 12-volt)

8 ft. long, 3 mm thick Electrical Copper Wire

80 ml Beaker

10 ml Graduated Cylinder

Permanent Marker

Digital Multimeter

Stop Watch

Scissors

Coffee Filter

Wire Cutters/Strippers

Wire Nut



Procedures:

Table 1

Independent Variables





Levels of Independent Variables

Factors

(+) High Level

Standard/Control

(-) Low Level

Voltage (V)

12

9

6

Time Electrified (s)

90

60

30

Preparation


1. Using the permanent marker, write each of the following, only one name per bag:

(+,+), (+,-), (-,+), (-,-), and Standard.


2. Use the scissors to cut the paper towel into equal 1ft. by ft. pieces.
3. Using the wire cutter/stripper, cut the 8 ft. long electrical wire into 1 ft. pieces.
4. Again using the wire cutter/stripper, strip both ends of each wire so that about

¾ in. of the copper wire is exposed. Use the wire nut to twist the exposed wire into a spiral.


5. Bend one end of the exposed wire in a semi-circle so that it will hold onto the prong or carbon rod of the battery. Tape the wire down to assure that it stays connected to the battery at all times, as seen in Figure 1. Do this for each + and – side/prong of each battery for all batteries.
6. Turn on the digital multimeter and set it to the 20-40 volt setting.

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esting
6. Fill the 80 ml beaker with 40 ml of water. Then fill the 10 ml graduated cylinder with 10 ml of water.
7. Drop 10 Raphanus sativus seeds into the beaker with 40 ml of water.
8. This will be the (-,-) set of seeds. Therefore, insert the wires attached to the 6-volt battery and begin the stopwatch. Make sure the exposed ends of the wire are fully submerged in the water and kept on opposite sides of the beaker at all times. As seen in Figure 1. At this point, use the digital multimeter to determine the voltage of the water by inserting the test leads into the water. Once the stopwatch reaches 30 seconds, pull the wires out of the water.
9. Pour the contents of the beaker into the coffee filter to separate the water from the seeds.
10. Fold a sheet of paper towel in half three times and push hard on edges to make the creases visible. Open it up and place the seeds on one of the rectangles formed by the creases. Space the seeds out evenly.
11. Fold the paper towel in half three times, keeping the seeds in place. Set the paper towel into Ziploc plastic sandwich size bag that has (-,-) written on it. Pour the 10 ml of water from the graduated cylinder into the plastic bag and onto the folded paper towel. Seal the bag closed.
12. At this point, repeat steps 6 and 7.
13. This set of seeds is the (-,+) set. Again, insert the wires attached to the 6-volt battery and begin the stopwatch. Make sure wires are kept at opposite sides of the beaker and are fully submerged in the water. Insert the test leads of the multimeter to establish the voltage of the water. When the stopwatch reaches 90 seconds, take the wires the water.
14. Repeat steps 9 and 10.
15. Fold the paper towel in half three times, keeping the seeds in place. Set the paper towel into Ziploc plastic sandwich size bag that has (-,+) written on it. Pour the 10 ml of water from the graduated cylinder into the plastic bag and onto the folded paper towel. Seal the bag closed.
16. At this time, repeat steps 6 and 7.
17. This will be the (+,-) set of seeds. Therefore, insert the wires attached to the 12-volt battery and begin the stopwatch. Make sure the exposed ends of the wire are fully submerged in the water and kept on opposite sides of the beaker at all times. At this point use the digital multimeter to determine the voltage of the water by inserting the test leads into the water. Once the stopwatch reaches 30 seconds, pull the wires out of the water.


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18. Repeat steps 9 and 10.
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9. Fold the paper towel in half three times, keeping the seeds in place. Set the paper towel into Ziploc plastic sandwich size bag that has (+,-) written on it. Pour the 10 ml of water from the graduated cylinder into the plastic bag and onto the folded paper towel. Seal the bag closed.
20. At this point in time, repeat steps 6 and 7.
21. This will be the (+,+) set of seeds. Therefore, insert the wires attached to the 12-volt battery and begin the stopwatch. Make sure the exposed ends of the wire are fully submerged in the water and kept on opposite sides of the beaker at all times. At this point use the digital multimeter to determine the voltage of the water by inserting the test leads into the water. Once the stopwatch reaches 90 seconds, pull the wires out of the water.
22. Repeat steps 9 and 10.
23. Fold the paper towel in half three times, keeping the seeds in place. Set the paper towel into Ziploc plastic sandwich size bag that has (+,+) written on it. Pour the 10 ml of water from the graduated cylinder into the plastic bag and onto the folded paper towel. Seal the bag closed.
24. At the current time, steps 6 and 7 can be repeated.
25. This will be the Standard set of seeds. Therefore, insert the wires attached to the 9-volt battery and begin the stopwatch. Make sure the exposed ends of the wire are fully submerged in the water and kept on opposite sides of the beaker at all times. At this point use the digital multimeter to determine the voltage of the water by inserting the test leads into the water. Once the stopwatch reaches 60 seconds, pull the wires out of the water.
26. Repeat steps 9 and 10.
27. Fold the paper towel in half three times, keeping the seeds in place. Set the paper towel into Ziploc plastic sandwich size bag that has, Standard, written on it. Pour the 10 ml of water from the graduated cylinder into the plastic bag and onto the folded paper towel. Seal the bag closed.
28. Wait 24 hours.

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29. Open each bag and unfold the paper towel to reveal the seeds.


30. Record the number of seeds germinated for each set of seeds.


Diagram:


Figure 1. Experimental Setup
Figure I above shows the 10 radish seeds submerged underwater as they are electrified by the 6 volt battery. As shown, the wire is connected to the battery which is on opposite sides of the beaker.

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ata and Observations
Data:
Table 2

Amount of Seeds Germinated



DOE

Number of Seeds Germinated

(Voltage of Battery (V), Time Electrified (s))

(+,+)

(+,-)

(-,+)

(-,-)

Standards

1

7

4

3

2

4

2

9

5

3

2


Grand Average

4.75
5



3

8

4

2

3

5

4

7

6

4

3

5

5

10

5

3

2

4

6

8

5

4

2

4

7

6

5

5

4

6

8

8

6

4

3

6

Average:

7.875

5

3.5

2.625

4.875

Table 2 above shows all eight DOEs in the order that they were tested. Randomization was added into the experiment by the way the sets were tested in each DOE. For DOE 1 and 2, the sets were tested in the following order, to add randomization: (+,+),(+,-),(-,+),(-,-), and Standard. Sets 3 and 4 were tested in the order of Standard, (-,-),(-,+),(+,-),and (+,+). Then, sets 5 and 6 were tested in the following way: (+,-),(+,+),(-,-),(-,+), and Standard. The last sets, set 7 and 8, were tested Standard,(-,+),(-,-),(+,+), and (+,-).The order they were tested in may have affected the results slightly because some seeds were in the bags/paper towels slightly longer. By adding this factor of randomization, it ensured that the data was not corrupted in any way by the order of testing.

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able 3

Design of Experiment Values



Voltage(V)

Time Electrified(s)

-

Standard

+

-

Standard

+

6

9

12

30

60

90

The Design of Experiment factors are voltage and time electrified. The voltage values are 6 volts, 9 volts, and 12 volts. These values were determined after research was conducted online, on the topic of electricity and its effects on plants. Multiple experiments used batteries with voltages of 90, 110, 120, and generators. The only values that would be safe to use in a high school environment would be any values around the 9 volts, 110 and 120 volts are too dangerous. So, it was decided that the standard would be 9 volts and the other values would be 6 volts and 12 volts, so that they are of equal value difference from 9. The other factor is time electrified. From the past experiments, there was much variation in the values determined. The experiment conducted for the California State Science Fair used voltage close to the voltage used in this experiment (Gabdrakhmanova and Celine). The times that seemed to be significant and reasonable were around 100 seconds. In other experiments, the most common times used were 30 seconds, 1 minute, and 1.5 minutes. Since these values occurred the most and seemed to have significant results, they were chosen to be used in the experiment.



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bservations:

Table 4


Observations of Experiment

Date

Observations

3-20-12

Seeds germinated in one day. (+,-) and the standard are the same. Seeds that germinated look similar and paper towel wetness seems to be the same.

 3-21-12

(+,-) had 9 seeds. (+,-) and the standards are the same again with the previous day. Again, seeds that germinated look similar and paper towel wetness seems to be the same.

 3-22-12

(-, +) had one less seed germinated and (-,-) had an increase of one germinated seed. Germinated seeds are similar and paper towel is slightly drier.

 3-23-12

(-, +) grew by one seed. (+, +) and (+,-) are not constant. Seeds look similar and wetness has remained constant.

 3-26-12

(+, +) reached the highest amount of seeds possible. Every other DOE decreased by one seed from test four. 1-2 (+, +) seeds are growing small leaves while others only germinated.

 3-27-12

(+,-) and (-,-) stayed constant. Seeds that germinated look similar and paper towel wetness seems to be the same.

 3-28-12

Standard grew and became same as (+,+). Seeds are the same and wetness in identical in all sets.

 3-29-12

(+,-) and Standard are equal. Germinated seeds are similar and paper towel is regular dampness.

Table 4 shows the observations made during the experiment. These observations take note of the changes in the number of seeds germinated in their own sets. It also tells how the seeds look in comparison to one another and the dampness of the paper towel.




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Figure 2. Germinating Seeds Sets


Figure 2 shows one of the DOEs completed during the experiment. Though the sets look similar, the amounts of seeds germinated were different. The number of seeds germinated for each set are as follows: (+,+) is about 8 seeds, (+,-) is 5 seeds, Standard is about 5 seeds, (-,+) is about 4 seeds, and(-,-) is about 3 seeds. Obviously, the number of seeds germinated was affected by the amount of each variable.

The response variable of “number of seeds germinated” was determined during pre-trials. Once seeds were germinated, they were weighed, counted, and roots/shoot lengths were measured. The result that proved to have the most variation between sets was the number of seeds germinated; so, it was chosen to be used as to how they were measured. Determining what a germinated seed was and a germinated seed wasn’t had to be decided. A germinated seed was counted as one if its outer shell was broken and a small white root/shoot was protruding from the seed.

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ata Analysis and Interpretation
Data Analysis:


Voltage (V)

(-) 6

(+) 12

2.625

7.875

3.5

5

Avg =3.0625

Avg =6.4375

Table 5

Average Effect of Voltage


Figure 3. Effect of Voltage


Figure 3 above shows the effect of voltage. The graph was created using the points in Table 5 above. The numbers in Table 5 were taken from the average of the results of each set. The average represents the total effect of voltage when it was (+) or

(-). About 3 more seeds germinated with the (+) value and 6 seeds with the (-) value. The total effect of voltage is 3.375, the slope of the line. So, on average, as voltage increases, the number of seeds germinated increases by 3.375 seeds.

Table 6


Average Effect of Time



Time Electrified (s)

(-) 30

(+) 90

2.625

7.875

5

3.5

Avg =3.8125

Avg =5.6875


Figure 4. Effect of Time

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igure 4 shows the effect of time on the germination of the seeds. The graph was created using the results of Table 6. These factors were taken from the average result of the seeds that germinated. The average represents the effect of time for each variable of (+) and (-). This means that when time was (+), about 6 more seeds germinated, and when time was (-), about 4 more seeds germinated. The effect of time electrified on the seeds is 1.875, or the slope of the line. Therefore on average, as time electrified increases, the number of seeds germinated increases by 1.875 seeds.

Table 7

Interaction Effect Variables








Voltage(v)

(-) 6

(+)12

Time (s)

Solid Segment

(+)90

3.5

7.875

Dotted Segment

(-) 30

2.625

5

Time (+)

Time (-)

Figure 5. Interaction of Time and Voltage


Figure 5 above shows the interaction effect of voltage and time electrified. The graph was created using the points determined in Table 7. Table 7 was created by rearranging the numbers of the average results of seeds germinated. The graph implies that there is no interaction between the two factors. The slope of the line segment Time (+), representing the high level of time, is greater than the slope of line segment Time (-), representing the low level of time. Therefore, the slopes are not parallel, showing that there may be an interaction between the variables.

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Table 8

List of Standards





Standards

4

5

5

5

4

4

6

6

Figure 6. Standard Data Scatter Plot


Figure 6 above shows a scatter plot graph of the eight standard results based off of Table 8. Table 8 is the number of seeds germinated in the standards group for each DOE. The range of standards is 2 seeds. The graph does not show any pattern over time, but it is slightly linear, which is excellent for the experiment. The standards indicate that there is very little variability in the germination of the seeds. This shows that the design of experiment was developed nearly faultless, because nearly the same amount of seeds germinated for each test.
Interpretation:
The first factor in the experiment was voltage. The variables of voltage were 6 volts, 9 volts, and 12 volts. The effects of voltage can be seen in Figure 2. The graph was created using Table 5, which is the average of the effects of voltage. The numbers in Table 5 were taken from the average results of each set of seeds in the experiment. Each number was paired with another; each pair had a same factor of either voltage (+) or voltage (-). Then, the average of each pair, or voltage (+) and voltage (-), was found. These points were what made the graph (3.0625 and 6.4375). To find the numerical effect of the voltage, the difference of these numbers needed to be found. This number, 3.375, means that as the voltage variable increased, the number of seeds germinated increased by 3.375 seeds. The electricity is what stimulated the seeds to germinate faster. It affected the metabolism of the seed and caused it to grow faster.


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The second factor in the experiment was time electrified. The variables of time were 30 seconds, 60 seconds, and 90 seconds. This would affect the plant because the longer it is electrified, the greater the voltages effect will be. The effects of time can be seen in Figure 4. The graph was created using Table 6, which is the average of the effects of time electrified. The numbers in Table 6 were taken from the average results of each set of seeds in the experiment. Each number was paired with another; each pair had a same factor of either time (+) or time (-). Then, the average of each pair, or time (+) and time (-), was found. These points were what made the graph (3.8125 and 5.6875). To find the statistical effect of the time electrified, the difference of these numbers needed to be found. This number, 1.875, means that as the variable of time electrified increased, the number of seeds germinated increased by 1.875 seeds. This shows that the longer that the seeds were electrified, the harder the metabolism worked, producing more germinated seeds.

When the two factors were compared, the interaction effect was determined. Figure 5 implies that there is no interaction at all because the lines are not touching. But, the slopes of the lines played a significant role in determining the interaction effect. The slope of each line may be similar, but definitely not parallel or anywhere near. This implies that there may be an interaction effect between the two predictor variables. To calculate the interaction mathematically, the difference of the slopes had to be found. So using the values in Table 56and the data in Figure 5, the slope of each line was determined as 2.1875 and 1.1875. Finding the difference of these gives the effect of voltage vs. time electrified, which is 1. Although there is an interaction effect, the math implies that it is not significant. This is because to be significant, the effects absolute value needed to be greater than 4, 2x the range of standards. So, based on the graph and all of the mathematics, there is really no significant interaction between the two variables. This means that the variable of voltage and the variable of time electrified worked together in a small way to produce more germinated seeds, but in insignificant amounts. When the variables were compared in the interaction effect, they did have greater effects than the predicted estimations. This means that when the variables combined, they have a greater effect to produce more germinated seeds.


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The Standard Data Scatter Plot of Figure 6 shows the number of standard seeds germinated. According to the graph and Table 7, the range of the standards is only 2 seeds. A low variability of only 2 seeds means that the experimental design was created almost perfectly. As seen in Figure 4, there is no pattern shown over time. The range of standards can be used to find which effects are significant. The test of significance begins by dividing the effect by the range of standards, which is 2. Then, the absolute value of this quotient must be greater than or equal to 2. If the number is greater than or equal to 2, then it is considered one of the “vital few”. For this particular experiment, after each effect was calculated, none of the effects were significant. This means that each variable and the interaction effect had basically no effect on the number of seeds that germinated in their sets.

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onclusion

The hypothesis of the experiment is, if the Raphanus sativus seed is electrified at the highest voltage for the longest time, then the Raphanus sativus seed will germinate faster than a seed given low voltage and a short electrification time is supported by the tests. The original hypothesis was accepted after the testing was concluded. The experiment that was conducted used wet shock. Wet shock is the electrification of the Raphanus sativus seeds into water while using batteries. The results that came out were steady and the range of standards was only two. These results came out because the effects of electricity on plant cell metabolism processes contributes to plant growth and development depending on how it’s administered, according to a 1985 New York Times article on electricity and plant growth. Research conducted in 1985 by the Imperial College in London examined the effects of electrical current on tobacco plant cells grown in a laboratory setting. The results of the experiment occurred gradually with noticeable changes apparent after a few days and dramatic changes taking shape after 22 days (Goldsworthy and Rathore). These results are closely related to the current results.

There were small design flaws that occurred during the research project. During the entire experiment, plant growth seemed to be regular except for two instances where there were significant occurrences. The first was when all ten seeds of all five sets germinated. This did not agree with the previous data that was collected. This set of data was chosen to be omitted because it was faulty. The reason all ten seeds germinated was that the seeds were on top of a heater for at least 10 hours. The warm air helped all of the seeds to germinate at a quicker rate than expected. The room was at 23°C, but the room w
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as warmed and the seeds were on top of the heater, making them even hotter. This can be explained by the thermoperiod. Thermoperiod refers to daily temperature change. Plants produce maximum growth when exposed to a day temperature that is about 10 to 15°F higher than the night temperature, which the plants never reached (Friend and Helson). Therefore, the data was erroneous. The second occurrence was with a (+,+) set of seeds. As seen below in Figure 1, all 10 seeds germinated despite the regular seed count of 7 or 8. This data was recorded and kept because all of the other seed sets were similar to their records; also, the number 10 was a result that would only fit the (+,+) set, so it is accurate.


Figure 7. Set (+,+) with 10 Seeds Germinated

Figure 7 above shows the 10 seeds that germinated for the (+,+) set of seeds.
Another problem that had to be overcome was during the testing of the experiment are the seeds being placed in the water for too long. When changing the batteries to electrify the seeds stayed in the water for different amount of times. Some seeds might have stayed in the water for 20 seconds and others might have stayed in the water for five seconds.

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ne suggestion for future researchers to be better is to keep the seed in an area that has a constant temperature. It is also advised to always check the voltage of each battery, using a multimeter, before testing. Another suggestion is that the test could be applied to other types of plants or plant seeds. Electricity may affect certain plants one way and other plants in a different way. One more suggestion is that, if possible, the type of voltage could be changed. This experiment used the DC voltage of batteries. Other experiments could use AC voltage or another form. This research enhances the understanding of the topic because the results show the effects quite clearly.

This experiment is important for several reasons. According to some electroculture experiments, certain methods can enhance plant health, crop yield and quality, or cold-hardiness of the crop, and better resistance to disease and pests (Goss). If the results of the experiment are as expected, then farmers, gardeners, and other crop or plant growers can put it to good use. Farmers will use the concept to increase crop production . Gardeners can use it to make flowers grow quicker. If other tests prove that it can help with cold-hardiness and pest or disease control, it will help even further.

Some lessons that have been learnt are information about seeds. Another lesson that has been learned is never to procrastinate on research papers. Also to try the hardest and ask questions if the topic can not be understood. The main thing that was learned is to manage the time that is given to us. It has been learned that electrifying seeds with voltage would help the plants grow faster. Although this experiment was very difficult and time consuming, it was worthwhile.

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cknowledgement
The researchers would like to thank a lot of people for helping the researchers finish a successful experiment. Few of these terrific people are Mr. McMillan for letting the researchers borrow a multimeter to use for testing our voltages. Thanks to Havern and Chowdhury families for supporting the researchers throughout the whole experiment. The researchers would also like to acknowledge Mrs. Duddles for being so kind and helpful toward the whole research project. The help is appreciated from the help from Mrs. Hilliard Thanks to Mr. Acre for answering questions the researchers had.

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kinahan>.
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