Supplementary Table Spiny-rayed fishes previously reported as venomous or confirmed as non-venomous. The reference(s) or review follows the species name. Taxon Presence or Absence of VenomA

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Supplementary Table 1. Spiny-rayed fishes previously reported as venomous or confirmed as non-venomous. The reference(s) or review follows the species name.

Taxon Presence or Absence of VenomA

Acanthuridae - surgeonfishes

Acanthurus chirurgusB present

Acanthurus triostegusB present

Acanthurus xanthopterusC absent in adults

Ctenochaetus striatusB present

Ctenochaetus strigosusB present

Naso spp.D present

Paracanthurus hepatusD present

Prionurus microlepidotusB present
Apistidae - waspfishes

Apistus carinatusB,E,F present
Aploactinidae - velvetfishes

Acanthosphex leurynnisG absent

Adventor elongatusG absent

Aploactis asperaG absent

Aploactisoma milesiF,G conflicting reports

Bathyaploactis curtisensisG absent

Bathyaploactis ornatissimaG present

Cocotropus altipinnisG absent

Cocotropus dermacanthusG absent

Cocotropus echinatusG absent

Cocotropus masudaiG absent

Cocotropus monocanthusG absent

Cocotropus roseusG absent

Erisphex aniarusG absent

Erisphex philipinusG absent

Erisphex pottiiG absent

Kanekonia floridaG absent

Kanekonia peltaG absent

Kanekonia queenslandicaG absent

Neaploactis tridorsalisG absent

Paraploactis hongkongiensisG absent

Paraploactis intonsaG absent

Paraploactis kagoshimensisG absent

Paraploactis obbesiG absent

Paraploactis pulvinaG absent

Paraploactis taprobanensisG absent

Paraploactis trachydermaC,G absent

Peristrominous dolosusG absent

Prosoproctus pataecusG absent

Ptarmus gallusG present

Ptarmus jubatusG present

Sthenopus mollisG absent

Xenaploactis anoptaG absent

Xenaploactis asperrimaG absent

Xenaploactis cautesG absent
Batrachoididae - toadfishes

Daector dowiE present

Daector gerringiE present

Daector reticulataE present

Halophryne diemensisC absent

Thalassophryne amazonicaE present

Thalassophryne maculosaE,H presentN

Thalassophryne megalopsE present

Thalassophryne montevidensisE present

Thalassophryne nattereriE,I presentN

Thalassophryne punctataE present
Blenniidae - blennies

Meiacanthus anemaJ present

Meiacanthus ditremaJ present

Meiacanthus grammistesJ present

Meiacanthus nigrolineaatusK present
Callionymidae - dragonets

Callionymus bellusE reported, but not confirmed

Callionymus lyraE reported, but not confirmed

Callionymus russoE reported, but not confirmed
Carangidae - jacks

Oligoplites altusE present

Oligoplites saurusE present

Scomberoides sanctipetriB present
Dactylopteridae - helmet gurnards

Dactylopterus volitansE reported, but not confirmed
Enoplosidae- old wives

Enoplosus armatusE reported, but not confirmed
Gnathanacanthidae - red velvetfishes

Gnathanacanthus goetzeeiF,L present
Monodactylidae - monos

Monodactylus sebaeE reported, but not confirmed
Neosebastidae - gurnard perches

Neosebastes nigropunctatusF,L present

Neosebastes pandusF present

Neosebastes thetidisF,L present
Pataecidae - prowfishes

Aetapcus maculatusG absent

Neopataecus waterhousiG absent

Pataecus frontoG absent
Scathophagidae - scats

Scatophagus argusB,M presentN

Selenotoca multifasciataB,F present (in specimens <70 mm SL)
Scorpaenidae - scorpionfishes

Dendrochirus biocellatusE present

Dendrochirus brachypterusE present

Dendrochirus zebraE present

Pterois antennataE present

Pterois radiataE present

Pterois russeliiE present

Pterois sphexE present

Pterois volitansE,I presentN

Scorpaena angloensisE present

Scorpaena brasiliensisE present

Scorpaena cardinalisE present

Scorpaena grandicornisE present

Scorpaena guttataE,I presentN

Scorpaena izensisE present

Scorpaena maderensisE present

Scorpaena mystesE present

Scorpaena neglectaE present

Scorpaena notataE present

Scorpaena papillosaF,L present

Scorpaena plumieriE,N present

Scorpaena porcusB,E presentN

Scorpaena scrofaE present

Scorpaenodes guamensisE present

Scorpaenodes parvipinnisE present

Scorpaenopsis cirrhosaE present

Scorpaenopsis diabolusE present

Scorpaenopsis gibbosaE,F present

Sebastapistes bynoensisE,F present

Sebastapistes mauritianaE present
Sebastidae - rockfishes

Helicolenus dactylopterusE present

Sebastes auriculatusB present

Sebastes constellatusB present

Sebastes dalliiB present

Sebastes eosB present

Sebastes goodeiB present

Sebastes helvomaculatusB present

Sebastes inermisE present

Sebastes joyneriE present

Sebastes levisB present

Sebastes maligerB present

Sebastes marinusE present

Sebastes miniatusB present

Sebastes nebulosusB present

Sebastes paucispinisB present

Sebastes semicinctusB present

Sebates serricepsB present

Sebastiscus marmoratusE present

Sebastolobus macrochirE present
Siganidae - rabbitfishes

Siganus fuscescensE present

Siganus lineatusE present

Siganus luridusE present

Siganus puellusE present

Siganus puncatusE present

Siganus rivulatusE present

Siganus spinusE,F present

Siganus sutorE present

Siganus vulpiniusL present
Synanceiidae - stonefishes

Choridactylus multibarbisE,G present

Erosa erosaE present

Inimicus caledonicusE,F present

Inimicus cuvieriG present

Inimicus didactylusE present

Inimicus filamentosusE present

Inimicus japonicusE presentN

Inimicus sinensisF present.

Leptosynanceia asteroblepaE present

Minous inermisE present

Minous monodactylusE present

Minous trachycephalusG present

Synanceia horridaE,F,G,I presentN

Synanceia verrucosaE,F,I presentN
Tetrarogidae - waspfishes

Ablabys taenionotusG present

Centropogon australisE,F present

Centropogon marmoratusE present

Cottapistus cottoidesG present

Gymnapistes marmoratusE,F,I presentN

Notesthes robustaE,F,I presentN

Paracentropogon rubripinnisE,G present

Synderina yamanokamiE present
Trachinidae - weeverfishes

Echiichthys viperaE,I presentN

Trachinus araneusE present

Trachinus dracoE,I presentN

Trachinus radiatusE present
Triglidae - sea robins

Aspitrigla cuculusE reported, but not confirmed

Chelidonichthys kumuF reported, but not confirmed

Trigla lyraE reported, but not confirmed

Trigloporus lastovizaE reported, but not confirmed
Uranoscopidae - stargazers

Kathetostoma laeveF present

Uranoscopus japonicusE present

Uranoscopus scaberE present

APresence of venom confirmed by: toxin(s) being isolated, positive results from live animal assays of venom gland extract, medical diagnosis of sting, or presence of conspicuous venom gland. Absence of venom confirmed by the lack of a conspicuous venom gland.

BHalstead (1988)

CCameron and Endean (1972)

DRandall et al. (1997)

EHalstead (1970)

FKarmakar et al. (2004)

GPoss (1982)

HSosa-Rosales et al. (2005)

IChurch and Hodgson (2002)

JSmith-Vaniz et al. (2001)

KFishelson (1974)

LRifkin and Williamson (1996)

MSouthcott (1975)

NToxin(s) have been shown directly, either by isolation and characterization or by live animal assays of venom gland extract.

OCarrijo LC, Andrich F, de Lima ME, Cordeiro MN, Richardson M, and Figueiredo SG, 2005. Biological

properties of the venom from the scorpionfish (Scorpaena plumieri) and purification of a gelatinolytic

protease. Toxicon 45:843–850.

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