Supplementary Tables S1-8




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Supplementary Tables S1-8
Bird flight initiation distances in relation to distance from human settlements in a Tanzanian floodplain habitat
Journal of Ornithology
L.M. Bjørvik1, S. Dale1, G.H. Hermansen2, P.K.T. Munishi3 & S.R. Moe1
1 Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway.

2 Departement of Mathematics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1053, Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway.

3 Department of Forest Biology, Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania.
Corresponding author:

Svein Dale, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås, Norway

Tel: +47-64965742. Email: svein.dale@nmbu.no


Table S1. Information on the 16 species from the Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania, included in the study.

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Species English name Family N1 Body mass

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Streptopelia capicola Ring-necked Dove Columbidae 38 150

Spilopelia senegalensis Laughing Dove Columbidae 33 110

Centropus superciliosus White-browed Coucal Cuculidae 43 180

Coracias caudatus Lilac-breasted Roller Coraciidae 34 105

Merops pusillus Little Bee-eater Meropidae 36 15

Tockus nasutus African Grey Hornbill Bucerotidae 27 165

Dicrurus adsimilis Fork-tailed Drongo Dicruridae 36 45

Pycnonotus barbatus Common Bulbul Pycnonotidae 51 40

Cisticola chiniana Rattling Cisticola Cisticolidae 41 15

Euplectes nigroventris Zanzibar Red Bishop Ploceidae 25 13

Euplectes axillaris Fan-tailed Widowbird Ploceidae 46 29

Lagonosticta senegala Red-billed Firefinch Estrildidae 30 9

Uraeginthus angolensis Blue Waxbill Estrildidae 42 10

Estrilda astrild Common Waxbill Estrildidae 23 10

Lonchura cucullata Bronze Mannikin Estrildidae 44 10

Vidua chalybeata Village Indigobird Viduidae 23 12

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1 Sample size for single-species analyses

Table S2. Linear model of factors affecting flight initiation distance (ln-transformed, 566 observations) in 16 bird species in Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania. Species has been replaced with family. R2 = 0.14.

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Source of variation Estimate SE t P

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Intercept 2.63 0.15 17.24 <0.0001

Distance from closest village -0.01 0.01 -0.67 0.51

Perching height 0.003 0.005 0.57 0.57

Habitat (present versus absent)

Woodland 0.04 0.07 0.52 0.60

Short grassland 0.33 0.08 4.02 <0.0001

Long grassland 0.27 0.08 3.38 0.0008

Cultivation 0.24 0.08 3.02 0.003

Family (versus Bucerotidae)

Cisticolidae -0.89 0.16 -5.69 <0.0001

Columbidae -0.30 0.14 -2.24 0.026

Coraciidae 0.11 0.15 0.72 0.47

Cuculidae -0.29 0.16 -1.85 0.065

Dicruridae -0.33 0.15 -2.15 0.032

Estrildidae -0.63 0.13 -4.71 <0.0001

Meropidae -0.36 0.15 -2.32 0.021

Ploceidae -0.39 0.15 -2.66 0.008

Pycnonotidae -0.25 0.14 -1.77 0.078

Viduidae -0.52 0.17 -3.05 0.002

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Table S3. Linear model of factors affecting flight initiation distance (ln-transformed, 566 observations) in 16 bird species in Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania. Species has been replaced with body mass. R2 = 0.09.

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Source of variation Estimate SE t P

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Intercept 2.06 0.10 20.22 <0.0001

Distance from closest village -0.003 0.01 -0.27 0.79

Perching height 0.01 0.004 2.25 0.024

Habitat (present versus absent)

Woodland 0.03 0.07 0.46 0.64

Short grassland 0.32 0.08 3.82 0.0001

Long grassland 0.18 0.08 2.37 0.018

Cultivation 0.22 0.08 2.75 0.006

Body mass 0.002 0.0004 5.57 <0.0001

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Table S4. Linear model of factors affecting flight initiation distance (ln-transformed, 566 observations) in 16 bird species in Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania. Species has been replaced with family + body mass. R2 = 0.16.

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Source of variation Estimate SE t P

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Intercept 0.96 0.55 1.74 0.082

Distance from closest village -0.004 0.01 -0.42 0.67

Perching height 0.001 0.005 0.32 0.75

Habitat (present versus absent)

Woodland 0.03 0.07 0.38 0.71

Short grassland 0.31 0.08 3.86 0.0001

Long grassland 0.26 0.08 3.31 0.001

Cultivation 0.22 0.08 2.83 0.005

Body mass 0.01 0.003 3.14 0.002

Family (versus Bucerotidae)



Cisticolidae 0.64 0.51 1.26 0.21

Columbidae 0.04 0.17 0.25 0.80

Coraciidae 0.73 0.25 2.93 0.003

Cuculidae -0.44 0.16 -2.73 0.007

Dicruridae 0.90 0.42 2.15 0.032

Estrildidae 0.95 0.52 1.83 0.067

Meropidae 1.17 0.51 2.29 0.022

Ploceidae 1.05 0.48 2.19 0.029

Pycnonotidae 1.03 0.43 2.38 0.018

Viduidae 1.05 0.53 1.99 0.047

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Table S5. Piecewise linear model of factors affecting flight initiation distance (ln-transformed, 566 observations) in 16 bird species in Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania. The model had a linear response up to 2 km away from villages, and a flat response from 2 km and farther away from villages. Species has been replaced with family. R2 = 0.14.

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Source of variation Estimate SE t P

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Intercept 2.44 0.18 13.49 <0.0001

Distance from closest village 0.09 0.06 1.49 0.14

Perching height 0.003 0.005 0.65 0.51

Habitat (present versus absent)

Woodland 0.02 0.07 0.26 0.80

Short grassland 0.30 0.08 3.83 0.0001

Long grassland 0.27 0.08 3.41 0.0007

Cultivation 0.26 0.08 3.24 0.001

Family (versus Bucerotidae)

Cisticolidae -0.87 0.16 -5.58 <0.0001

Columbidae -0.29 0.13 -2.14 0.033

Coraciidae 0.12 0.15 0.79 0.43

Cuculidae -0.26 0.15 -1.69 0.092

Dicruridae -0.31 0.15 -2.04 0.042

Estrildidae -0.60 0.13 -4.55 <0.0001

Meropidae -0.35 0.15 -2.25 0.025

Ploceidae -0.37 0.15 -2.56 0.011

Pycnonotidae -0.22 0.14 -1.55 0.12

Viduidae -0.49 0.17 -2.92 0.004

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Table S6. Piecewise linear model of factors affecting flight initiation distance (ln-transformed, 566 observations) in 16 bird species in Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania. The model had a linear response up to 2 km away from villages, and a flat response from 2 km and farther away from villages. Species has been replaced with body mass. R2 = 0.09.

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Source of variation Estimate SE t P

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Intercept 1.88 0.14 13.46 <0.0001

Distance from closest village 0.10 0.06 1.65 0.10

Perching height 0.01 0.004 2.30 0.022

Habitat (present versus absent)

Woodland 0.02 0.07 0.24 0.81

Short grassland 0.30 0.08 3.71 0.0002

Long grassland 0.18 0.08 2.40 0.017

Cultivation 0.24 0.08 2.99 0.003

Body mass 0.002 0.0004 5.48 <0.0001

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Table S7. Piecewise linear model of factors affecting flight initiation distance (ln-transformed, 566 observations) in 16 bird species in Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania. The model had a linear response up to 2 km away from villages, and a flat response from 2 km and farther away from villages. Species has been replaced with family + body mass. R2 = 0.16.

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Source of variation Estimate SE t P

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Intercept 0.76 0.55 1.37 0.17

Distance from closest village 0.09 0.06 1.51 0.13

Perching height 0.002 0.005 0.38 0.70

Habitat (present versus absent)

Woodland 0.01 0.07 0.14 0.89

Short grassland 0.29 0.08 3.74 0.0002

Long grassland 0.26 0.08 3.32 0.001

Cultivation 0.24 0.08 3.04 0.003

Body mass 0.01 0.003 3.19 0.001

Family (versus Bucerotidae)



Cisticolidae 0.67 0.51 1.33 0.18

Columbidae 0.06 0.17 0.34 0.74

Coraciidae 0.74 0.25 3.01 0.003

Cuculidae -0.42 0.16 -2.62 0.009

Dicruridae 0.93 0.42 2.23 0.026

Estrildidae 0.99 0.52 1.92 0.056

Meropidae 1.20 0.51 2.36 0.019

Ploceidae 1.08 0.48 2.27 0.024

Pycnonotidae 1.07 0.43 2.50 0.013

Viduidae 1.08 0.52 2.08 0.038

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Table S8. Piecewise linear models of the effect of distance from closest village on flight initiation distance (ln-transformed) for each of 16 bird species in Kilombero wetlands, Tanzania. The model had a linear response up to 2 km away from villages, and a flat response from 2 km and farther away from villages. Each model included habitat and perching height as covariates (effects not shown). Note that P-values were not corrected for multiple testing.

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Species Estimate SE t P

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Streptopelia capicola -0.18 0.38 -0.48 0.64

Spilopelia senegalensis -0.05 0.28 -0.18 0.86

Centropus superciliosus 0.05 0.22 0.21 0.84

Coracias caudatus 0.19 0.35 0.55 0.59

Merops pusillus 0.11 0.29 0.38 0.71

Tockus nasutus 0.31 0.60 0.52 0.61

Dicrurus adsimilis 0.30 0.36 0.84 0.41

Pycnonotus barbatus 0.34 0.14 2.44 0.019

Cisticola chiniana 0.35 0.18 1.87 0.070

Euplectes nigroventris 0.22 0.51 0.43 0.67

Euplectes axillaris -0.10 0.15 -0.67 0.51

Lagonosticta senegala 0.26 0.26 0.98 0.34

Uraeginthus angolensis 0.62 0.27 2.28 0.029

Estrilda astrild -0.02 0.19 -0.11 0.91

Lonchura cucullata 0.11 0.16 0.68 0.50

Vidua chalybeata1 - - - -

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1 Few observations < 2 km from closest village.


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