Supporting Information File S1




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Supporting Information File S1
Phylogenetic hypotheses used in the analyses

Case of living taxa

For each selachian order, with the exception of some orders encompassing only few taxa not necessitating phylogenetic resolution (e.g. Squatiniformes, Heterodontiformes), the following intra-ordinal phylogenetic relationships were selected: Orectolobiformes [1], Lamniformes [2,3], Carcharhiniformes [4] (subsequently modified [5] with a peculiar resolution of Halaelurus-related taxa [6]), Hexanchiformes [7], Squaliformes [8,9], Rajiformes [4] (with modifications [10-12]), Myliobatiformes [13] and Torpediniformes [12]. Concepts of Pristiformes, Rhiniformes and Rhinobatiformes [14] were not considered here because of the inconsistency in their contents according to authors [12,15] and their lumping with the Rajiformes. When ambiguous and/or distinct from Rajiformes sensu [4] in the phylogenies considered, we preferred the use of unnamed groups (e.g. “Pristid”, “Rhinobatid-like”) instead, thus limiting the clade Rajiformes to its indisputable families (e.g. Rajidae, Arhynchobatidae, Anacanthobatidae).

The recently published species-level shark phylogeny [16] is not fully considered here because of the large number of discrepancies (most of the families and numerous genera and orders are considered paraphyletic) and due to some incongruities that are not further argued (e.g. Ginglymostomatidae nested within Carcharhiniformes).


Case of fossil taxa

The systematic position of numerous fossil taxa is problematic. For instance, in terms of dental characters, basal neoselachians can be identified mainly on the basis of the possession of a triple-layered enameloid [17,18], the intermediary layer being considered a synapomorphy of neoselachians. However, this character remains subject to discussion because batoids and several fossil taxa lack this layer. Therefore, contrary to [19], we excluded the Devonian McMurdodontidae (genus McMurdodus) and the Carboniferous Anachronistidae (genera Cooleyella and Ginteria) from the Neoselachii, pending further evidences concerning their enameloid histology [20,21]. Concerning shark taxa, we chose to include the Late Triassic genera Grozonodon, Hueneichthys and Pseudocetorhinus within the Selachimorpha (modern sharks) because their teeth display a triple-layered enameloid microstructure [18,22,23]. The genus Reifia is included within the galean selachimorphs according to both the triple-layered microstructure of its enameloid [24] and to the overall morphological aspect of its teeth [10,11,24]. The Rhaetian genus Vallisia is considered more closely-related to the hybodonts than to the neoselachian sharks because the two former share a single-layered enameloid; however, Vallisia is not included within the hybodonts due to differences in dental morphologies [23]. According to different studies, the genus Parasquatina is considered either as a possible squatiniform [25] or as an orectolobiform [10] and is therefore placed in stem position to these two orders in the phylogenetic hypotheses considered here. The family Echinorhinidae (sometimes considered in its own order Echinorhiniformes [21]), when not represented in the phylogenetic hypotheses selected, was placed in basal position to the clade Squalomorphii (Squaliformes, Squatiniformes, Pristiophoriformes and Hexanchiformes), as for the fossil family Protospinacidae. Regarding the batoids, the main issue concerns the interpretation of the order Rajiformes. According to [11], this order includes the Rhinobatoidei, Rajoidei, Sclerorhynchoidei and Pristioidei and other taxa of unknown affinities (e.g., Ptychotrygon, Texatrygon, Safagaia), whereas other classifications consider these suborders as proper orders or with ambiguous phylogenetic relationships [12]. Thus, when a phylogenetic hypothesis retains no close relationships between Rhinobatoidei, Pristioidei (referred to as “Rhinobatoid-like” and “Pristids” here, respectively) and Rajiformes sensu lato, other rajiform taxa (e.g., Sclerorhynchoidei) were left in polytomies at the base of the clade.


Phylogenetic hypotheses used including fossil taxa

All genus, family and order-level phylogenetic hypotheses are given in nexus format. The phylogenetic hypotheses of HEI[27] are also given in circular trees as an example.


Genus-level phylogenies:

DOU[26]

(((((((Aegyptobatus,Tribodus),Distobatus,Glickmanodus,Reticulodus,Acrodus,Acrorhizodus,Asteracanthus,Bdellodus),(Egertonodus,Pororhiza,Priohybodus,Thaiodus,Leptacanthus,Planohybodus,Secarodus,Hybodus,Meristodon,Meristodonoides,Khoratodus)),(Palaeobates,Polyacrodus)),(Lonchidion,Lissodus,Bahariyodon,Hylaeobatis,Isanodus,Parvodus,Vectiselachos,Jiaodontus,Diplolonchidion)),(Homalodontus,Doratodus),(Heteroptychodus,Ptychodus),Steinbachodus,Pseudodalatias,Ostenoselache,Hubeiodus,Mukdahanodus,Raineria),(((((((((Burnhamia,Eomobula,(Eoplinthicus,Plinthicus),Manta,Mobula),Rhinoptera),Ixobatis,(Pucabatis,Rhombodus,Washakiebatis),Aetobatus,Aetomylaeus,Apocopodon,Brachyrhizodus,Garabatis,Igdabatis,Leidybatis,Lophobatis,(Myliobatis,Pteromylaeus),Pseudaetobatus,Aktaua),(Pteroplatea,Aetoplatea,Gymnura,Jacquhermania,Ouledia),Cretomanta,Archaeomanta),((Urolophus,Trygonoptera,Plesiobatis),Himantura),((Potamotrygon,Plesiotrygon),(Paratrygon,Heliotrygon)),Arechia,Aturobatis,Coupatezia,Dasyrhombodus,Delpitia,Enantiobatis,Ewingia,Heterobatis,Heterotorpedo,Merabatis,Myliodasyatis,Phosphatodon,Meridiania,Texabatis,Viperecucullus,(Urotrygon,Urobatis),Hypolophites,Hypolophodon,Ishaquia,Pastinachus,Taeniura,Dasyatis,Neotrygon,Pteroplatytrygon,Taeniurops,Urogymnus,Asterotrygon,Heliobatis),Hexatrygon),Zanobatus),(((Torpedo,Eotorpedo),Hypnos),((Heteronarce,Typhlonarke,Narke,Temera,Crassinarke,Electrolux),(Narcine,Benthobatis,Diplobatis,Discopyge),Titanonarke)),(Ataktobatis,Engaibatis,Jurobatos,Microbatis,Myledaphus,Protoplatyrhina,Pseudohypolophus,Squatirhina,Vascobatis,(Rhina,Rhynchobatus,((Asterodermus,Belemnobatis),Doliobatis,Iansan,Isidobatus,Paratrygonorrhina,Rhinobatos,Rhombopterygia,Spathobatis,Aptychotrema,Trygonorrhina,Zapteryx,Platypterix),(Platyrhina,Tethybatis,Platyrhinoidis),(Hypsobatis,Angolabatis,Youssoubatis),Parapalaeobates)),(((Dipturus,Raja,Malacoraja,Mafdetia,Rajorhina,Smithraja,Walteraja,Amblyraja,Breviraja,Dactylobatus,Dentiraja,Fenestraja,Gurgesiella,Hongeo,Insentiraja,Leucoraja,Neoraja,Okamejei,Rajella,Rostroraja,Zearaja),(Anacanthobatis,Sinobatis),(Psammobatis,Pseudoraja,Rioraja,Rhinoraja,Pavoraja,Notoraja,Irolita,Brochiraja,Bathyraja,Atlantoraja,Arhynchobatis,Sympterygia)),Cyclobatis),(Anoxypristis,Pristis,Propristis),(Cristabatis,Toarcibatis),((Onchosaurus,Pucapristis,Schizorhiza),(Ankistrorhynchus,Borodinopristis,(Columbusia,Onchopristis),Ctenopristis,Dalpiazia,Ganopristis,Ischyrhiza,Libanopristis,Marckgrafia,Micropristis,Plicatopristis,Sclerorhynchus,Kiestus,Atlanticopristis),Biropristis,Baharipristis,Renpetia,Celtipristis),Ptychotrygon,Ptychotrygonoides,Texatrygon,Archingeayia,Duwibatis,Engolismaia,Erguitaia,Erythrobatis,Hamrabatis,Safagaia,Tanoutia,Turoniabatis,Leiribatos,Phosphatobatis,Iberotrygon),((((((((((((((Etmopterus,Miroscyllium),Eoetmopterus,Microetmopterus,Paraetmopterus,Proetmopterus),(Centroscyllium,Aculeola),Trigonognathus),((Centroselachus,Proscymnodon,(Scymnodon,Zameus),Scymnodalatias,Cretascymnus,Centroscymnus),(SomniosusS,SomniosusR)),(Oxynotus,Protoxynotus),((Eosqualiolus,Squaliolus,Euprotomicrus),Heteroscymnoides,Paraphorosoides,Acrosqualiolus,Angoumeius,Squaliodalatias,Dalatias,Isistius,Euprotomicroides,Mollisquama)),(Protocentrophorus,(Centrophorus,Deania))),((Squalus,Cirrhigaleus,Protosqualus,Centrophoroides),Centrosqualus,Megasqualus)),Protospinax),((Squatina,Pseudorhina),(Pristiophorus,(Ikamauius,Pliotrema)))),(((Hexanchus,(Heptranchias,Paraheptranchias),Weltonia),Notorynchus,Notidanoides,Notidanodon,Pachyhexanchus,(Pseudonotidanus,Welcommia)),(Chlamydoselachus,Eothrinax),Sphenodus,Paraorthacodus),(Echinorhinus,Gibbechinorhinus,Orthechinorhinus,Paraechinorhinus,Pseudoechinorhinus)),((Dwardius,Priscusurus,Eoptolamna,(Mitsukurina,Scapanorhynchus,Anomotodon,Striatolamia,Woellsteinia),((Acrolamna,Archaeolamna,Cretodus,Cretoxyrhina,Dallasiela,Trigonotodus,Eostriatolamia,Paraisurus,Palaeocarcharodon,Cretolamna,Telodontaspis),Protolamna,Leptostyrax,Pseudoscapanorhynchus),((((Carcharias,Hispidaspis),Araloselachus),Brachycarcharias,Cenocarcharias,Glueckmanotodus,Hypotodus,Jaekelotodus,Johnlongia,(Mennerotodus,Borealotodus),Odontaspis,Orpodon,Palaeohypotodus,Roulletia,Sylvestrilamia,Turania,Pueblocarcharias),((Alopias,Anotodus,Paranomotodon,Usakias),Pseudocarcharias,Megachasma),((OtodusO,OtodusC,OtodusM),Parotodus),Cardabiodon,Serratolamna,((Galeocorax,Pseudocorax),(Ptychocorax,Nanocorax,Squalicorax,Scindocorax)),(Cetorhinus,(((Carchariolamna,Lamna,Carcharoides),Isurolamna,(Isurus,Macrorhizodus)),(Carcharodon,Cosmopolitodus),Karaisurus,Lethenia,Xiphodolamia)))),((Bavariscyllium,Casieria,Cretascyliorhinus,Eypea,(Foumtizia,Pachyscyllium),Macrourogaleus,Megascyliorhinus,Microscyliorhinus,Crassescyliorhinus,Palaeoscyllium,Platyrhizoscyllium,(PremontreiaP,PremontreiaO),Protoscyliorhinus,Pseudoscyliorhinus,Pteroscyllium,Stenoscyllium,Schroederichthys,(((Porodermoides,Poroderma),(Scyliorhinus,Cephaloscyllium)),(Atelomycterus,Aulohalaelurus)),(Galeus,Bythaelurus,(Asymbolus,(Cephalurus,Parmaturus)),(Holohalaelurus,Halaelurus,Haploblepharus,Prohaploblepharus),(Pentanchus,Apristurus)),(Proscyllium,Praeproscyllium,Ctenacis,Eridacnis),((Pseudotriakis,Gollum),(Leptocharias,(Archaeotriakis,(Iago,Khouribgaleus,Gomphogaleus,Galeorhinus,(Triakis,Scylliogaleus,Mustelus,Hemitriakis,Furgaleus,Pachygaleus,Palaeogaleus,Paratriakis,Squatigaleus,Xystrogaleus,((Hemigaleus,Paragaleus,(Chaenogaleus,Hemipristis),Moerigaleus),((Sphyrna,Eusphyra),((Abdounia,Tingaleus),Danogaleus,Eogaleus,Physogaleus,(Rhizoprionodon,Scoliodon,Loxodon,Isogomphodon,(Triaenodon,((Glyphis,Lamiopsis),Prionace,Nasolamia,Carcharhinus))),Kruckowlamna,Misrichthys,Negaprion,Galeocerdo)))))))),Figaro,Gogolia),Corysodon))),(Palaeorectolobus,Agaleus,Palaeocarcharias,Pseudospinax,(Annea,Dorsetoscyllium,Folipistrix,(Phorcynis,Heterophorcynus),Ornatoscyllium,(Pararhincodon,Cirrhoscyllium,Parascyllium),((((Ginglymostoma,Plicatoscyllium),Cantioscyllium,Protoginglymostoma,(Palaeorhincodon,Rhincodon),Stegostoma,Pseudoginglymostoma,Nebrius,Delpitoscyllium,Ganntouria,Hologinglymostoma),(Acanthoscyllium,Almascyllium,Hemiscyllium,Chiloscyllium,Mesiteia)),(Palaeobrachaelurus,Cretorectolobus,(Paraginglymostoma,Brachaelurus,Eostegostoma,Heteroscyllium),(Cederstroemia,Orectoloboides,(Eometlaouia,Squatiscyllium),Orectolobus,Eucrossorhinus,Sutorectus))))),Parasquatina),(Heterodontus,Paracestracion,Proheterodontus)),(Reifia,(Breviacanthus,(Mucrovenator,Rhomphaiodon),Palidiplospinax,Synechodus))),Pseudocetorhinus,Hueneichthys,Grozonodon)),Vallisia)

HEI[27]

(((((((Aegyptobatus,Tribodus),Distobatus,Glickmanodus,Reticulodus,Acrodus,Acrorhizodus,Asteracanthus,Bdellodus),(Egertonodus,Pororhiza,Priohybodus,Thaiodus,Leptacanthus,Planohybodus,Secarodus,Hybodus,Meristodon,Meristodonoides,Khoratodus)),(Palaeobates,Polyacrodus)),(Lonchidion,Lissodus,Bahariyodon,Hylaeobatis,Isanodus,Parvodus,Vectiselachos,Jiaodontus,Diplolonchidion)),(Homalodontus,Doratodus),(Heteroptychodus,Ptychodus),Steinbachodus,Pseudodalatias,Ostenoselache,Hubeiodus,Mukdahanodus,Raineria),(((((((((((Burnhamia,Eomobula,(Eoplinthicus,Plinthicus),Manta,Mobula),Rhinoptera),Ixobatis,(Pucabatis,Rhombodus,Washakiebatis),Aetobatus,Aetomylaeus,Apocopodon,Brachyrhizodus,Garabatis,Igdabatis,Leidybatis,Lophobatis,(Myliobatis,Pteromylaeus),Pseudaetobatus,Aktaua),(Pteroplatea,Aetoplatea,Gymnura,Jacquhermania,Ouledia),Cretomanta,Archaeomanta),((Urolophus,Trygonoptera,Plesiobatis),Himantura),((Potamotrygon,Plesiotrygon),(Paratrygon,Heliotrygon)),Arechia,Aturobatis,Coupatezia,Dasyrhombodus,Delpitia,Enantiobatis,Ewingia,Heterobatis,Heterotorpedo,Merabatis,Myliodasyatis,Phosphatodon,Meridiania,Texabatis,Viperecucullus,(Urotrygon,Urobatis),Hypolophites,Hypolophodon,Ishaquia,Pastinachus,Taeniura,Dasyatis,Neotrygon,Pteroplatytrygon,Taeniurops,Urogymnus,Asterotrygon,Heliobatis),Hexatrygon),Zanobatus),(Ataktobatis,Engaibatis,Jurobatos,Microbatis,Myledaphus,Protoplatyrhina,Pseudohypolophus,Squatirhina,Vascobatis,(Rhina,Rhynchobatus,((Asterodermus,Belemnobatis),Doliobatis,Iansan,Isidobatus,Paratrygonorrhina,Rhinobatos,Rhombopterygia,Spathobatis,Aptychotrema,Trygonorrhina,Zapteryx,Platypterix),(Platyrhina,Tethybatis,Platyrhinoidis),(Hypsobatis,Angolabatis,Youssoubatis),Parapalaeobates))),(((Torpedo,Eotorpedo),Hypnos),((Heteronarce,Typhlonarke,Narke,Temera,Crassinarke,Electrolux),(Narcine,Benthobatis,Diplobatis,Discopyge),Titanonarke))),(((Dipturus,Raja,Malacoraja,Mafdetia,Rajorhina,Smithraja,Walteraja,Amblyraja,Breviraja,Dactylobatus,Dentiraja,Fenestraja,Gurgesiella,Hongeo,Insentiraja,Leucoraja,Neoraja,Okamejei,Rajella,Rostroraja,Zearaja),(Anacanthobatis,Sinobatis),(Psammobatis,Pseudoraja,Rioraja,Rhinoraja,Pavoraja,Notoraja,Irolita,Brochiraja,Bathyraja,Atlantoraja,Arhynchobatis,Sympterygia)),Cyclobatis),(Anoxypristis,Pristis,Propristis),(Cristabatis,Toarcibatis),((Onchosaurus,Pucapristis,Schizorhiza),(Ankistrorhynchus,Borodinopristis,(Columbusia,Onchopristis),Ctenopristis,Dalpiazia,Ganopristis,Ischyrhiza,Libanopristis,Marckgrafia,Micropristis,Plicatopristis,Sclerorhynchus,Kiestus,Atlanticopristis),Biropristis,Baharipristis,Renpetia,Celtipristis),Ptychotrygon,Ptychotrygonoides,Texatrygon,Archingeayia,Duwibatis,Engolismaia,Erguitaia,Erythrobatis,Hamrabatis,Safagaia,Tanoutia,Turoniabatis,Leiribatos,Phosphatobatis,Iberotrygon),(Pseudocetorhinus,Hueneichthys,Grozonodon,(((((((((((Etmopterus,Miroscyllium),Eoetmopterus,Microetmopterus,Paraetmopterus,Proetmopterus),(Centroscyllium,Aculeola),Trigonognathus),((Centroselachus,Proscymnodon,(Scymnodon,Zameus),Scymnodalatias,Cretascymnus,Centroscymnus),(SomniosusS,SomniosusR)),(Oxynotus,Protoxynotus),((Eosqualiolus,Squaliolus,Euprotomicrus),Heteroscymnoides,Paraphorosoides,Acrosqualiolus,Angoumeius,Squaliodalatias,Dalatias,Isistius,Euprotomicroides,Mollisquama)),(Protocentrophorus,(Centrophorus,Deania))),((Squalus,Cirrhigaleus,Protosqualus,Centrophoroides),Centrosqualus,Megasqualus)),(Squatina,Pseudorhina)),(Pristiophorus,(Ikamauius,Pliotrema))),(((Hexanchus,(Heptranchias,Paraheptranchias),Weltonia),Notorynchus,Notidanoides,Notidanodon,Pachyhexanchus,(Pseudonotidanus,Welcommia)),(Chlamydoselachus,Eothrinax),Sphenodus,Paraorthacodus)),(Echinorhinus,Gibbechinorhinus,Orthechinorhinus,Paraechinorhinus,Pseudoechinorhinus),Protospinax),(Reifia,(Breviacanthus,(Mucrovenator,Rhomphaiodon),Palidiplospinax,Synechodus),((Heterodontus,Paracestracion,Proheterodontus),((Palaeorectolobus,Agaleus,Palaeocarcharias,Pseudospinax,(Annea,Dorsetoscyllium,Folipistrix,(Phorcynis,Heterophorcynus),Ornatoscyllium,(Pararhincodon,Cirrhoscyllium,Parascyllium),((((Ginglymostoma,Plicatoscyllium),Cantioscyllium,Protoginglymostoma,(Palaeorhincodon,Rhincodon),Stegostoma,Pseudoginglymostoma,Nebrius,Delpitoscyllium,Ganntouria,Hologinglymostoma),(Acanthoscyllium,Almascyllium,Hemiscyllium,Chiloscyllium,Mesiteia)),(Palaeobrachaelurus,Cretorectolobus,(Paraginglymostoma,Brachaelurus,Eostegostoma,Heteroscyllium),(Cederstroemia,Orectoloboides,(Eometlaouia,Squatiscyllium),Orectolobus,Eucrossorhinus,Sutorectus))))),((Dwardius,Priscusurus,Eoptolamna,(Mitsukurina,Scapanorhynchus,Anomotodon,Striatolamia,Woellsteinia),((Acrolamna,Archaeolamna,Cretodus,Cretoxyrhina,Dallasiela,Trigonotodus,Eostriatolamia,Paraisurus,Palaeocarcharodon,Cretolamna,Telodontaspis),Protolamna,Leptostyrax,Pseudoscapanorhynchus),((((Carcharias,Hispidaspis),Araloselachus),Brachycarcharias,Cenocarcharias,Glueckmanotodus,Hypotodus,Jaekelotodus,Johnlongia,(Mennerotodus,Borealotodus),Odontaspis,Orpodon,Palaeohypotodus,Roulletia,Sylvestrilamia,Turania,Pueblocarcharias),((Alopias,Anotodus,Paranomotodon,Usakias),Pseudocarcharias,Megachasma),((OtodusO,OtodusC,OtodusM),Parotodus),Cardabiodon,Serratolamna,((Galeocorax,Pseudocorax),(Ptychocorax,Nanocorax,Squalicorax,Scindocorax)),(Cetorhinus,(((Carchariolamna,Lamna,Carcharoides),Isurolamna,(Isurus,Macrorhizodus)),(Carcharodon,Cosmopolitodus),Karaisurus,Lethenia,Xiphodolamia)))),((Bavariscyllium,Casieria,Cretascyliorhinus,Eypea,(Foumtizia,Pachyscyllium),Macrourogaleus,Megascyliorhinus,Microscyliorhinus,Crassescyliorhinus,Palaeoscyllium,Platyrhizoscyllium,(PremontreiaP,PremontreiaO),Protoscyliorhinus,Pseudoscyliorhinus,Pteroscyllium,Stenoscyllium,Schroederichthys,(((Porodermoides,Poroderma),(Scyliorhinus,Cephaloscyllium)),(Atelomycterus,Aulohalaelurus)),(Galeus,Bythaelurus,(Asymbolus,(Cephalurus,Parmaturus)),(Holohalaelurus,Halaelurus,Haploblepharus,Prohaploblepharus),(Pentanchus,Apristurus)),(Proscyllium,Praeproscyllium,Ctenacis,Eridacnis),((Pseudotriakis,Gollum),(Leptocharias,(Archaeotriakis,(Iago,Khouribgaleus,Gomphogaleus,Galeorhinus,(Triakis,Scylliogaleus,Mustelus,Hemitriakis,Furgaleus,Pachygaleus,Palaeogaleus,Paratriakis,Squatigaleus,Xystrogaleus,((Hemigaleus,Paragaleus,(Chaenogaleus,Hemipristis),Moerigaleus),((Sphyrna,Eusphyra),((Abdounia,Tingaleus),Danogaleus,Eogaleus,Physogaleus,(Rhizoprionodon,Scoliodon,Loxodon,Isogomphodon,(Triaenodon,((Glyphis,Lamiopsis),Prionace,Nasolamia,Carcharhinus))),Kruckowlamna,Misrichthys,Negaprion,Galeocerdo)))))))),Figaro,Gogolia),Corysodon))))),Parasquatina))),Vallisia)




HUM[28]

(((((((Aegyptobatus,Tribodus),Distobatus,Glickmanodus,Reticulodus,Acrodus,Acrorhizodus,Asteracanthus,Bdellodus),(Egertonodus,Pororhiza,Priohybodus,Thaiodus,Leptacanthus,Planohybodus,Secarodus,Hybodus,Meristodon,Meristodonoides,Khoratodus)),(Palaeobates,Polyacrodus)),(Lonchidion,Lissodus,Bahariyodon,Hylaeobatis,Isanodus,Parvodus,Vectiselachos,Jiaodontus,Diplolonchidion)),(Homalodontus,Doratodus),(Heteroptychodus,Ptychodus),Steinbachodus,Pseudodalatias,Ostenoselache,Hubeiodus,Mukdahanodus,Raineria),((((((Dipturus,Raja,Malacoraja,Mafdetia,Rajorhina,Smithraja,Walteraja,Amblyraja,Breviraja,Dactylobatus,Dentiraja,Fenestraja,Gurgesiella,Hongeo,Insentiraja,Leucoraja,Neoraja,Okamejei,Rajella,Rostroraja,Zearaja),(Anacanthobatis,Sinobatis),(Psammobatis,Pseudoraja,Rioraja,Rhinoraja,Pavoraja,Notoraja,Irolita,Brochiraja,Bathyraja,Atlantoraja,Arhynchobatis,Sympterygia)),Cyclobatis),(Anoxypristis,Pristis,Propristis),(Cristabatis,Toarcibatis),((Onchosaurus,Pucapristis,Schizorhiza),(Ankistrorhynchus,Borodinopristis,(Columbusia,Onchopristis),Ctenopristis,Dalpiazia,Ganopristis,Ischyrhiza,Libanopristis,Marckgrafia,Micropristis,Plicatopristis,Sclerorhynchus,Kiestus,Atlanticopristis),Biropristis,Baharipristis,Renpetia,Celtipristis),Ptychotrygon,Ptychotrygonoides,Texatrygon,Archingeayia,Duwibatis,Engolismaia,Erguitaia,Erythrobatis,Hamrabatis,Safagaia,Tanoutia,Turoniabatis,Leiribatos,Phosphatobatis,Iberotrygon),((((((((Burnhamia,Eomobula,(Eoplinthicus,Plinthicus),Manta,Mobula),Rhinoptera),Ixobatis,(Pucabatis,Rhombodus,Washakiebatis),Aetobatus,Aetomylaeus,Apocopodon,Brachyrhizodus,Garabatis,Igdabatis,Leidybatis,Lophobatis,(Myliobatis,Pteromylaeus),Pseudaetobatus,Aktaua),(Pteroplatea,Aetoplatea,Gymnura,Jacquhermania,Ouledia),Cretomanta,Archaeomanta),((Urolophus,Trygonoptera,Plesiobatis),Himantura),((Potamotrygon,Plesiotrygon),(Paratrygon,Heliotrygon)),Arechia,Aturobatis,Coupatezia,Dasyrhombodus,Delpitia,Enantiobatis,Ewingia,Heterobatis,Heterotorpedo,Merabatis,Myliodasyatis,Phosphatodon,Meridiania,Texabatis,Viperecucullus,(Urotrygon,Urobatis),Hypolophites,Hypolophodon,Ishaquia,Pastinachus,Taeniura,Dasyatis,Neotrygon,Pteroplatytrygon,Taeniurops,Urogymnus,Asterotrygon,Heliobatis),Hexatrygon),Zanobatus),(Ataktobatis,Engaibatis,Jurobatos,Microbatis,Myledaphus,Protoplatyrhina,Pseudohypolophus,Squatirhina,Vascobatis,(Rhina,Rhynchobatus,((Asterodermus,Belemnobatis),Doliobatis,Iansan,Isidobatus,Paratrygonorrhina,Rhinobatos,Rhombopterygia,Spathobatis,Aptychotrema,Trygonorrhina,Zapteryx,Platypterix),(Platyrhina,Tethybatis,Platyrhinoidis),(Hypsobatis,Angolabatis,Youssoubatis),Parapalaeobates))),(((Torpedo,Eotorpedo),Hypnos),((Heteronarce,Typhlonarke,Narke,Temera,Crassinarke,Electrolux),(Narcine,Benthobatis,Diplobatis,Discopyge),Titanonarke))),((((((((((((Etmopterus,Miroscyllium),Eoetmopterus,Microetmopterus,Paraetmopterus,Proetmopterus),(Centroscyllium,Aculeola),Trigonognathus),((Centroselachus,Proscymnodon,(Scymnodon,Zameus),Scymnodalatias,Cretascymnus,Centroscymnus),(SomniosusS,SomniosusR)),(Oxynotus,Protoxynotus),((Eosqualiolus,Squaliolus,Euprotomicrus),Heteroscymnoides,Paraphorosoides,Acrosqualiolus,Angoumeius,Squaliodalatias,Dalatias,Isistius,Euprotomicroides,Mollisquama)),(Protocentrophorus,(Centrophorus,Deania))),((Squalus,Cirrhigaleus,Protosqualus,Centrophoroides),Centrosqualus,Megasqualus)),((Pristiophorus,(Ikamauius,Pliotrema)),(Squatina,Pseudorhina))),(Heterodontus,Paracestracion,Proheterodontus)),(Palaeorectolobus,Agaleus,Palaeocarcharias,Pseudospinax,(Annea,Dorsetoscyllium,Folipistrix,(Phorcynis,Heterophorcynus),Ornatoscyllium,(Pararhincodon,Cirrhoscyllium,Parascyllium),((((Ginglymostoma,Plicatoscyllium),Cantioscyllium,Protoginglymostoma,(Palaeorhincodon,Rhincodon),Stegostoma,Pseudoginglymostoma,Nebrius,Delpitoscyllium,Ganntouria,Hologinglymostoma),(Acanthoscyllium,Almascyllium,Hemiscyllium,Chiloscyllium,Mesiteia)),(Palaeobrachaelurus,Cretorectolobus,(Paraginglymostoma,Brachaelurus,Eostegostoma,Heteroscyllium),(Cederstroemia,Orectoloboides,(Eometlaouia,Squatiscyllium),Orectolobus,Eucrossorhinus,Sutorectus))))),((Dwardius,Priscusurus,Eoptolamna,(Mitsukurina,Scapanorhynchus,Anomotodon,Striatolamia,Woellsteinia),((Acrolamna,Archaeolamna,Cretodus,Cretoxyrhina,Dallasiela,Trigonotodus,Eostriatolamia,Paraisurus,Palaeocarcharodon,Cretolamna,Telodontaspis),Protolamna,Leptostyrax,Pseudoscapanorhynchus),((((Carcharias,Hispidaspis),Araloselachus),Brachycarcharias,Cenocarcharias,Glueckmanotodus,Hypotodus,Jaekelotodus,Johnlongia,(Mennerotodus,Borealotodus),Odontaspis,Orpodon,Palaeohypotodus,Roulletia,Sylvestrilamia,Turania,Pueblocarcharias),((Alopias,Anotodus,Paranomotodon,Usakias),Pseudocarcharias,Megachasma),((OtodusO,OtodusC,OtodusM),Parotodus),Cardabiodon,Serratolamna,((Galeocorax,Pseudocorax),(Ptychocorax,Nanocorax,Squalicorax,Scindocorax)),(Cetorhinus,(((Carchariolamna,Lamna,Carcharoides),Isurolamna,(Isurus,Macrorhizodus)),(Carcharodon,Cosmopolitodus),Karaisurus,Lethenia,Xiphodolamia)))),((Bavariscyllium,Casieria,Cretascyliorhinus,Eypea,(Foumtizia,Pachyscyllium),Macrourogaleus,Megascyliorhinus,Microscyliorhinus,Crassescyliorhinus,Palaeoscyllium,Platyrhizoscyllium,(PremontreiaP,PremontreiaO),Protoscyliorhinus,Pseudoscyliorhinus,Pteroscyllium,Stenoscyllium,Schroederichthys,(((Porodermoides,Poroderma),(Scyliorhinus,Cephaloscyllium)),(Atelomycterus,Aulohalaelurus)),(Galeus,Bythaelurus,(Asymbolus,(Cephalurus,Parmaturus)),(Holohalaelurus,Halaelurus,Haploblepharus,Prohaploblepharus),(Pentanchus,Apristurus)),(Proscyllium,Praeproscyllium,Ctenacis,Eridacnis),((Pseudotriakis,Gollum),(Leptocharias,(Archaeotriakis,(Iago,Khouribgaleus,Gomphogaleus,Galeorhinus,(Triakis,Scylliogaleus,Mustelus,Hemitriakis,Furgaleus,Pachygaleus,Palaeogaleus,Paratriakis,Squatigaleus,Xystrogaleus,((Hemigaleus,Paragaleus,(Chaenogaleus,Hemipristis),Moerigaleus),((Sphyrna,Eusphyra),((Abdounia,Tingaleus),Danogaleus,Eogaleus,Physogaleus,(Rhizoprionodon,Scoliodon,Loxodon,Isogomphodon,(Triaenodon,((Glyphis,Lamiopsis),Prionace,Nasolamia,Carcharhinus))),Kruckowlamna,Misrichthys,Negaprion,Galeocerdo)))))))),Figaro,Gogolia),Corysodon)),Parasquatina),(((Hexanchus,(Heptranchias,Paraheptranchias),Weltonia),Notorynchus,Notidanoides,Notidanodon,Pachyhexanchus,(Pseudonotidanus,Welcommia)),(Chlamydoselachus,Eothrinax),Sphenodus,Paraorthacodus),(Echinorhinus,Gibbechinorhinus,Orthechinorhinus,Paraechinorhinus,Pseudoechinorhinus),Protospinax),(Reifia,(Breviacanthus,(Mucrovenator,Rhomphaiodon),Palidiplospinax,Synechodus))),Pseudocetorhinus,Hueneichthys,Grozonodon)),Vallisia);

MAI[29]

(((((((Aegyptobatus,Tribodus),Distobatus,Glickmanodus,Reticulodus,Acrodus,Acrorhizodus,Asteracanthus,Bdellodus),(Egertonodus,Pororhiza,Priohybodus,Thaiodus,Leptacanthus,Planohybodus,Secarodus,Hybodus,Meristodon,Meristodonoides,Khoratodus)),(Palaeobates,Polyacrodus)),(Lonchidion,Lissodus,Bahariyodon,Hylaeobatis,Isanodus,Parvodus,Vectiselachos,Jiaodontus,Diplolonchidion)),(Homalodontus,Doratodus),(Heteroptychodus,Ptychodus),Steinbachodus,Pseudodalatias,Ostenoselache,Hubeiodus,Mukdahanodus,Raineria),((((((((((Burnhamia,Eomobula,(Eoplinthicus,Plinthicus),Manta,Mobula),Rhinoptera),Ixobatis,(Pucabatis,Rhombodus,Washakiebatis),Aetobatus,Aetomylaeus,Apocopodon,Brachyrhizodus,Garabatis,Igdabatis,Leidybatis,Lophobatis,(Myliobatis,Pteromylaeus),Pseudaetobatus,Aktaua),(Pteroplatea,Aetoplatea,Gymnura,Jacquhermania,Ouledia),Cretomanta,Archaeomanta),((Urolophus,Trygonoptera,Plesiobatis),Himantura),((Potamotrygon,Plesiotrygon),(Paratrygon,Heliotrygon)),Arechia,Aturobatis,Coupatezia,Dasyrhombodus,Delpitia,Enantiobatis,Ewingia,Heterobatis,Heterotorpedo,Merabatis,Myliodasyatis,Phosphatodon,Meridiania,Texabatis,Viperecucullus,(Urotrygon,Urobatis),Hypolophites,Hypolophodon,Ishaquia,Pastinachus,Taeniura,Dasyatis,Neotrygon,Pteroplatytrygon,Taeniurops,Urogymnus,Asterotrygon,Heliobatis),Hexatrygon),Zanobatus),(Anoxypristis,Pristis,Propristis)),(((Torpedo,Eotorpedo),Hypnos),((Heteronarce,Typhlonarke,Narke,Temera,Crassinarke,Electrolux),(Narcine,Benthobatis,Diplobatis,Discopyge),Titanonarke)),((Ataktobatis,Engaibatis,Jurobatos,Microbatis,Myledaphus,Protoplatyrhina,Pseudohypolophus,Squatirhina,Vascobatis,(Rhina,Rhynchobatus,((Asterodermus,Belemnobatis),Doliobatis,Iansan,Isidobatus,Paratrygonorrhina,Rhinobatos,Rhombopterygia,Spathobatis,Aptychotrema,Trygonorrhina,Zapteryx,Platypterix),(Platyrhina,Tethybatis,Platyrhinoidis),(Hypsobatis,Angolabatis,Youssoubatis),Parapalaeobates)),(((Dipturus,Raja,Malacoraja,Mafdetia,Rajorhina,Smithraja,Walteraja,Amblyraja,Breviraja,Dactylobatus,Dentiraja,Fenestraja,Gurgesiella,Hongeo,Insentiraja,Leucoraja,Neoraja,Okamejei,Rajella,Rostroraja,Zearaja),(Anacanthobatis,Sinobatis),(Psammobatis,Pseudoraja,Rioraja,Rhinoraja,Pavoraja,Notoraja,Irolita,Brochiraja,Bathyraja,Atlantoraja,Arhynchobatis,Sympterygia)),Cyclobatis)),(Cristabatis,Toarcibatis),((Onchosaurus,Pucapristis,Schizorhiza),(Ankistrorhynchus,Borodinopristis,(Columbusia,Onchopristis),Ctenopristis,Dalpiazia,Ganopristis,Ischyrhiza,Libanopristis,Marckgrafia,Micropristis,Plicatopristis,Sclerorhynchus,Kiestus,Atlanticopristis),Biropristis,Baharipristis,Renpetia,Celtipristis),Ptychotrygon,Ptychotrygonoides,Texatrygon,Archingeayia,Duwibatis,Engolismaia,Erguitaia,Erythrobatis,Hamrabatis,Safagaia,Tanoutia,Turoniabatis,Leiribatos,Phosphatobatis,Iberotrygon),(Pseudocetorhinus,Hueneichthys,Grozonodon,((((((((((Etmopterus,Miroscyllium),Eoetmopterus,Microetmopterus,Paraetmopterus,Proetmopterus),(Centroscyllium,Aculeola),Trigonognathus),((Centroselachus,Proscymnodon,(Scymnodon,Zameus),Scymnodalatias,Cretascymnus,Centroscymnus),(SomniosusS,SomniosusR)),(Oxynotus,Protoxynotus),((Eosqualiolus,Squaliolus,Euprotomicrus),Heteroscymnoides,Paraphorosoides,Acrosqualiolus,Angoumeius,Squaliodalatias,Dalatias,Isistius,Euprotomicroides,Mollisquama)),(Protocentrophorus,(Centrophorus,Deania))),((Squalus,Cirrhigaleus,Protosqualus,Centrophoroides),Centrosqualus,Megasqualus)),((Squatina,Pseudorhina),(Echinorhinus,Gibbechinorhinus,Orthechinorhinus,Paraechinorhinus,Pseudoechinorhinus))),(Pristiophorus,(Ikamauius,Pliotrema))),(((Hexanchus,(Heptranchias,Paraheptranchias),Weltonia),Notorynchus,Notidanoides,Notidanodon,Pachyhexanchus,(Pseudonotidanus,Welcommia)),(Chlamydoselachus,Eothrinax),Sphenodus,Paraorthacodus),Protospinax),(Reifia,(Breviacanthus,(Mucrovenator,Rhomphaiodon),Palidiplospinax,Synechodus),((Heterodontus,Paracestracion,Proheterodontus),((Palaeorectolobus,Agaleus,Palaeocarcharias,Pseudospinax,(Annea,Dorsetoscyllium,Folipistrix,(Phorcynis,Heterophorcynus),Ornatoscyllium,(Pararhincodon,Cirrhoscyllium,Parascyllium),((((Ginglymostoma,Plicatoscyllium),Cantioscyllium,Protoginglymostoma,(Palaeorhincodon,Rhincodon),Stegostoma,Pseudoginglymostoma,Nebrius,Delpitoscyllium,Ganntouria,Hologinglymostoma),(Acanthoscyllium,Almascyllium,Hemiscyllium,Chiloscyllium,Mesiteia)),(Palaeobrachaelurus,Cretorectolobus,(Paraginglymostoma,Brachaelurus,Eostegostoma,Heteroscyllium),(Cederstroemia,Orectoloboides,(Eometlaouia,Squatiscyllium),Orectolobus,Eucrossorhinus,Sutorectus))))),((Dwardius,Priscusurus,Eoptolamna,(Mitsukurina,Scapanorhynchus,Anomotodon,Striatolamia,Woellsteinia),((Acrolamna,Archaeolamna,Cretodus,Cretoxyrhina,Dallasiela,Trigonotodus,Eostriatolamia,Paraisurus,Palaeocarcharodon,Cretolamna,Telodontaspis),Protolamna,Leptostyrax,Pseudoscapanorhynchus),((((Carcharias,Hispidaspis),Araloselachus),Brachycarcharias,Cenocarcharias,Glueckmanotodus,Hypotodus,Jaekelotodus,Johnlongia,(Mennerotodus,Borealotodus),Odontaspis,Orpodon,Palaeohypotodus,Roulletia,Sylvestrilamia,Turania,Pueblocarcharias),((Alopias,Anotodus,Paranomotodon,Usakias),Pseudocarcharias,Megachasma),((OtodusO,OtodusC,OtodusM),Parotodus),Cardabiodon,Serratolamna,((Galeocorax,Pseudocorax),(Ptychocorax,Nanocorax,Squalicorax,Scindocorax)),(Cetorhinus,(((Carchariolamna,Lamna,Carcharoides),Isurolamna,(Isurus,Macrorhizodus)),(Carcharodon,Cosmopolitodus),Karaisurus,Lethenia,Xiphodolamia)))),((Bavariscyllium,Casieria,Cretascyliorhinus,Eypea,(Foumtizia,Pachyscyllium),Macrourogaleus,Megascyliorhinus,Microscyliorhinus,Crassescyliorhinus,Palaeoscyllium,Platyrhizoscyllium,(PremontreiaP,PremontreiaO),Protoscyliorhinus,Pseudoscyliorhinus,Pteroscyllium,Stenoscyllium,Schroederichthys,(((Porodermoides,Poroderma),(Scyliorhinus,Cephaloscyllium)),(Atelomycterus,Aulohalaelurus)),(Galeus,Bythaelurus,(Asymbolus,(Cephalurus,Parmaturus)),(Holohalaelurus,Halaelurus,Haploblepharus,Prohaploblepharus),(Pentanchus,Apristurus)),(Proscyllium,Praeproscyllium,Ctenacis,Eridacnis),((Pseudotriakis,Gollum),(Leptocharias,(Archaeotriakis,(Iago,Khouribgaleus,Gomphogaleus,Galeorhinus,(Triakis,Scylliogaleus,Mustelus,Hemitriakis,Furgaleus,Pachygaleus,Palaeogaleus,Paratriakis,Squatigaleus,Xystrogaleus,((Hemigaleus,Paragaleus,(Chaenogaleus,Hemipristis),Moerigaleus),((Sphyrna,Eusphyra),((Abdounia,Tingaleus),Danogaleus,Eogaleus,Physogaleus,(Rhizoprionodon,Scoliodon,Loxodon,Isogomphodon,(Triaenodon,((Glyphis,Lamiopsis),Prionace,Nasolamia,Carcharhinus))),Kruckowlamna,Misrichthys,Negaprion,Galeocerdo)))))))),Figaro,Gogolia),Corysodon))))),Parasquatina))),Vallisia)
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