Technology education mr. Sabur How Video Game Systems Work




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TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION Mr. Sabur
How Video Game Systems Work

By Jeff Tyson

Home video game systems, also known as consoles, are a popular form of entertainment. In 2000, Sony estimated that one out of every four households in the United States had a Sony PlayStation. That's a huge number! And then there are the homes with one of the many other game systems. At its core, a video game system is a highly specialized computer. In fact, most systems are based on the same central processing units (CPUs) used in many desktop computers. To keep the cost of the video game system within reasonable limits, most manufacturers use a CPU that has been widely available for long enough to undergo a significant decrease in cost.

Why would people buy a game console instead of a computer? There are several reasons:



  • It's usually much cheaper. Prices range from a high end of about $200 for the Sony PlayStation 2, to less than $30 for an older, used system.

  • There's no long wait for the game to load.

  • Video game systems are designed to be part of your entertainment system. This means that they are easy to connect to your TV and stereo.

  • There are no compatibility issues, such as operating system, DirectX drivers, correct audio card, supported game controller, resolution and so on.

  • Game developers know exactly what components are in each system, so games are written to take full advantage of the hardware.

  • The degree of technical knowledge required to set up and use it is much lower. Most game consoles are truly "plug and play."

  • Most video game systems have games that allow multiple players. This is a difficult process with a typical home computer.

A Short History

Video games have been around since the early 1970s. The first commercial arcade video game, Computer Space by Nutting Associates, was introduced in 1971. In 1972, Atari introduced Pong to the arcades. An interesting item to note is that Atari was formed by Nolan Bushnell, the man who developed Computer Space. He left Nutting Associates to found Atari, which then produced Pong, the first truly successful commercial arcade video game.


That same year, Magnavox offered the first home video game system. Dubbed the Odyssey, it did not even have a microprocessor! The core of the system was a board with about four-dozen transistors and diodes. The Odyssey was very limited -- it could only produce very simple graphics, and required that custom plastic overlays be taped over the television screen. In 1975, Atari introduced a home version of its popular arcade game, Pong. The original home version of Pong was sold exclusively through Sears, and even carried the Sears logo. Pong was a phenomenal success, opening the door to the future of home video games.

Although the Fairchild Channel F, released in 1976, was the first true removable game system, Atari once again had the first such system to be a commercial success. Introduced in 1977 as the Atari Video Computer System (VCS), the 2600 used removable cartridges, allowing a multitude of games to be played using the same hardware. The hardware in the 2600 was quite sophisticated at the time, although it seems incredibly simple now. It consisted of:



  • MOS 6502 microprocessor

  • Stella, a custom graphics chip that controlled the synchronization to the TV and all other video processing tasks

  • 128 bytes of RAM

  • 4-kilobyte ROM-based game cartridges

The chips were attached to a small printed circuit board (PCB) that also connected to the joystick ports, cartridge connector, power supply and video output. Games consisted of software encoded on ROM chips and housed in plastic cartridges. The ROM was wired on a PCB that had a series of metal contacts along one edge. These contacts seated into a plug on the console's main board when a cartridge was plugged into the system. When power was supplied to the system, it would sense the presence of the ROM and load the game software into memory.

Systems like the Atari 2600, its descendant, the 5200, Coleco's ColecoVision and Mattel's IntelliVision helped to generate interest in home video games for a few years. But interest began to wane because the quality of the home product lagged far behind arcade standards. But in 1985, Nintendo introduced the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), and everything changed. The NES introduced three very important concepts to the video game system industry:



  • Using a pad controller instead of a joystick

  • Creating authentic reproductions of arcade video games for the home system

  • Using the hardware as a loss leader by aggressively pricing it, then making a profit on the games themselves

Nintendo's strategy paid off, and the NES sparked a revival in the home video game market that continues to thrive and expand even now. No longer was home video game systems looked upon as inferior imitations of arcade machines. New games that would have been impractical to create for commercial systems, such as Legend of Zelda, were developed for the home markets. These games enticed many people who had not thought about buying a home video game system before to purchase the NES. Nintendo continued to develop and introduce new game consoles. Other companies, such as Sega and Sony, created their own home video game systems. Let's look at the core parts of any current video game system.



Game System Basics

The basic pieces really haven't changed that much since the birth of the Atari 2600. Here's a list of the core components that all video game systems have in common:



  • User control interface

  • CPU

  • RAM

  • Software kernel

  • Storage medium for games

  • Video output

  • Audio output

  • Power supply

The user control interface allows the player to interact with the video game. Without it, a video game would be a passive medium, like cable TV. Early game systems used paddles or joysticks, but most systems today use sophisticated controllers with a variety of buttons and special features. Ever since the early days of the 2600, video game systems have relied on RAM to provide temporary storage of games as they're being played. Without RAM, even the fastest CPU could not provide the necessary speed for an interactive gaming experience.

The software kernel is the console's operating system. It provides the interface between the various pieces of hardware, allowing the video game programmers to write code using common software libraries and tools. The two most common storage technologies used for video games today are CD and ROM-based cartridges. Current systems also offer some type of solid-state memory cards for storing saved games and personal information. Newer systems, like the PlayStation 2, have DVD drives.

All game consoles provide a video signal that is compatible with television. Depending on your country, this may be NTSC, PAL or possibly even SECAM. Most consoles have a dedicated graphics processor that provides specialized mapping, texturing and geometric functions, in addition to controlling video output. Another dedicated chip typically handles the audio processing chores and outputs stereo sound or, in some cases, digital surround sound!



The Games

The software used on these dedicated computer systems has evolved amazingly from the simple rectangular blips used in Pong. Games today feature richly textured, full-color graphics, awesome sound and complex interaction between player and system. The increased storage capacity of the cartridges and discs allows game developers to include incredibly detailed graphics and CD-quality soundtracks. Several of the video game systems have built-in special effects that add features like unique lighting or texture mapping in real-time.


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