Term polygamy, which refers to the presence of unisexual and bisexual flowers on some or all individuals




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Renner —American Journal of Botany 101(#): ###-###. 2014. – Data Supplement S1 for the paper “The relative and absolute frequencies of angiosperm sexual systems: dioecy, monoecy, gynodioecy, and an up-dated online database.”



Appendix S1 for S. S. Renner: The relative and absolute frequencies of angiosperm sexual systems: dioecy, monoecy, gynodioecy, and an up-dated online database.
This list of genera with dioecious species was started in 1995 by going through Yampolsky, C., and H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1-62. The Y & Y data came from Engler and Prantl’s series “Natürliche Pflanzenfamilien” (up to 1912), with most sexual systems inferred only from herbarium material, not living populations. This led to the frequent use of the term polygamy, which refers to the presence of unisexual and bisexual flowers on some or all individuals. This term is useful when herbarium specimens reveal the presence of unisexual and bisexual flowers, but not their population-level distribution so that monoecy, dioecy, and gynodioecy cannot be reliably distinguished.
Sources: Over the years, many experts reviewed data for specific clades, and I also added corrections received via email or that I picked up in the literature. Yampolsky and Yampolsky (1922) are referred to below as “Y 32” where 32 is the the page number. Some other sources are cited at the end of this table as are the sources cited in this Introduction. I am grateful for corrections and additions.
Genera are assigned to families follwing the APG classification as implemented in GenBank in March 2014. Column 7, titled NCBI, shows a + for genera that have at least 1 sequence in GenBank, which means their taxonomic assignment to family and order hopefully reflects monophyletic groups. For the 72 genera not represented in GenBank, I followed the PlantList for their family assignment. The entry ++ means a phylogeny has been published that focuses on sexual systems.

In red, taxonomic assignments and numbers that have changed since 1995; in blue, families that are entirely dioecious;

Genera removed since 1995 as not containing dioecious species: Aceraceae/Sapindaceae: Dipteronia, not dioecious

Boraginaceae: Lepidocordia, Rochefortia, monoecious fide M. Gottschling, Univ. of Munich (LMU), 13 Jan. 2014

Rubiaceae: Genipa not dioecious fide C. Persoon, pers. comm. 5 March 2014

Styracaceae: Bruinsmia, not dioecious fide P. Fritsch in Fam. Gen. Vasc. Plants

Sapindaceae: Pappea capensis, monoecious, not dioecious (Robbertse et al. 2010).
On 3 May 2014, the list included 987 angiosperm genera, representing 7% of the 13,479 genera accepted in 1995 (Brummitt et al., 1992) or 6.7% of the 14,559 genera accepted in the The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/1.1/browse/A/#statistics vs. 1.1. of 13 Sep. 2013, accessed 12 Jan. 2014).
The 987 genera represent at least 869 independent origins of dioecy because 10 families with >1 genus are entirely dioecious.

The genera belong to 175 families (38%) out of the c. 450 families of angiosperms currently accepted.
Column 5 lists 15.600 dioecious species or 5% of the 304,419 species accepted in Plant List (many of which may be synonyms). If estimates of 240,000 or 261,750 species of angiosperms (Brummitt, 1992; P. Stevens, http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/welcome.html, accessed 10 Mar. 2014) are more correct, then 6% of angiosperm species would be dioecious. If, on the other hand, one accepts an estimate of 352,000 species of angiosperms (incl. ones not yet discovered/named; Paton et al., 2008), then 4.4%. of angiosperm species might be dioecious. Of course, some percentage of the unknown species are expected to be dioecious, so the fraction will continue to change.

Family

Genus

Order

Total spp

Dioe

spp


Other sexual systems

NCBI


Pollination

Geographic range

Aceraceae

Acer

Sapindales

124

13

Monoecious, duodichogamy, heterodichogamy,

Renner et al. 2007



+

Insects and wind

Northern Hemisphere, few species S to Borneo

Acharia.

Carpotroche

Malpighiales

11

11




+

insects

neotrop.

Acharia.

Dovyalis

Malpighiales

15

15




+

insects

warm Afr., Sri Lanka

Acharia.

Gynocardia

Malpighiales

1

1




+




Assam & Burma

Acharia.

Hydnocarpus

Malpighiales

40

30

Polygamous

+




Indomal.

Acharia.

Kiggelaria

Malpighiales

1

1




+

insects

trop. Afr.

Acharia.

Pangium

Malpighiales

1

1




+




Mal.

Acharia.

Ryparosa

Malpighiales

18

18




+




Mal.

Acharia.

Trichadenia

Malpighiales

2

2




+




E Malesia

Achatocarpa.

Achatocarpus

Caryophyll.

5

5




+

wind

neotrop.

Achatocarpa.

Phaulothamnus

Caryophyll.

1

1




+

wind

Mexico to California

Actinidia.

Actinidia

Ericales

30

8

Dio. or polygamous; X/Y sex chrom. in A. chinensis

+

insects

Indomal., E As.

Actinidia.

Saurauia

Ericales

300

10

Fls. bisexual, polygam. or polygamodio.

+

insects

neotrop.

Aextoxica.

Aextoxicon

Berberidopsidales

1

1




+

insects

Chile

Alismata.

Burnatia

Alismatales

1

1




+




trop. Afr.

Alismata.

Sagittaria

Alismatales

20

1

Monoecious, only S. latifolia dioecious

+

insects

cosmopol.

Amarantha.

Aerva

Caryophyll.

10

1

Fls. bisexual, polygamous or dio.

+

wind

paleotrop.

Amarantha.

Amaranthus

Caryophyll.

60

45

Dio. or polygamous; funct. dio. f. FGVP

+

wind

cosmopolitan

Amarantha.

Atriplex

Caryophyll.

300

50

Monoecious, polygamous, or polygamodio., trioecy McArthur et al. 1992

+

wind

cosmopol.

Amarantha.

Chamissoa

Caryophyll.

2

1




+

wind?

warm. Am.

Amarantha.

Deeringia

Caryophyll.

11

1




+

wind

OW tropics

Amarantha.

Endolepis (incl. Stutzia)

Caryophyll.

3

2

Monoecious

+

wind

E Eurasia

Amarantha.

Grayia

Caryophyll.

4

4

Occ. monoecious

+

wind

USA

Amarantha.

Iresine

Caryophyll.

80

30

Polygamous

+

wind

pantrop.

Amarantha.

Roycea

Caryophyll.

2

2




+

wind

Austr.

Amarantha.

Spinacia

Caryophyll.

3

3

Polygamodio.

+

wind

SE As.

Amarantha.

Zuckia = Grayia

Caryophyll.

1

1




+

wind

USA (Arizona)

Amborella.

Amborella

Amborellales

1

1




+

insects

New Caled.

Amphorogyna.

Dendrotrophe

Santalales

4

2

Monoecious

+




SE As., Austr.

Anacardia.

Amphipterygium

Sapindales

4

1




+

wind

Mexico & C. Am. driest forests

Anacardia.

Astronium

Sapindales

10

10

Polygamodio.

+

wind

trop. Am.

Anacardia.

Blepharocarya

Sapindales

2

1




+

insects

NE Austr

Anacardia.

Campnosperma

Sapindales

10

5

Polygamodio.

-

insects

neotrop., Madagas., SE As.

Anacardia.

Faguetia

Sapindales

1

1




+

insects

Madagas.

Anacardia.

Haematostaphis

Sapindales

2

2




-

insects

trop. Afr.

Anacardia.

Haplorhus

Sapindales

1

1




-

insects

neotrop.

Anacardia.

Harpephyllum

Sapindales

1

1




+

insects

Cape

Anacardia.

Heeria

Sapindales

1

1

Polygamodio.

+

insects

trop. Afr.

Anacardia.

Lannea

Sapindales

40

14

Mon. or dio.

+

insects

trop. Afr., Indomal.

Anacardia.

Laurophyllus

Sapindales

1

1

Polygamodio.

+

insects

S Afr.

Anacardia.

Lithrea

Sapindales

3

3

Polygamodio.

+

insects

neotrop.

Anacardia.

Loxopterygium

Sapindales

5

5

Polygamous Y 37

+

insects

neotrop.

Anacardia.

Loxostylis

Sapindales

1

1




+

insects

S Afr.

Anacardia.

Mosquitoxylum

Sapindales

1

1

Polygamous

+

insects

Jamaica

Anacardia.

Orthopterygium

Sapindales

1

1




+

wind

Peru

Anacardia.

Ozoroa

Sapindales

40

40




+

insects

trop. Afr.

Anacardia.

Parishia

Sapindales

5

4




-

insects

Indomal.

Anacardia.

Pegia

Sapindales

3

1




+

insects

SE As.

Anacardia.

Pistacia

Sapindales

9

9

Yi et al., 2008

++

wind

Medit., SE As., USA, C. Am.

Anacardia.

Pleiogynium

Sapindales

2

1




+

insects

SE As.

Anacardia.

Poupartia

Sapindales

12

4




+

insects

pantrop.

Anacardia.

Protorhus

Sapindales

21

15

Fls. bisexual or polygamodio.

+

insects

S Afr., Madagas.

Anacardia.

Pseudosmodingium

Sapindales

7

3




+

insects

Mexico

Anacardia.

Pseudospondias

Sapindales

2

1




+

insects

trop. Afr.

Anacardia.

Rhodosphaera

Sapindales

1

1

Polygamodio.

-

insects

Austr.

Anacardia.

Rhus

Sapindales

200

180

Polygamous Y 37 Young 1972: gynodio.

+

insects

temp. & warm, incl. S Afr.

Anacardia.

Schinus

Sapindales

27

20

Polygamodio.

+

insects

neotrop.

Anacardia.

Sclerocarya

Malpighiales

4

2

Monoecious

+

insects

trop. Afr.

Anacardia.

Semecarpus

Sapindales

60

50

Polygamous, gynodio

+

insects

Indomal.

Anacardia.

Smodingium

Sapindales

1

1

Polygamodio.

-

insects

S Afr.

Anacardia.

Spondias

Sapindales

10

1

Polygamous Y 37

+

insects

Indomal. to SE As.

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