Tertiary Species Chicken

Дата канвертавання20.04.2016
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Tertiary Species - Chicken

Hamer et al. 2013. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 242(4):477-481
Domain 1: Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Conditions
SUMMARY: Ten 18 week old female laying chickens were submitted for necropsy following an outbreak of severe respiratory track disease associated with open mouth breathing.  This accompanied an increased death loss in the flock on an organic farm where the birds were unvaccinated.  Gross findings included hemorrhagic exudates with soughed debris within the lumen of the trachea.  Kidneys in 2 of the birds were enlarged, pale and friable with pitting of the cortex.  There were no other gross lesions.  Histopath confirmed the necrotic, ulcerative and erosive lesions of the trachea.  Syncytial cells had nuclei with marginated chromatic and single, eosinophilic inclusions bodies.  Kidney lesions included infiltration of mononuclear cells.  Samples of tracheal tissues were assayed via PCR for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and the results were positive.  This is a contagious respiratory disease that develops in adult chickens and other Galliformes.  It is caused by gallic herpesvirus-1 in the genus Iltovirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirus, family Herpesviridae.  It infects the epithelial tissues of the upper respiratory track causing the lesions seen.  This results in clinical signs of tracheal rales and bloody discharge from the beak and nostrils. Decreased weight gain and egg production may also be seen. Transmission is through aerosol, ocular route and ingestion.  Stressful events are known to increase viral shedding.  This disease is listed as a list B disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE).  List B diseases are transmissible diseases that are of socioeconomic or public health importance within countries and that are important in the international trade of animals and animal products.  It is found worldwide but can be controlled by immunization with attenuated live virus vaccine.  Vaccines can be delivered via eye-drops, aerosols or drinking water.  Options for controlling an outbreak include depopulation, vaccination or nonintervention. 

  1.  What is the genus and species of the domestic chicken?

    1. Gallus gallus

    2. Anas platyrhynchos

    3. Anser serrirostris

    4. Cygnus atratus

  1. What is the infectious agent for infectious laryngotracheitis?

    1. A member of the Iltovirus genus

    2. Gallid herpesvirus-1

    3. An alphaherpesvirus

    4. All of the above

  2. Describe the definition of list B diseases of the World Organization of Animal Health.


  1. a.  According to this article, although I have seen Gallus domesticus and Gallus gallus domesticus depending on where you look. 

  2. d.

  3. Transmissible diseases that are of socioeconomic or public health importance within countries and that are important in the international trade of animals and animal products

Cline and Lockaby. 2012. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 241(10):1297-1300
SUMMARY: This is a case study involving commercial broiler chickens.  The facility reported an increased death rate in 27 days old chickens.  The chickens had been placed in the house after the used litter had been removed and the house was bedded with fresh peanut hulls.  The birds had been hatched at a local hatchery and were classified as Mycoplasma gallisepticum monitored, Mycoplasma synoviae monitored and avian influenza clean.  The birds were vaccinated against Marek’s disease in ovo and spray vaccinated against Newcastle disease and Arkansas strain of infectious bronchitis.  Six live birds were submitted for examination.
Clinical signs included small stature, difficulty remaining in an upright position and slight head tremor.  Following euthanasia via carbon dioxide, gross necropsy findings included multiple firm yellow to white nodules throughout the lungs and a small focus of white discoloration was seen in the cerebellum of one bird.  On histopathology, the lung nodules consisted of multiple coalescing granulomas characterized by foci of caseous exudate.  The granulomas were surrounded by multinucleate giant cells.  Unstained spaces in the shape of fungal hyphae were evident within the necrotic foci.  The same pattern was seen in the cerebellar lesion.  Application of a periodic acid-Schiff stain revealed features consisted with Aspergillus organisms.  Examination of the bursa of Fabricius from the birds revealed necrosis accompanied by depletion of lymphoid follicles, consistent with acute infectious bursal disease.  The lung and brain tissues were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and a final diagnosis of Aspergillus flavus was made.
Peanut hulls are known to support the growth of A. flavus.  There is anecdotal evidence of cases of A. flavus mycosis in the first flock to reside in poultry houses that have been bedded with fresh peanut hulls.  Susceptibility to aspergillosis in these birds was most likely increased by concurrent infectious bursal disease which creates severe and prolonged immunosuppression in chickens infected at an early age.   There is no effective treatment for aspergillosis in commercial poultry.  It is controlled by sanitation and avoidance of moldy feed and litter.

  1.  What is the genus/species of commercial broiler chickens?

  2. Marek’s disease is:

    1. Caused by an alphaherpesvirus

    2. In the Birnaviridae family

    3. Caused by a paramyxovirus

    4. Also known as avian distemper

  1. Infectious bursal disease is:

    1. Caused by an alphaherpesvirus

    2. In the Birnaviridae family

    3. Caused by a paramyxovirus

    4. Also known as avian distemper

  2. Periodic acid Schiff stain is used for:

    1. Polysaccharides

    2. Fungal elements

    3. Glycogen

    4. All of the above

  3. Sabouraud dextrose agar is used to culture:

    1. Intracellular bacteria

    2. DNA viruses

    3. Fungal elements, including dermatophytes

    4. RNA viruses


  1. Gallus domesticus

  2. A

  3. B

  4. D

  5. C

Tobias et al. 2011. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 239(8):1065-1069
Domain 1: Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Conditions


SUMMARY: An apparently healthy, 59-week-old Ross 708 broiler breeder hen from the Chicken Educational Unit, North Carolina State University, presented at necropsy.  Body weight and condition were within normal range; however the wall of the magnum of the oviduct was expanded by pinpoint to 5 mm-diameter, pale yellow-white, multifocal to coalescing, raised nodules and prominent vessels that were visible on the serosal surface.  On cut surface, nodules extended through all layers of the wall of the magnum.  The adjacent mesentery was expanded by individual and coalescing nodules of similar appearance.  Occasional similar lesions were present on the surface of the liver.  Ex situ examination revealed that lesions were limited to the magnum, mesentery, and liver; the shell gland, ovary, and other internal organs were unaffected. H&E staining revealed a greatly expanded magnum wall, partially effaced by a lobulated, densely cellular, unencapsulated, but well demarcated mass of neoplastic glandular structures supported by scant to moderate, well-vascularized, fibrous septae.  Glands were haphazardly arranged and lined by single to sometimes several layers of large, neoplastic epithelial cells that contained abundant, brightly eosinophilic, cytoplasmic granules consistent with ovalbumin, and round to oval, basally located, condensed, hyperchromatic nuclei that lacked visible nucleoli.  Mitotic figures were rare (<1/10 hpf at 400X).  Multifocal to coalescing areas of necrosis were evident in approximately 30% of the tumor.  Mesenteric and liver lesions were similar in appearance.


Morphologic Diagnosis: Oviduct adenocarcinoma with metastasis to mesentery and liver.


DDx Include: egg binding, which is a sequela of inflammatory disease; salpingitis, one of the most common diseases of laying hens under high production conditions (usually from ascending E. coli infections); other neoplasms. 


Comments: Ovary and oviduct adenocarcinomas increase in frequency from 2 years of age and beyond.  Reproductive tract tumors are rare in younger hens such as this, and more common in layers than broiler breeders.  The prevalence of oviduct adenocarcinomas can be quite high (5-81% in one study).  Oviduct adenocarcinomas generally arise from the glands of the magnum but can be found elsewhere in the oviduct.  They are highly malignant, seeding abdominal viscera and can be associated with ascites and decreased body condition but early stages generally do not disrupt egg-laying.  This case was unique because the disease was severe and yet had not affected body condition or egg production.   Oviduct adenocarcinoma has been identified in snakes and humans.  Cause is unknown but positive correlations have been found between the number of lifetime ovulations and number of mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 (looking at reproductive tract tumors, not just oviduct adenocarcinomas), between egg and body weights and incidence of neoplasia, supporting high production levels as an underlying cause.  Hens with oviduct neoplasia have higher circulating concentrations of estrogen.  A cell adhesion molecule, gicerin, has been identified as a necessary element for metastasis of oviduct adenocarcinoma.  Reproductive tract neoplasia in commercial poultry is a potential model of human disease but is of negligible economic consequence to the poultry industry because birds are relatively young when they conclude their productive cycles.



1.  Oviduct adenocarcinomas generally arise from the glands of what part of the oviduct?

2.  What molecule has been identified as an important factor in normal oviduct growth but also as a necessary element for metastasis of oviduct adenocarcinoma in chickens?

3.  At what age do oviduct adenocarcinomas become more common in chickens?

4.  What are the differentials for an enlarged oviduct in an apparently healthy, 59 week old chicken?



1.  Oviduct adenocarcinomas generally arise from the glands of the magnum.

2.  Gicerin, which is a cell adhesion molecule.  In vitro, migration of cells of this highly malignant neoplasm has been prevented after exposure to an anti-gicerin antibody.

3.  After 2 years of age.

4.  Egg binding (sequela to inflammation); salpingitis (usually E. coli); other neoplasms (e.g. leiomyoma, ovarian carcinoma)

Brinson et al. 2011. Pathology in Practice. JAVMA 238(8):987-989
Domain 1 (Management of Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Diseases and Conditions)
SUMMARY: A flock of 23-24 week old commercial broiler breeder chickens in 2 housing facilities reported an increasing number of cases of swollen tibiometatarsal (hock) joints which progressed to recumbency and inability to stand.  Most of the males were also underweight.  Housing conditions were damp with high temperatures and humidity.  Three chickens were submitted for necropsy.
Clinically, birds were underweight and depressed, with closed eyes, lameness, swollen joints/feet, and produced loose blood-tinged feces.  On gross examination, the cecal wall was necrotic and the mucosa thickened and had petechial hemorrhages.  Generalized hepatomegaly was present, along with multiple dark slightly depressed areas surrounded by multifocal, white, pinpoint lesions.  Histologically in the ceca, most of the mucosa was eroded or ulcerated and covered by amorphous granular to compact fibrillar eosinophilic exudate with degenerate inflammatory cells, necrotic debris, hemorrhage and bacteria.  Multiple areas in the lamina propria and submucosa contained abundant protozoal organisms in parasitic vacuoles.  The protozoa were round and eosinophilic consistent with histomonad trophozoites. 
Histomoniasis (also known as blackhead disease) is a protozoal disease caused by Histomonas meleagridis.  It is characterized by necrotizing lesions in the liver and ceca of turkeys, chickens, and other gallinaceous birds.  Secondary bacterial infections are common.  Histomonas meleagridis is a flagellate that is transmitted horizontally, especially through intermediate hosts such as the cecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum and earthworms.  Cecal and liver lesions seen in the chickens described are classic for the disease.  The characteristic target lesion in the liver is a circular depressed area of necrosis up to 1cm in diameter, which is circumscribed by a raised ring.  Important to note:  The FDA withdrew registration for all nitroimidazoles on the basis that they were suspected carcinogens.  Currently the poultry industry has no legal access to treatments for blackhead disease in turkeys or chickens.  Chickens are the major reservoir for infection.

  1. T/F:  Histomoniasis is transmitted vertically.

  2. T/F:  Histomonas meleagridis is the bacterial agent which causes histomoniasis.

  3. Histomoniasis affects:

    1. Passerines

    2. Psitaccines

    3. Aquatic birds

    4. Gallinaceous birds


  1. False.  Histomoniasis is transmitted horizontally via ingestion.

  2. False.  Histomonas meleagridis is a flagellated protozoal organism.

  3. D.  Histomoniasis affects turkeys, chickens, and other gallinaceous birds.

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