Table of contents executive Summary

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[GRAPHICS: Figure 64: Welcome sign for the Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility; Figure 65: The DAOF hangar allows co-location of numerous large and small aircraft; Figure 66: Steve Volz speaks at the DAOF dedication ceremony; and Figure 67: Installation of the NASA meat-ball on the new facility.)


Collaborations and Partnerships

FAA Liaison Efforts

In a continuing effort to address access for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to the National Airspace system (NAS) in support of our science missions, the Airborne Science Program has maintained a liaison within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Unmanned Aircraft Program Office (UAPO). The relationship between the FAA and NASA has grown stronger as a result of the liaison, with a greater understanding within the FAA of NASA’s mission needs and its robust safety processes. By actively working with the FAA, the Airborne Science Program has been successful in obtaining key permissions for important and high profile operations. Two noteworthy successes occurred this year, with the granting of the Certificate of Authorization (COA) for Aerosonde Hurricane Operations in the Atlantic Ocean north of Barbados airspace, and for the Global Hawk Pacific Mission (GloPAC) that is to occur in early 2010 over the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. A significant amount of coordination by the FAA went into both of these COAs and reflects the relationship that has been established between the FAA and NASA.

Certificate of Authorizations (COA)

The Certificate of Authorization (COA) continues to be the only method for federal public UAS to access the NAS. This year a total of 12 COAs were issued to NASA and 16 applications for both new and renewals of continuing operations are waiting to be approved. The COAs are broken out by center in the table below.

A record number of COA applications were received by the FAA this year, which has resulted in a severe backlog. A corresponding lag in application approvals has occurred, with many applications taking several months more than the standard 3 months to be processed. However, the FAA has recognized that there is an issue, and is taking multiple steps to remedy the problem. As a starting point, all the COAs that have applications awaiting approval that are renewals for previous operations have been given extensions that expire August 31, 2010. While this is not a solution in itself, it does demonstrate that the FAA is cognizant of the effect of the problem on on the UAS community and that it is willing to take steps to assure that operations can continue uninterrupted until the backlog is relieved. Staffing levels are being increase and a full review of the COA process is underway to help identify ways to streamline the process, particularly for renewals that are unchanged from the previous year.

This year, NASA was invited to join the newly formed UAS Executive Committee (UAS ExCom). The UAS ExCom is a multi-agency Federal executive-level committee comprised of the FAA, Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need for the UAS operated by each of these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, and research and development requirements, and that technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions are needed to deliver incremental capabilities leading to routine access. The primary goals of the UAS ExCom are to

1) Coordinate and align efforts between key federal government agencies to achieve routine safe federal public UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS).

2) Coordinate and prioritize technical, procedural, regulatory, and policy solutions needed to deliver incremental capabilities.

3) Develop a plan to accommodate the larger stakeholder community, at the appropriate time.

4) Resolve conflicts between Federal Government agencies (FAA, DoD, DHS, and NASA), related to the above goals.

The Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) is representing NASA on the UAS ExCom. To ensure participation from the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), and thus the Airborne Science Program, NASA has two representatives on the UAS ExCom Senior Steering Group (SSG), one from the Airborne Science Program and one from ARMD. These individuals work closely with the Associate Administrator to ensure all of NASA’s UAS interests are represented appropriately to the ExCom. The formation of the UAS ExCom is significant in that it represents a tangible commitment by FAA senior leadership to address the UAS airspace access challenge.

Other FAA Activities

The liaison continued to support the FAA UAPO with important technical studies and rulemaking activities. The recommendations produced by the Small UAS Aviation Rule Making Committee (sUAS ARC), an activity heavily supported by NASA last year and this, were finalized earlier in the year. The recommendations are now going through a Safety Risk Management Panel (SRMP) to be assessed for safety and NASA is participating in this activity. Other work includes an ongoing study about using TCAS on UAS and developing criteria for UAS contingency planning. NASA also participated in HUREX, a collaborative decision environment experiment conducted by MITRE to assess disaster response (specifically hurricane landfall) by multiple agencies using UAS.

[GRAPHIC: Table 3: Certificates of Authorization issued in 2009.]

International Activities and Collaborations

In FY2009, Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geoscience Research and Applications (ICCAGRA) representatives voted to create a working group for coordinating agency activities related to the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The working group was formed with representatives from NASA, NOAA, NSF, USGS, and NRL and was co-chaired by Matt Fladeland and Brenda Mulac from NASA. The purpose of the working group is to encourage open communication and information exchange between the agencies about plans to use UAS and to describe roadblocks to implementation. The working group provides a forum in which each of the member agencies can share lessons learned from UAS operations and other UAS experiences. The first priority of the working group is to summarize the various requirements and use cases for each agency, and then provide a concise summary to the FAA to further their understanding of our needs for accessing the National Airspace System.
As a part of the Airborne Science Program (ASP) initiative to increase dialog and cooperation with the airborne activities of other nations, as well as with international governmental and non-governmental multilateral organizations, we have increased our participation in the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS). First, we have identified the International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (ISRSE), an ISPRS symposium, as the major forum for increasing ASP dialog with the international airborne community as well as with the international community of researchers whose focus is space acquired data. In addition ASP initiated and currently participates in Working Group 1, Standardization of Airborne Platform Interface, of ISPRS Commission I, Image Data Acquisition-Sensors and Platforms.
In May of 2009, ASP participated in the 33rd International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment in Stresa, Italy. ASP participants exhibited NASA technology, attended workshops and exchanged technical papers with approximately 1,000 delegates from more than 50 countries. The 34th ISRSE will be convened in Sydney, Australia in April of 2011.
The first meeting of ISPRS Working Group I-1 was convened as an adjunct to the 33rd ISRSE in Stresa. NASA and other members of the U.S. ICCAGRA Committee were joined in the working group meetings by the European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) from Toulouse, France and by the Center for Earth Observations and Digital Earth (CEODE) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from Beijing, China.
The second meeting of the working group will be held in Calgary, Canada in June of 2010 as a part of the ISPRS Commission I Symposium.
Since 2005 the Interagency Working Group for Airborne Data and Telecommunications Systems (IWGADTS) has been a subgroup to ICCAGRA for the purpose of developing recommendations leading to increased productivity and interoperability among airborne platforms and instrument payloads. The IWGADTS group produces increased synergy among research programs with similar goals and enables the suborbital layer of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems.
This past year IWGADTS held its regular spring meeting in Boulder and conducted outreach via overview paper number PS-C3-13 at the 33rd International Symposium for Remote Sensing of Environment (ISRSE). The efforts of IWGADTS dominated EUFAR report DN6.4.1 (draft) on US standards and protocols for data exchange and data links. Works in progress this year include recommendations for sensor alert services and for command/query of remote instruments during real-time operations. For post flight data archives, file formats, metadata management, and data discovery recommendations are being discussed.



Media, Education and Outreach


The National Suborbital Education and Research Center – a cooperative agreement between NASA and the University of North Dakota – provides education and public outreach support to the Airborne Science Program. Educational support includes student research opportunities and public outreach support includes mission-related outreach, exhibits at conferences, engaging the public through social networking outlets and connecting with national media outlets.

The 2009 Student Airborne Research Program
A major contribution to the ASP education activities was the implementation of the first Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). This program took place during July-August 2009 and included 29 competitively selected undergraduate and graduate Earth system science and engineering students representing 26 schools from across the U.S. The objective of the program was to give these students access to Earth science research using the NASA DC-8 research platform. The students engaged in three experiments: 1) in-situ atmospheric gas sampling using the Whole Air Sampler, 2) remote sensing of evapo-transpiration processes using the MASTER instrument, and 3) remote sensing of physical ocean processes using the MASTER instrument. The flights took place over California’s Central Valley for the gas sampling and evapo-transpiration experiments, and over Monterey Bay for the oceanography experiment.
The program was six weeks and started off with a week of teleconferences to discuss science topics with the students, introduce them to faculty and provide logistical information. The following week the students and faculty arrived in Irvine, CA where they participated in a series of introductory lectures by project advisors and NASA program managers at the UC Irvine campus. The third week was spent in Palmdale, CA where students were given more lectures on mission planning. While in Palmdale, students also participated in two science flights on the DC-8 where they collected all their data. Field campaigns were also organized to coincide with over flights and students were able to participate in these as well. The fourth and fifth weeks were spent back at UC Irvine where students analyzed gas samples in a chemistry lab and multi-spectral imagery in a computer lab. The sixth week – also at UC Irvine – focused on data interpretation and the program ended with each student presenting their research results. These presentations, as well as introductory faculty and NASA program manager presentations, can be viewed on the NSERC-SARP website ( under the SARP Multimedia button. Three SARP students were selected based on their outstanding projects and presentations to share their results at the NASA exhibit December 2009 during the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.
Several media outlets covered the SARP mission including numerous local newspapers and a feature story on National Public Radio (See “Earth Science From the Sky: The Next Generation”). A video of the mission was produced by NSERC and will be available for viewing through the NSERC website and NSERCTV on YouTube.
Operation ICEBridge Education and Outreach
Another ASP contribution to education activities was conducted during the most recent DC-8 mission Operation ICEBridge. For previous flights, data systems onboard the DC-8 have been configured so that people on the ground could chat with those on board the DC-8 during a flight as well as track the science flights in Google Earth. These applications were used as a classroom activity so that Earth science educators around the country could watch the science flights and interact with mission scientists. An announcement of this activity was emailed to the National Science Teachers Association Earth science educator list. Upon announcement of the activity, approximately 100 5th-12th grade teachers expressed interest in participating. A Google Earth KML file was created that included a DC-8 flight track feature as well as various landmarks throughout Antarctica. This file was emailed to all the participating educators so that they could track the DC-8 in real-time during OIB. Educators also had access to an internet-based chat application that allowed them to ask questions directly to scientists on board the DC-8. Plans are to include this classroom activity in all future airborne science missions when possible.
In addition to the education activity, NSERC promoted OIB to the general public through a blog, video and photography. Video clips from science flights were posted to YouTube through the NSERCTV channel and photos were added to blog postings to give updates about flight schedules, objectives and outcomes. NSERC is currently producing an OIB mission video to highlight the mission science topics and the airborne instruments used for collecting data.
Informational Booths at International Conferences
NSERC maintained a booth at the 2008 AGU Fall Meeting showcasing a video of the ARCTAS mission and recruiting students for the first Student Airborne Research Program as well as promoting airborne science activities to the Earth science community. NSERC also supported ASP presence at the 2009 International Symposium of Remote Sensing of the Environment in Stresa, Italy. This was done in collaboration with the ASP group at UC Santa Cruz/NASA Ames. An exhibit displaying past and future ASP missions as well as airborne instruments was promoted to the international community of scientists present. Information on education and public outreach efforts were also shared with conference attendees. NSERC will also be supporting this same exhibit at the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting in conjunction with the NASA exhibit.
Social Networking
NSERC maintains a presence on YouTube (NSERCTV) and Facebook with an NSERC Facebook page. Mission news and updates are shared with Facebook fans and mission video clips are uploaded to NSERCTV and advertised through the Facebook page. The Facebook page has been very convenient for staying in touch with the airborne science community, especially the student demographic. Facebook users can connect to this page by doing a Facebook ( search for “National Suborbital Education and Research Center” and becoming a fan. Recent updates sent to fans of the NSERC Facebook page include links to NPR audio stories covering Operation ICEBridge as well as links to the NSERC OIB blog.
[GRAPHIC: Figure 68: NSERC 2009 students.]

NASA’s Airborne Science Program was well represented at the May 2009 International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (ISRSE) conference in Stresa, Italy, May 4-8. ASP staff presented papers and posters for sessions on airborne platforms, airborne science, UAS platforms and science, as well as a session on airborne science programs. In addition to the conference, side meetings included a joint meeting between the European Fleet for Airborne Research (EUFAR) and the U.S. Interagency Coordinating Committee for Airborne Geosciences Research and Applications (ICCAGRA) to explore partnering opportunities between U.S. agencies and our European colleagues. The Program also organized a kick-off meeting of the ISPRS WG1/I that will focus on airborne observations.

In general, the meeting was very successful in creating interest in the next generation of capabilities and did well to communicate the leadership role that NASA maintains in airborne science.
UAS Workshop
A pre-conference workshop on UASs for remote sensing was a big success. More than 30 people from 6 continents attended. The workshop highlighted features of both large and small UASs, a variety of sensor systems, and a range of applications with a focus on wildfire monitoring. The speakers included NASA and U.S. Forest Service personnel, as well as users/ developers from Hungary, Spain, and Italy. The local Italian UAS company, Aermatica, brought a small vertical take-off-and-landing UAS to the exhibit hall.
WETMAAP, developed by Chadron State College, the USGS National Wetlands Research Center, and the USGS Mid-Continent Geographic Science Center, is partially supported by the NASA Airborne Science Program. A primary goal of the Program is to improve science, math, and geography in the classroom through the appropriate use of NASA imagery, integrated with maps, aerial photography, and airborne and satellite imagery using wetland as the focal element.
The WETMAAP Program develops and offers wetland training sessions and maintains a website for educators and professionals that provide basic instruction in ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for understanding and assessing wetland and upland habitat change. Training sessions explore wetlands using multiple data sets and introduces traditional mapping technology to formal and informal educators.
The WETMAAP materials are designed for use by secondary education teachers, undergraduate and graduates students, university and college professors, informal educators, and local and regional government officials. The Airborne Science Program has supported the WETMAAP program and selected workshops since 1995. Support has consisted of funding, ASP photography and digital imagery, and NASA satellite imagery. Also members of the Airborne Science Program staff have participated in WETMAAP workshops as trainers and guest lecturers.
Of the 163 WETMAAP workshops facilitated between 1995 and 2009, NASA supported 36 workshops throughout the United States, Costa Rica, and Panama. For 2009, WETMAAP completed the Wallops Island site and presented a two-day wetland education workshop held in August with 8 participants. Day 1 was the in class hands-on training and Day 2 was a field experience visiting wetland locations associated with the site. The response by informal educators from Marine Science Consortium (MSC) who attended the session was positive. As a result of networking a collaborative effort was established between the MSC Undergraduate Education Coordinator and Education Coordinator at NASA Wallops Flight Facility to sustain the Wallops Island wetland training with additional sessions scheduled for 2010. For the International Symposium of Remote Sensing and the Environment (ISRSE) held in May at Stress, Italy, a pre-conference seminar on WETMAAP was also presented by ASP personnel. Briefing documents on “Developing Multiple Components for an Education Model for the NASA Airborne Science program” were distributed. WETMAAP also completed the initial site visit and site identification for developing a workshop on coral reefs along the coast of Puerto Rico.
[GRAPHIC: Figure 69: August 2009 WETMAAP workshop field trip to Wallops Island study site.]

CeNAT Workshops

NASA aircraft have acquired data with various sensors for a variety of research objectives involving both NASA and Costa Rican investigators since the early 1980’s. This collaborative relationship lead to an agreement signed in 2002 which was the basis for the Costa Rican Aircraft Research and Technology Applications (CARTA I) project in 2003 and the CARTA II project in 2005. These agreements were implemented through the Costa Rican National Center for Advanced Technology (Centro Nacional de Alta Tecnologia - CeNAT) as part of its National Program for Airborne Research and Remote Sensing (PRIAS).
Remotely-sensed data acquired through the CARTA I and II projects with sensors on the NASA WB-57 aircraft provided both multispectral and hyper spectral scanner data as well as digital camera imagery. In addition, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data was acquired with the AIRSAR sensor on the NASA DC-8 aircraft in 2004, and Lidar data was acquired with the NASA LVIS sensor on a DOE aircraft in 2005. These data have been used for a variety of research and applications purposes by various Costa Rican agencies and Universities, and has been made available to the NASA Decadal Survey and the NASA-SERVIR project for coverage of the Costa Rican portion of the Central American Biological Corridor.
During early FY2009, it was decided that even more information could be derived from these data and future airborne science data acquisitions after more advanced training of Costa Rica scientists, natural resource managers, and graduate students. Subsequently, through a collaborative effort between the NASA Airborne Science program and CeNAT, a series of workshops was arranged for additional training in the analysis of data acquired with sensors on airborne platforms. A series of two-day workshops were scheduled. Several were conducted in 2009 and several will take place in 2010. Each focuses on SAR (AIRSAR & UAVSAR), and Lidar (LVIS). Arrangements were made with U.S. experts in the analysis of each type of data to conduct each two-day workshop. The workshops take place in the CeNAT-PRIAS remote sensing lab with support of the PRIAS technical staff. The workshops involve a hands-on-the-computer approach using commonly available image analysis software. Emphasis is being given to the use of the data that exists in the CeNAT-PRIAS database that covers the entire country of Costa Rica, but the characteristics of data from other airborne science sensors are also covered. Workshop participants include personnel from Costa Rican government agencies, public universities (faculty and graduate students), and private organizations, each of which will focus SAR (AIRSAR & UAVSAR), and Lidar (LVIS). Arrangements were made with U.S. experts in the analysis of each type of data to conduct each two-day workshop. Workshop participants include personnel from Costa Rican government agencies, public universities (faculty and graduate students), and private organizations.
[GRAPHIC: Figure 70: A CeNAT workshop conducted in Costa Rica.]


The Airborne Science Program (ASP), in an effort to reach out to program staff and the larger airborne science community, published our first newsletter in July 2008. These four-page quarterly editions strive to feature significant recent airborne deployment activities and program accomplishments, as well as brief highlights of other ongoing and planned activities. We also include a perspective from the ASP management, schedules of upcoming program activities, events of interest to our extended community, and capabilities of our core aircraft fleet. The ASP Newsletter is distributed broadly, via email to the ASP staff, and the larger airborne science community (Airborne Science Call Letter list server), and is available on the ASP web site (
Recognition and Awards

Spring 2009 Awards

Fall 2009 Awards

Team Achievement

Team Achievement

Wallops P-3 ARCTAS Upload Team

Global Test Range and Over-the-Horizon Networks (REVEAL), DFRC


Exceptional Performance

Michael Cropper

P-3 Configuration Manager

Peter Peyton

Project/Mission Management

Sustained Achievement

Chris Naftel
Global Hawk Project Manager

Bill Brockett
Research Pilot

Outstanding Achievement

Administrative Achievement

John McKee
Airborne Science Range
and Telemetry Liaison

Rosalie Toberman
Contracting Officer

Special Award

In Appreciation for Extraordinary
Support of Operation IceBridge

Eric Schmidt

Andrew C. Roberts

Director, NASA Airborne Science Program

For distinguished leadership of the Airborne Science Program

Looking Ahead to

FY10 and Beyond

The Airborne Science Program has benefitted substantially from the support provided from our NASA leadership, our partners and our science community. Our focus for the future is to deliver on our commitments to missions and field capabilities that cost effectively enhance the science return coming from airborne experiments.

In 2010 and beyond, the Airborne Science Program plans to further implement its vision of maximum sensor portability. NSERC will provide the P-3B with a data distribution and communication system like that on the DC-8 so that instruments integrated on one will require minimum change to be integrated on the other. Leveraging investments made possible through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the ASF will build and start fielding common equipment interface panels between the WB-57, ER-2, and Global Hawk.
The year 2010 will also see some substantial platform sustainability activities undertaken. The P-3B will complete its depot level maintenance and special structural inspection and the DC-8 and ER-2 will initiate low utilization maintenance programs appropriate for their operational tempo and projected to produce significant life-cycle cost savings. The WB-57 is scheduled to complete its Gross Weight Increase project with flight demonstration and certification. ARRA is enabling the upgrade of the P-3B’s avionics and autopilot systems as well as the design and fabrication of replacement ailerons for the WB-57. The B-200 aircraft operated from DFRC will be modified to be a remote sensing capable aircraft. Other examples of Airborne Science funded ARRA efforts include:

- DAOF modifications and upgrades

- Construction of a third UAVSAR Pod for use on Global Hawk and the G-III

- Operation Ice Bridge Science Team funding

- Development of a Global Hawk Mobile Operation Facility for Aircraft command and control

Several ASP-related ARRA projects are a partnership with the Earth Science Technology Office and the Research and Analysis Program. These include:

- Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) -2

- Enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS)

- Portable Remote Imaging SpectroMeter (PRISM)

- Global Ozone Lidar Demonstrator (GOLD)

- Global Hawk wing pylons

Most ARRA projects awards are expected to be completed in 2010, with a few planned to continue into 2011.

Mission-wise, the Global Hawk (GH) will perform its inaugural science mission: GLOPAC (Global Hawk Pacific), which is a combination Aura calibration-validation / IPY mission. Following GLOPAC, Global Hawk will prepare for the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission, an atmospheric dynamics mission to study hurricane processes, which will include both the DC-8 and Global Hawk. The “Pre-GRIP” mission will flight-demonstrate new sensor technologies and GRIP flight profiles. All the GH activities are in partnership with the NOAA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Program Office. Operation Ice Bridge will start its second of six seasons, concentrating on Greenland with the DC-8 and P-3B. The G-III is projected to have a very full second operational year with many more years planned.
The first ESSP Earth Venture Initiative (EV-1) projects will be awarded and start up to five years of systemic measurements. Decadal Survey missions are also expected to increase substantially in the upcoming years. The year 2010 will also be the first year in the development of PRISM a JPL ocean color hyperspectral imager as well as be the close-out year for IPY activities. The 2nd Student Airborne Research Program mission will be accomplished, building on the 2009’s success and lessons learned.
Activities will continue to develop a permanent ISPRS committee on Airborne Sciences in addition to our collaborations with EUFAR and CEODE. Airborne Science will continue to contribute to the efforts of ICCAGRA, UAS in the NAS and our UAS science partnerships with NOAA and DOE.
Programmatically, a permanent program director will be announced. The program will continue its efforts to continually improve its processes and products. We will prepare for the future by furthering payload portability and standardization efforts and understanding of the needs of our science community. Airborne Science remains committed and prepared to meet the challenges of the future and ready to contribute its part in NASA’s mission to understand the Earth system.


In Memoriam
Frank Caldeiro

On October 3rd, the WB-57 team lost a valuable team member and friend, Fernando “Frank” Caldeiro. He had battled brain cancer for two and a half years.

Prior to his career at NASA, Frank worked for Rockwell International. From 1985 through 1988, he served as a test director during the production and flight test of the Rockwell/USAF B-1B Bomber. In 1988, he transferred to Kennedy Space Center to work for Rockwell International as a propulsion specialist.
Frank was hired by NASA at Kennedy Space Center in 1991 as a cryogenics and propulsion systems expert for the safety and mission assurance office. He participated in 52 space shuttle launches while at KSC. He enjoyed living in Florida and met his wife, Donna there.
Frank was selected as an Astronaut in 1996, NASA’s 16th class of astronaut candidates, or “ascans”. His class was dubbed “The Sardines” because at 44 members, they were the largest group of astronaut candidates ever chosen by NASA.
Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina on June 12, 1958, Frank was the first person of Argentinean descent to train for a spaceflight. He was proud of his Argentinean and Spanish heritage, enjoying visits to both of those countries to visit relatives and friends.
Frank started working with the WB-57 High Altitude Research Program in the Aircraft Operations Division in early 2006. He was a private pilot as well, flying a Rutan Long Ez experimental aircraft out of Ellington Field, so he loved the atmosphere of work in Aircraft Operations. Along with his work managing the integration of scientific instruments onto the WB-57, he also had the opportunity to fly as a test director with the C-9 Reduced Gravity Program.
Frank is survived by his wife, Donna, and his two daughters, Annie and Michelle. He will be dearly missed by all who knew him.
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