Systematics of smut fungi




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Systematics of smut fungi
Part I. Introduction

The objective of the group is to study on systematic and biodiversity of smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes) and laccase produced by white-rot fungi.

Group leader: Prof. Guo Lin was graduated in the Department of Biology of Nankai University in 1975. The Ph. D. degree was received in Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Taxonomy of rust fungi and smut fungi has been worked since 1975. Until now 60 papers and 1 volume of Flora Fungorum Sinicorum have been published.

Group members: Li Wei and Xue Wei are engaged in studying laccase.



Part II. Background and Significance

1. Smuts is one group of basidiomycetous fungi parasitic on plants. The smut fungi are known to be of immense economic importance due to the serious losses of numerous crop they caused s. So far 1450 smut species are reported in the world and 230 species of them are recorded in China. Taxonomy of smut fungi in China provides information about smut disease control. The smut fungi are significant part of China’s biodiversity.

2. Laccases are blue multi-copper polyphenol oxidases widely distributed in plants and fungi. Laccases catalyse the one-electron oxidation of a wide range of phenolic substrates, and can also oxidize non-phenolic substrates in the presence of appropriate redox mediator. Laccases have numerous biotechnological applications including pulp biobleaching and waste water treatment in the paper industry, and using laccase-treatment to develop a new way for wood processing, in order to eliminate the pollution of formaldehyde.
Part III. Major Achievements

1. In 2004 Flora Fungorum Sinicorum Tilletiaceae including 63 species in 9 genera was finished. 2300 specimens were collected from Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Xinjiang Region and Gansu Province. Using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) to study these specimens, 20 new species in the genera Anthracoidea and Urocystis and 9 new Chinese records of smut fungi were described. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Twenty papers were published.

2. Our research group screened a white-rot fungus which produced laccase highly, and optimized the culture conditions to improve the laccase activity. The dikaryotic strain Pycnoporus sanguineus GW was isolated from a specimen of Pycnoporus sanguineus, which is distributed in tropical forest of China. The dikaryotic strain Pycnoporus sanguineus GW was selected for its ability to produce up to 43U /mL laccase in the presence of 2,5-xylidine as inducer. Since basidia and basidiospores of P. sanguineus formed in the laboratory, monokaryotic laccase-hyperproducing strains were isolated using classic genetic methods. Among these isolates, strain MK528 synthesized up to 63U /mL laccase in liquid shaken cultures, the highest laccase activity reported in China. There were no isoforms in the culture liquid, which is propitious to purification of the laccase. The laccase with electrophoresis-grade was purified and identified as a 64.65 KD protein with an acidic pI, and very stable at high temperatures. The laccase was used as adhesive for wood manufacture to eliminate the pollution problem of formaldehyde. This study was mainly supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology. Two patents were applied.

Part IV. Future Research Plan

The number of known species of smut fungi in China is about 230. The number of the estimated smut species in China may be about 600. There are still large areas of China from which relatively few or no smut fungi are known. Extensive field surveys are required for a better understanding of the smut flora in China. The third volume of Flora Fungorum Sinicorum Exobasidiales and Septobasidiales will be finished in 2009.

2. To set up the efficient DNA transformation method, to isolate its laccase gene and promotor sequence, to construct the expression vector for laccase gene as reporter gene, to set up protein expression system for Pycnoporus sanguineus, to obtain the gene engineering strains which have higher laccase production capacity through the homologous transformation of the Pycnoporus sanguineus laccase gene, to screen the transformants and to analyse the laccase gene expression and secretion processes of the transformants at molecular level, to study the induced characterization of the laccase engeering strains and to optimize their fermentation conditions. Our objective is, on one hand, to improve the laccase production of Pycnoporus sanguineus for the practical application level, and to construct the laccase gene engineering strains for commercialization through the homologous transformation. On the other hand, we are able to set up the efficient DNA transformation method in Pycnoporus sanguineus and construct the efficient protein expression and secretion system. This is the essential groundwork to probe into the laccase gene expression regulation and molecular mechanism of laccase singularly high yield, and the relations between structure and function of laccase gene. We shall analyse the protein expression in the gene engineering strain at several levels such as integration, transcription, translation and secretion to find the limit of the protein expression in the transformation system. We would set up an efficient expression table for the other significant lignolytic enzymes in white-rot fungi.
Publications:

Guo L. (2001) Urocystis beijingensis sp. nov. and a smut species of Urocystis new to China. Mycotaxon 77: 91-92

Guo L. (2001) A new combination and new records of smut fungi from tropical China. Mycotaxon 77: 339-341

Guo L. (2001) Ustilaginales. In Higher Fungi of Tropical China. (ed. W.Y. Zhuang) Mycotaxon Ldt. Ithaca. pp. 389-393.

Vánky K, Guo L. (2001) Ustilago deyeuxicola sp. nov. from China. Mycotaxon 79:261-265

Tang S., Lomascolo A., Guo L. et al. (2001) Isolation of white-rot fungi from China for screening laccase-hyperproducing strains. Mycosystema 20: 520-525

Guo L. (2002) Two new species of Urocystis and a Urocystis (Ustilaginomycetes) new to China. Mycotaxon 81:431-434

Guo L. (2002) Two new species of Ustilaginomycetes and a species new to China. Mycotaxon 82: 147-150

Guo L. (2002) The Ustilaginales from Ningxia. J Jilin Agr Univ 24(2): 11-12

Wang SR, Guo L. (2002) Thecaphora affinis, a smut species new to China. Mycosystema 21: 452-453

Lomascolo A, Cayol JL, Roche M, Guo L. et al. (2002) Molecular clustering of Pycnoporus strains from various geographic origins and isolation of monokaryotic strains for laccase hyperproduction. Mycol Res 106(10): 1193-1203

Guo L. (2003) Urocystis yunnanensis sp. nov. (Urocystales, Urocystaceae) from China. Nova Hedwigia 76: 221-223

Guo L. (2003) Urocystis sichuanensis sp. nov. (Urocystales) and a Urocystis new to China. Mycotaxon 86: 99-102

Guo L. (2003) The smut fungi of Qinghai. Mycosystema (Suppl.) 22: 112-116

Zhang H.C. & Guo L. (2003) Smut fungi of Saihanwula in Inner Mongolia. Mycosystema (Suppl.) 22: 116-117

Zhang H.C. & Guo L. (2004) Two new species and a new record of Anthracoidea (Ustilaginales) from China. Mycotaxon 89: 307-310

Guo, L. (2004) Anthracoidea shaanxiensis (Ustilaginales), a new species from China. Nova Hedwigia 79: 507-509.

Guo, L. & Zhang, H.C. (2004) A new species and two new records of Ustilaginomycetes from China. Mycotaxon 90: 387-390

Guo, L. (2005) Two new species of Urocystis (Urocystales) from China. Mycotaxon 92: 269-272

Guo, L. & Zhang, H.C. (2005) Two new species of Urocystis (Urocystales) from China. Nova Hedwigia 81:

Guo, L. & Wang, S.R. (2005) A new species and a new record of Anthracoidea (Ustilaginales) from China. Mycotaxon
专利申请:

申请人:郭林,王文惠,张虎成,李伟。

申请号:2003101183730

发明名称:一种血红密孔菌GW菌漆酶的制备方法。

申请人:郭林,王文惠,张虎成,李伟。

申请号:200410034016.0



发明名称:一种漆酶及其生产方法与专用生产菌株。


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