Supplementary Material Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry




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Supplementary Material

Genetic signatures of a Mediterranean influence in Iberian Peninsula sheep husbandry
Filipe Pereira,1,2 Simon J.M. Davis,3 Luísa Pereira,1 Brian McEvoy4, Daniel G. Bradley4 and António Amorim1,2
1 Instituto de Patologia e Imunologia Molecular da Universidade do Porto (IPATIMUP), R. Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

2 Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Pr. Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal


3 Instituto Português de Arqueologia, Avenida da Índia 136, 1300-300 Lisboa, Portugal

4 Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland

Table 1: Mammals and birds introduced by humans into the Iberian Peninsula during the Holocene. This list provides the first recorded occurrences of certain important taxa of mammals and birds with their location and date/period, where known. The culture/period associated with the introduction is also shown.


Table 2: MtDNA diversity parameters observed in seven Portuguese sheep breeds using the complete mtDNA control region. Significant values (p<0.05) are marked with an asterisk.
Figure 1: Median-joining networks showing the three ovine mtDNA Haplogropus (A, in white; B in grey and C in black) for the mtDNA control region segment 16093-16616. An asterisk denotes two haplotypes previously assigned to Haplogroup C.
Figure 2: Median-joining network showing the Portuguese Haplogroup B haplotypes for the complete mtDNA control region.
Figure 3: Mismatch distributions for the three ovine Haplogroups A, B and C. The numbers of mismatches are given on the horizontal axis with relative frequencies represented on the vertical scale. The mismatch observed mean and the Tau value (τ) calculated for the three Haplogroups are also shown.


Species

Culture/period

Date

Locality

References

Dog*

(Canis familiaris)



Mesolithic?

5285 BP (earlier dates uncertain, see Altuna 1980)


Marizulo Level II



Altuna 1980

Sheep (Ovis aries)

Goat* (C. hircus) Cattle* (Bos taurus)

Pig* (Sus scrofa)

Horse*(E. caballus)



Neolithic

Numerous

Caldeirão, Portugal



Zilhão 2001

Davis 2002



House mouse

(Mus domesticus)

Phoenicians

7th–3rd centuries BC


El Soto de Medinilla and La Mota (Valladolid province, central Spain)



Morales Muñiz et al. 1995a

see also Cucchi et al. 2005



Donkey

(Equus asinus)


Phoenicians

Iron Age


c. 610 BC
600-575 BC

Rocha Branca (Silves, Algarve)

Toscanos, Cerro de la Tortuga (Málaga, Andalucia)

La Mota (Valladolid province, central Spain) Hoya (Laguardia, Alava, Basque region of Spain)

Castillo de Doña Blanca Level X



Cardoso 2000

Uerpmann and Uerpmann 1973

Morales Muñiz et al. 1995a

Altuna and Mariezkurrena 1986

Roselló and Morales 1994


Chicken

(Gallus gallus)

Phoenicians

Early 8th century BC


Castillo de Doña Blanca, Bay of Cadiz


Hernandez Carrasquilla 1992



Ostrich

(Struthio camelus)

-egg shell


Phoenicians

6th–4th centuries BC

-mid-8th century BC

The southern part of the Iberian peninsula in the region between La Joya, near Huelva in western Andalusia, and the Carthaginian necropolis, el Puig des Molíns, on the island of Ibiza in the east

Castillo de Doña Blanca

San Nicolas 1975; Mayor 1996-7; Harden 1961


Roselló and Morales 1994

Fallow deer

(Dama dama)

Romans

3rd-5th centuries AD


São Pedro, Fronteira, Alentejo, Portugal (identity not certain)


Davis 2005a



Camel

(Camelus)

Romans

3rd-4th century AD

c. 70-80 AD


Imperial Period, Conimbriga, Portugal

Complutum, near Madrid

El Val, near Complutum; Cartago Nova, Murcia


Cardoso 1992; Morales Muñiz et al. 1995b

Genet

(Genetta genetta)

Moslems

13th century AD


Mértola, Baixo Alentejo, Portugal


Morales 1994



*the wild ancestors (or closely related species) of these important domesticated mammals were present in the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric times before domestication. For many of them, distinguishing between the wild and domesticated forms is difficult or impossible when working with archaeological fragments of their bones and teeth. Hence it is difficult at this stage to state with certainty just when they were domesticated in the Iberian Peninsula or when they were introduced as domesticated livestock.
Table1

Table2



Breed

n

Nº of haplotypes

Haplotype

Diversity



Mean nº of pairwise differences1

Nucleotide Diversity1

Fu’s FS1

Churra Badana

26

22

0.983 ± 0.017

11.478

0.010 ± 0.005

-5.366*

Churra Terra Quente

24

23

0.996 ± 0.013

11.470

0.010 ± 0.005

-11.427*

Mondegueira

14

12

0.978 ± 0.035

12.359

0.010 ± 0.006

-1.489

Churra Algarvia

35

22

0.971 ± 0.012

11.623

0.010 ± 0.005

-1.924

Campaniça

20

18

0.990 ± 0.019

10.668

0.010 ± 0.005

-7.053*

Saloia

32

30

0.996 ± 0.010

10.621

0.009 ± 0.005

-18.915*

Merino Preto

10

9

0.978 ± 0.054

10.822

0.009 ± 0.005

-1.486

1 for Haplogroup B individuals with four repeats in the control region

Figure1

Figure2

Figure 3


Literature Cited (Supplementary Material)
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