Table of Contents Gresham 3




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Group 4; ILS 504-S71

Reference Materials Evaluation Set Three: Factbooks


Group 4

Anne Gresham, Jessica Karjanis, Frank Skornia, & Donna Stanford


ILS 504-S70: Reference Sources and Services

Dr. Okobi

Southern Connecticut State University

March 15, 2010



Table of Contents
Gresham 3

Britannica Book of the Year 3

Cambridge Fact Finder 4

The Chicago Manual of Style 5

Columbia Guide to Online Style 6
Karjanis 8

Facts on File World News Digest 8

Modern Language Association Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 9

Publication Manual of the American Psychology Association 10

A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations 11

Additional References 13


Skornia 14

McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 14

New York Public Library Desk Reference 15

The Statesman’s Yearbook 16

The New York Times Almanac 17
Stanford 19

Entry 1 19

Entry 2 20

Entry 3 21



Entry 4 22

Britannica Book of the Year
Citations
Sparks, K.J. (Ed.) . (2008). Britannica book of the year. Chicago, IL: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopaedia Britannica online library edition (2010). Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.library.eb.com/ (via http://www.springdalelibrary.org)
Purpose
This book serves as a supplement to the full encyclopedia. It covers topics of interest and world events and statistics from the year 2007.
The electronic edition of the encyclopedia contains the full Britannica Encyclopedia. This is an excellent reference tool and research aid, particularly for students.
Scope
The printed work is comprehensive, covering international material. However, it is limited by time frame. It contains extended coverage and analysis.
The electronic encyclopedia includes the Encyclopedia Britannica (over 73,000 articles), as well as Britannica editions for specific age groups. It also includes Britannica’s directory of useful websites, article and journal search through EbSCO and ProQuest, quotations, literature, videos, dictionaries and thesauri, and more.
Organization
The table of contents lists dates of 2007, people of 2007, special reports, events of 2007, the world in 2007, and world data. It also includes an alphabetical index.
The electronic edition is searchable by keyword, and the advanced search accepts Boolean logic and allows users to limit their search by resource. Users can also browse the index, subjects, year in review, biographies, contributors, and articles A-Z.
Entries
Each print entry includes analytic treatment of the topic. Some also include color photography, maps, charts, or graphs. The “world data” section is similar to an almanac – it presents statistical information in chart form.
Electronic encyclopedia entries are similar in content to the print edition, but also include Wiki-style links, allowing for fast browsing of related topics.
Authority
Encyclopaedia Britannica is a household name. Further, the book includes a list of contributors, along with their credentials.
Timeliness
Book of the Year is published annually. I could not locate update information for the electronic edition.
Limitations
Book of the Year suffers from physical limitations. The encyclopedia set takes up a large amount of shelf space that only increases with the addition of the annual year book. In contrast, the online edition offers the entire encyclopedia with enhanced browsing (Wiki-style links), year in review, websites, and periodical indexes.

The Cambridge Fact Finder
Citation
Crystal, D. (Ed.) . (1993). The Cambridge fact finder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Purpose
The Cambridge Fact Finder is a collection of organized facts intended for research or recreational purposes.
Scope
The book does not include definitions or extended analysis of topics. Selection for inclusion is largely based on predicted popular demand. The work includes over 180,000 facts.
Organization
The book is organized by subject. Subject headings are listed in the table of contents, as well as subdivisions within each. An alphabetical index is also included for users needing very specific information.
Entries
Due to the nature of its content, the work contains a variety of entry styles, including charts, lists, maps, etc. Most entries contain a brief paragraph of information.
Authority
Over 250 experts assisted with the compilation, which also carries the authority of Cambridge University.
Timeliness
The book is several years out of date. However, while it may be lacking recent data, much of the information is still accurate.
Limitations
This is a British publication, and consequently emphasizes information of interest to Britain. Some measurements may confuse U.S. views (Celsius instead of Fahrenheit, for example).
The Chicago Manual of Style
Citations
The Chicago manual of style (15th ed.) . (2003). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
The Chicago manual of style online (2007). The University of Chicago. Retrieved from http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org
Purpose
The Chicago Manual of Style is an American English style guide for use by anyone whose profession depends upon standardized presentation of the language.
Scope
The Chicago Manual of Style covers every element of a published document and provides a consistent format for manuscript preparation. The fifteenth edition also includes a chapter on grammar and usage. The fifteenth edition also takes into account the special considerations of electronic publishing.
The manual is also published on the internet, where for the price of a subscription, users can search, participate in forum discussions, take advantage of personalization features such as style sheets, and more.
Organization
The book is arranged in 18 chapters, as follow: 1. The parts of a published work, 2. Manuscript preparation and manuscript editing, 3. Proofs, 4. Rights and permissions, 5. Grammar and usage, 6. Punctuation, 7. Spelling, distinctive treatment of words, and compounds, 8. Names and terms, 9. Numbers, 10. Foreign languages, 11. Quotations and dialogue, 12. Illustrations and captions, 13. Tables, 14 Mathematics in type, 15. Abbreviations, 16. Documentation I, 17. Documentation II, and 18. Indexes. It also includes two appendices – Design and Production – Basic Procedures and Key Terms, and The Publishing Process for Books and Journals. A bibliography and index to the resource are also included. Each rule-containing paragraph is numbered and titled for easy reference and navigation.
Entries
Each style rule is clearly and concisely explained and paired with an example (where applicable).
Authority
The Chicago Manual of Style has been a publishing staple since 1905. It has been extensively revised and rewritten to reflect the current style used by the University of Chicago, as well as input from the press, authors, advisory committees, and recently, users of the website.
Timeliness
Both the print and electronic editions are slightly out of date (2003 and 2007, respectively).
Limitations
The print and electronic versions may not include newer style guidelines for the expanding set of published digital material. This may not be the best resource for students who are required to use a particular citation style (APA, MLA, etc.), as The Chicago Manual of Style does not favor a specific format but rather advocates the use of basic elements and consistency
The Columbia Guide to Online Style
Citation
Walker, J.R. & Taylor, T. (2006). The Columbia guide to online style (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Purpose
The book attempts to provide stylistic guidelines for online publishing.
Scope
The Columbia Guide to Online Style covers research guidelines, citation style in the humanities and the sciences, and style guidelines for preparing print and electronic publications. The work acknowledges that new formats might become available before the next edition is printed, but assert that their work’s suggested standards and guiding principles will remain applicable.
Organization
The book is divided into two sections: locating and citing source materials, and preparing manuscripts for print and electronic publication. It is subdivided into chapters and sections providing specific guidelines for research, citing electronic materials, document style, print document preparation, and electronic document preparation. It also contains six appendices: starting points for online research, file extensions, abbreviations, other documentation styles, selected bibliography, and ISO Latin-1 characters and control characters.
Chapters
Each chapter contains clear stylistic advice and examples, usually with screen shots if such graphics are appropriate.
Authority
The authors worked with the support of several universities, as well as students, teachers, and researchers.
Timeliness
The second edition was published in 2006, making the book four years out of date.
Limitations
Considering its subject material, this work would be more appropriate and useful if offered as an online resource. Though the authors insist the book’s standards will still apply in the future, an updated edition would be helpful.


Facts on File World News Digest with Index
Citation
Facts on File World News Digest with Index. New York: Facts on File, 1940- .
Purpose
This source is designed to be used by people researching world events, focusing on “factual content, rather than opinion or analysis.” (Facts on File, 2010.)
Authority

This source has been published weekly since 1940. Facts on File is an imprint of Infobase.


Scope

This source compiles information from over “100 major newspapers, news magazines, other periodicals, and government and online sources from the U.S. and around the world into a permanent, researchable record.” (Facts on File, 2010.) Its sources are mostly from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and France. (World News Digest, 2010.)


Format
According to Worldcat, no Connecticut libraries held a print copy of a Facts on File: World News Digest yearbook, so no physical pages were available for examination. However, the entries in the online database were clear and easy to read. Bold print was used for headings.
Arrangement

Weekly editions are mailed to the library; they are designed to be put in a binder that is included in the purchasing cost. Additionally, the library receives monthly and quarterly indexes.



Entries

An online database entry about the recent earthquake in Chile contained an article, accompanying photos and charts, and a citation.


Use
This resource is used to find news article about world events. A researcher could use World News Digest to find articles about the recent earthquakes in Chile – or, a researcher could find articles about any major world event that occurred from 1940 to the present.
Special Features
In the print version, cross-references refer to early issues when needed and purchasing cost includes an atlas. Additionally, there is an online version available by subscription, which includes cross-references, many search options, and curriculum materials for educators. All online database entries are in full-text.
Overall
Worldcat was unable to locate a library in Connecticut that held the 2008 or 2009 World News Digest in print form. However, several local libraries held subscriptions to the online database. Therefore, it seems that the online version has surpassed the print version in ease of use.
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
Citation
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Joseph Gibaldi, ed. 6th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2003.
Purpose
The purpose of this resource is to guide writers of research papers through the writing process, and to provide a standardized format for arranging research papers.
Authority
The MLA Handbook has been published since 1977; the seventh and most recent edition was published in 2009. Its format is accepted by educational institutions as a way to arrange research papers on humanities topics, “especially language and literature.” (“What is MLA Style?” 2010)
Scope
This source includes the following chapters: Research and Writing, Plagiarism, the Mechanics of Writing, The Format of a Research Paper, Documentation: Preparing the List of Works Cited, Documentation: Citing Sources in a Text, Abbreviations, Selected Reference Works by Field, and Other Systems of Documentation.
Format
Pages are formatted according to the information contained therein. For instance, some sections are instructional prose, other sections have lists and/or bullet points, and still other sections contain illustrative diagrams. Print is easy to read. Bold, red, capitalized print is used for section headings; bold, red print is used for main headings; and bold, black print is used for subheadings. Examples are shown in a contrasting font.
Arrangement
This source is arranged in chapters by topic. It also contains a table of contents and a subject index.
Entries
Entries contain information that is suggested by its main heading and/or subheading. For instance, the entry under the section heading “CITING ELECTRONIC SOURCES,” the main heading “An Article in an Online Periodical,” and the subheading “An Article in a Scholarly Journal” contains information on how to cite a scholarly journal article that is published in an online periodical. (Gibaldi, 2003. p. 207-222)


Use

One question this source answers is, “How do I format an MLA-style works cited page?” (Gibaldi, 2003. p. 321) Another question it answers is, “What is plagiarism and how do I avoid it?” (Gibaldi, 2003. p. 65-75)
Special Features
The MLA Handbook has many diagrams to explain formatting. It also has extensive citation examples. Having used this handbook as both a student and a teacher, I have never encountered a type of source that was not included in the MLA Handbook’s citation examples.
Overall
This is a resource that every public and academic library should have. It is inexpensive and widely used. In fact, high school and college students who write many MLA-style research papers should purchase a copy so they have it on hand.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Citation
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1994.
Purpose

APA style is used for scholarly writing in “the social and behavioral sciences,” and its rules are “detailed in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.” (APA, 2010.)



Authority
APA style is a standard format accepted by educational institutions for certain types of writing. As this source is published by the organization that put forth this style, clearly it is authoritative. The most recent edition was published in 2009.

Scope
Topics covered in this manual include organizing a manuscript, writing mechanics, writing without bias, and citing sources.
Format
Print is easy to read. Bold type is used for chapter headings. As with the MLA Handbook, format depends on the information being conveyed.
Arrangement
This manual contains chapters for various topics, appendices, and a subject index.
Entries
As with the MLA Handbook, the information in the entries varies according to the topic that is being covered.
Use
One question this source answers is, “How do I format my psychology manuscript?” Another question it answers is, “How can I avoid plagiarism?” (“Basics of APA Tutorial,” 2010.)
Special Features
The manual contains diagrams and illustrations where necessary. The APA website contains a basic tutorial on APA style.
Overall
This source is another must-have for public and academic libraries because it is easy to read and widely used. It is the authoritative source for APA style.
A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations
Citation
Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations. 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Purpose
This manual is designed to help students to research and write college-level papers – according to one reviewer, “everything from undergraduate papers to doctoral dissertations.” (Amazon.com, 2010.)

Authority
This manual was first published in 1937; the seventh and most recent edition was published in 2007 with revisions by Gregory C. Colcomb, Wayne C. Booth, and Joseph M. Williams, all distinguished writers and English professors. The current version reflects The Chicago Manual of Style. (Amazon.com, 2010.)
Scope
“This new edition includes information on the components of a long formal paper; the mechanics of writing style, from abbreviations to quotations; how to prepare and refer to tables and illustrations; the most commonly used systems of citation, including how to cite electronic documents; manuscript preparation and hints on word processing software; and formatting some of the complex features found in many research papers, including over two dozen sample pages.” (Turabian, 1996. Back cover.)
Format
This source is easy to read. Bold print is used for chapter headings. Blue, bold type is used for subject headings, and examples of various items are printed in blue using a contrasting font. (Turabian, 2007. p 297.)
Arrangement
This manual contains a table of contents, the main section, an appendix on paper submission, a bibliography, and a subject index. Topics are divided into chapters. Prose has a conversational tone, often directly addressing the reader. For instance, a line in the introduction of the seventh edition advises the reader, “You can’t plunge into a project blindly.” (Turabian, 2007. p 3.)
Entries
Entries are formatted according to the topic being addressed. For instance, the introduction has regular prose with some bullet points. The chapter about comma use alternates explanation with examples.
Use
This source is helpful to use during the writing process. For instance, it provides information on effective note-taking and drafting strategies. Furthermore, it explains citations and has a section on writing style and mechanics.
Overall
This is a well-reviewed and authoritative source that would be useful for patrons of academic and public libraries. It is especially useful for upper-level undergraduates, graduate students, and PhD students.

Additional References

“About Print Subscriptions.” Facts on File. .


“Basics of APA Style.” American Psychology Association. 2010. 12 March 2010. http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/index.htm
“A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Seventh Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers (Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing) (Paperback).” Amazon.com. 2010. 14 March 2010. .

“What is MLA Style?” Modern Language Association. 2010. 12 March 2010. .


“World News Digest.” Facts on File. 2010. 12 March 2010. .

McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology

Citation
McGraw-Hill yearbook of science & technology. (2004). McGraw-Hill: New York.
Purpose
The purpose of this reference work is to “provide a broad overview of important recent developments in science, technology, and engineering.” It also, “satisfies the nonspecialist reader’s need to stay informed about important trends in research and development that will advance our knowledge in the future of fields ranging from agriculture to zoology and lead to important new practical applications (McGraw-Hill, 2004, xiii). This work is designed both to be a quick reference to find basic information on a scientific topic, but also as a starting point for more research. It would help provide additional search terms to aid research, as well as provide bibliographical materials to find more resources elsewhere.
Scope
This particular edition spotlights recent advances made in the biomedical sciences with attention to RNA interference, predictive genetics of cancer, and tissue engineering. This volume contains about 150 brief articles on a wide range of scientific topics.
Organization/Arrangement
This resource is organized alphabetically by article title. It has a subject index, which is alphabetically arranged by main subject and then by secondary subject.
Entries
The entries are presented similar to encyclopedia articles, which makes sense as this is meant to be an annual supplement to a larger encyclopedia set. Most of them offer an introductory overview of the topic, and then break into subsections to explain the finer points of the topic.
Documentation
Each article is followed by a brief bibliography of the sources used and recent publications for that topic.
Illustrations
This resource provides photographs, charts, and illustrations where they are need to best explain the topic.
Accuracy
This resource receives strong reviews both in terms of usefulness and in accuracy.

Timeliness/Currency

The library I examined this resource at had only the supplements up to 2004; this reduces its currency considerably as more than half a decade has past since its publication. This lack of currency is particularly acute in a field of rapid development like science and technology. To give an example, this volume included an article on the planetoid Pluto at a time when Pluto was still classified as one of the nine planets in our Solar System.


New York Public Library Desk Reference
Citation
New York Public Library desk reference (3rd ed.). (1998). Macmillan: New York.
Purpose
The New York Public Library Desk Reference serves the basic purpose of being “a compendium of basic information about a variety of subjects that allows readers to efficiently find answers to their questions” (New York Public, 1998, xv). This resource is an ideal location to find basic answers to general questions commonly asked at a reference desk.
Organization/Arrangement
The Table of Contents reveals the organizational scheme of this resource quite well. It has divided itself into six broad categories: The Physical World, The World of Ideas, The Way We Communicate, Daily Life, Recreation, and The Political World. Each of these categories is broken down into secondary categories, which each of those being broken down into sections, and then subsections. So, for someone unsure of exactly what they’re looking for, they can work their way down the hierarchy of categories and sections. In addition, there is a comprehensive subject index in the book to enable precision information searching.
Entries
The content of the entries varies depending on best way to present the information being presented. This includes forms like brief articles, charts, tables, and illustrations.
Documentation
At the end of each subsection, this resource provides a bibliography of additional resources, but does not provide direct references to the information provided.
Accuracy
The note from the editors mentions that they attempted to produce a work as error free as possible. According to reviews of this edition there are complaints about typesetting errors, especially on tables where information is shown in the wrong columns. Overall the reviews are favorable for its usefulness and accuracy of information though.

Timeliness/Currency
The edition that I examined is the 3rd edition printed in 1998, which is twelve years ago. In the preface, the President of the NYPL mentions that this edition will contain numerous web sites and phone numbers, which by this point many of those sites may no longer be available or the phone numbers may not be valid. In addition, certain sections of information, like “Countries of the World”, and information regarding winners in various sport events. Fortunately, a lot of this extremely mutable information is easily available through internet searches, whereas much of the other information in this resource remains valid.
The Statesman’s Yearbook
Citation
Turner, B. (Ed.). (2009) The statesman’s yearbook: The politics, cultures, and economies of the world 2010. Palgrave Macmillan: New York.
Purpose
This resource provides economic and political overviews, world leader profiles, an array of social statistics, and a chronology of the global credit crunch. It serves as a general reference to current political and economic information from around the world. According to the editor’s preface, the purpose of this book is “to say how it is, not how it might be” (Turner, 2009, xxxvi).
Organization
This resource is divided into two main parts. The first deals with information regarding international organizations. It separates the organization by their region, with the United Nations and its parts having its own section. This part also includes a couple of major treaties. The second part is separated into the countries of the world, and then their various subsections (for example the United States and the individual states). In addition, there are general fact sections and chronologies located in the preface. Finally it offers two indexes. The first is a current leader index, which allows researchers to find references to particular world leaders. The second is a place and international organization index.
Entries
The entries are presented like encyclopedia articles on the various nations and organizations. They list key historical events, geographical information, and political and economical information about the nations or organizations.
Documentation
At the end of the book, prior to the two indexes, The Statesman’s Yearbook provides a list of the sources for its data and information.
Accuracy
Based on the reviews and the list of documentation compiled for its sources, this resource offers an excellent degree of accuracy.
Timeliness/Currency
The volume evaluated here is the 2010 edition, so despite some changes in political leadership, most of the information contained is current and applicable to current research. In addition, the publishers provide free access to their online resource (by using a code printed on the front cover), which is continually updated and added to by the editors. So, if there is a question regarding the timeliness of information, it is easy for either a user or a reference librarian to find the most recent information.
The New York Times Almanac
Citation
Wright, J. W. (Ed.). (2009) The New York Times 2010 almanac. Penguin Books: New York.
Purpose
This resource “provides in-depth national and international coverage of politics, education, health, medicine, the economy, the environment, science, technology, awards and prizes, sports, and a host of other topics” (Wright, 2009, back cover). This resource provides a great deal of current and retrospective information regarding a large range of topics. It works as a ready reference source for finding specific data or information.
Organization
The Almanac is organized by several broad categories that are then broken down into more specific topics. This allows a user to narrow down their information search to what they precisely need. Furthermore, it offers a separate section of maps. Finally, there is subject index at the end to aid a user in finding a particular piece of information.
Entries
The entries are formatted to best suit the information being provided. Some topics are covered by articles on the subject; other topics are answered by charts or tables.
Documentation
There is no defined list of resources used to compile the information contained in the Almanac. The only reference I could find was that the information was provided by the sources and writers of The New York Times.
Accuracy
Being a relatively recent publication (the library only cataloged this book on February 11), there were not very many reviews available for this work yet. The reviews that are available though, note typographical and formatting errors throughout the work. In addition, this almanac lacks features, like “Important People”, that are found in other commonly used almanacs.
Timeliness/Currency
This is the most recently published edition, so it was able to update a great deal of information. In order to supplement the timeliness of this document, the editors were able to insert a section regarding late breaking news that contains some information that could not be fit into the main body before publication. A lot of the information contained in here will not change, either being standard facts or retrospective information (like a country’s official language or the list of Oscar winners). The information that will change will lose its usefulness as the year progresses.




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