Grades 3 to 8
Great Native American Leaders Series
Subject areas: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies
Synopsis: Chronicles Crazy Horse’s long struggle to protect Lakota land rights and remain free. Includes his early battles against Fetterman along the Bozeman trail and his victory in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Shows how the warrior was held back by his own people when the Lakota Chiefs aided the United States Army in his capture and arrest.
Objective 1) Students will be able to describe the culture and lifestyle of the Lakota Sioux before westward expansion, including their religious beliefs and spiritual ties to the Black Hills of South Dakota.
Objective 2) Students will be able to discuss the Lakota Sioux tribe’s conflicts with the United States over land rights, including the struggles caused by the construction of the Bozeman Trail and settlers’ illegal prospecting of the Black Hills.
Objective 3) Students will be able to discuss the Lakota victory in the Fetterman Fight and how the United States government responded to the defeat.
Objective 4) Students will be able to explain why Crazy Horse split from Red Cloud to join Sitting Bull and the Hunkpapa.
Objective 5) Students will be able to explain the significance of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, especially how the battle influenced the Lakota tribe’s standing with the United States government.
Objective 6) Students will be able to discuss the tension between the free Lakota and the reservation Lakota and how this disunity eventually led to the capture of Crazy Horse.
Pre-Viewing Discussion and Activities:
1) Define: sacred, commune, Great Spirit, holy men, treaty, vision, war chief, raid, massacre, westward expansion, pursue, abandon, agency, prospecting, violation, protest, negotiation, Sun Dance, skin offering, reservation, refuge, capture and scaffold.
2) Locate the Black Hills on a map.
3) Explore the concept of freedom. What does it mean to be free? What basic rights are essential to freedom?
1) What is the significance of the Black Hills in Lakota culture? What did Lakota Warriors do in the Black Hills? Why were White settlers interested in the Black Hills? What was the Lakota reaction to this?
2) Describe Crazy Horse’s vision as a young boy. What was the warrior doing in the vision? What held the warrior back? In what specific ways did Crazy Horse’s vision become reality?
3) Why did the United States government build the Bozeman Trail? Where was the trail located? How did the Lakota respond to the United States Army’s presence along the trail?
4) What was the compromise Red Cloud made with the United States government? Why did he make this compromise? How did Crazy Horse feel about Red Cloud’s decision? How would you describe Red Cloud’s priorities as a leader? How would you describe Crazy Horse’s priorities as a leader?
5) Why did George Armstrong Custer lead people into the Black Hills? Was this legal? What was President Grant’s solution to the treaty violation?
6) Why was the Battle of the Little Bighorn significant? How did the battle affect the free Lakota? The Lakota who lived on the reservation?
7) Why did the warriors split up after the Battle of the Little Bighorn? Where did they go? Would the outcome have been different if they had stayed together?
8) How would you describe Crazy Horse’s attitude towards the Lakota on the reservation? How did the reservation Lakota feel about him?
9) Who helped the United States Army capture Crazy Horse? What were their motivations for helping the United States Army? Who was Little Big Man? Why did Crazy Horse attack him?
1) In small groups, assign students to design memorials for Crazy Horse. Direct students to consider including some sort of art or poetry in their memorials and select a location for them. After each group has presented their memorial ideas, show students pictures of the Crazy Horse Memorial that is currently in progress. Photographs and information are available at www.crazyhorse.org.
2) Have students write journal entries either as young Lakota following Red Cloud to live on a reservation or young Lakota following Crazy Horse. Guide students to think about the different experiences of each group, including lifestyle, security, attitudes towards the U.S. Army, how they were affected by the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and their feelings towards the other group.
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