Supplementary Information Table Comparison of the status of the




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
Памер147.44 Kb.
Supplementary Information

Table 1. Comparison of the status of the musculi arrectores pilorum (MAP) in non-primate vertebrates, as compiled from the literature. “Comments” are from original sources, except that MAP has been used as an abbreviation throughout.



Class

Order

Family

Genus and/or species

MAP (Present, Absent or Variable)

MAP Coding: Present (1) or Absent (0)

Description

Comments

Reference

Reptilia

Squamata

All families

 

Present

1

Used for scales

Dermal muscles, which move imbricated scales relative to one another, and subcutaneous muscles, which move the skin relative to underlying body structures, have been documented for snakes and lizards.

 

Aves

All orders

All families

 

Present

1

 

Feather muscles classified into three types of smooth muscle according to function: (a) the arrector muscle, which is attached at one end to the neck of one feather follicle and at the other end to the base of a follicle anterior to it; (b) the depressor muscles, which pass from the neck of one feather follicle to the base of another follicle posterior to it; and (c) repressor muscles, which that pass from the neck of one follicle to the neck of another follicle and draw the feathers together with no depression or erection.




Mammalia

Monotremata

Tachyglossidae

Tachyglossus

Absent

0

(akin to that of birds)

Erects spines by contracting cross striated skin muscles




Mammalia

Diprotodontia

Phalangeridae

Trichosurus vulpecula

Present

1

 

 




Mammalia

Pholidota

Manidae

Manis pentadactyla

Absent

0

 

 




Mammalia

Lagomorpha

Leporidae

 

Present

1

 

 




Mammalia

Lagomorpha

Ochotonidae

Ochotona spp.

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Bathyergidae

 

Absent

0

Variable in species

While they may function to increase tactile sensitivity and not as erectile organs, it seems somewhat more possible that they may have an erectile function in these specimens because the usual arrector muscle is lacking.

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Castoridae

 

Absent

0

 

 




Mammalia

Rodentia

Caviidae

Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Chinchillidae

Chinchilla lanigera

Present

1

Multiple hair associated with each MAP

Each group of hairs has a single MAP

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Cricetidae

Myodes gapperi

Present

1




Not mentioned except to say they are not enlarged on flank skin, implying they are present.

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Ctenodactylidae

 

Present

1

 

Only on breast

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Dipodidae

 

Present

1

Not found in every specimen

Usually present often thin

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Geomyidae

 

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Gliridae

Selvenia

Present

1

Thin

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Heteromyidae

 

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Hystricidae

Hystrix spp.

Present

1

Powerful

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Muridae

 

Present

1

Thin to well- developed

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Muridae

Rattus spp.

Present

1

 

Not well-developed

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Myocastoridae

 

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Sciuridae

 

Present

1

 

Very many have




Mammalia

Rodentia

Sciuridae

Marmota

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Rodentia

Spalacidae

 

Present

1

 

Not on breast

 

Mammalia

Macroscelidea

Macroscelidae

Elephantulus rozeti

Absent

0

 

 




Mammalia

Primates

Strepsirhini

 

Variable

Mostly 0

 

Present on tail only of most species

See main text Table 2

 

Primates

Tarsiidae

 

Absent

0

 




See main text Table 2

 

Primates

Anthropoidea

 

Present

1

 




See main text Table 2

Mammalia

Scandentia

Tupaiidae

Tupaia glis

Present

1

Slender

The follicles have a large bulge to which are attached delicate strands of piliary muscles. However, Sokolov could not find these in his specimen.

 

Mammalia

Chiroptera

Chiroptera (all families)

 

Absent

0

Specialized areas only

Only in specialized skin, not on wings

 

Mammalia

Dermoptera

Cynocephalidae

Cynocephalus temminckii

Absent

0

 

 

 

Mammalia

Insectivora

Tenrecidae

 

Present

1

Well- developed

Specialized to quills

 

Mammalia

Insectivora

Erinaceidae

Erinaceus europaeus

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Insectivora

Solenodontidae

 

Present

1

Strong

 

 

Mammalia

Insectivora

Soricidae

 

Absent

0

 

 

 

Mammalia

Insectivora

Talpidae

Desmana moschata

Absent

0

 

 

 

Mammalia

Insectivora

Talpidae

Scapanus townsendii

Present on dorsum only

1

Slender

Absent on chest and venter

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Canidae

 

Present

1

 

Thick

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Canidae

Cuon alpines

Present

1

 

Poorly developed

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Felidae

 

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Mustelidae

Mustela putorius furo

Present

1

 

Variable thickness

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Mustelidae - Lutrinae

Lutra lutra

Absent

0

Aquatic

For streamlining

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Otariidae

Eumetopias jubatus; Lobodon carcinophagia

Absent

0

 

For streamlining

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Ursidae

 

Vestigial

1

 

Rare and not on breast of Ursus arctos and thin on U. maritimus

 

Mammalia

Carnivora

Viverridae

 

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Bovidae

 

Present

1

Well developed in most

 

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Camelidae

Camelus dromedarius

Present

1

 

Animals sweat when temperatures reach 44C; sweat is at end of hair.

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Camelidae

 

Present in four taxa

1

Rarely Absent

In llamas, well-developed MAP are associated with larger hair follicles in the areas of long dense hair-coat, whereas they are small and rudimentary in areas with short sparse hair-coat and referred to as “thermal windows.”

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Cervidae

 

Present

1

Well developed in most

 

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Giraffidae

 

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Moschidae

Moschus moschiferus

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Suidae




Present

1

 

Only at the bristles and very powerful used as shock absorber

 

Mammalia

Artiodactyla

Tayassuidae

 

Present

1

 

Only at the bristles and very powerful used as shock absorber

 

Mammalia

Cetacea

Cetacea (all families)

 

Absent

0

 

 

 

Mammalia

Perissodactyla

Equidae

Equus spp.

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Perissodactyla

Rhinocerotidae

Rhinoceros spp.

Present

1

 

 

 

Mammalia

Hyracoidea

Procaviidae

 

Present

1

Typically thin

 

 

Mammalia

Sirenia

Sirenia (all families)

 

Absent

0

 

Aquatic

 

Mammalia

Proboscidea

Elephantidae

 

Absent

0

 

 

 

Adam PJ (2005). Lobodon carcinophaga. Mammalian Species 772: 1-14.

Carraway LN, Alexander LF, Verts BJ (1993). Scapanus townsendii. Mammalian Species 434: 1-7.

Fish FE, Howle LE, Murray MM (2008). Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals. Integrative and Comparative Biology 48: 788-800.

Gerken M (2010). Relationships between integumental characteristics and thermoregulation in south american camelids. animal 4: 1451-1459.

Groves CP (1972). Ceratoherium simum. Mammalian Species 8: 1-6.

Homberger DG, de Silva KN (2000). Functional microanatomy of the feather-bearing integument: Implications for the evolution of birds and avian flight. American Zoologist 40: 553-574.

Jenkinson DM, Sengupta BP, Blackburn PS (1966). The distribution of nerves, monoamine oxidase and cholinesterase in the skin of cattle. Journal of Anatomy 100: 593-613.

Kohler-Rollefson IU (1991). Camelus dromedarius. Mammalian Species 375: 1-8.

Loughlin TR, Perez MA, Merrick RL (1987). Eumetopias jubatus. Mammalian Species 283: 1-7.

Martin AL, Irizarry-Rovira AR, Bevier DE, Glickman LG, Glickman NW, Hullinger RL (2007). Histology of ferret skin: Preweaning to adulthood. Veterinary Dermatology 18: 401-411.

Mones A, Ojasti J (1986). Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. Mammalian Species 264: 1-7.

Montagna W, Yun JS, Silver AF, Quevedo WC (1962). The skin of primates. Xiii. The skin of the tree shrew (tupaia glis). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 20: 431-439.

Morris RJ, Potten CS (1999). Highly persistent label-retaining cells in the hair follicles of mice and their fate following induction of anagen. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 112: 470-475.

Nixon AJ (1989). Fur growth and replacement in the brushtail possom trichosurus vulpecula, kerr. In Zoology, p 201. Palmerston North, New Zealand, Massey University.

Prum RO (1999). Development and evolutionary origin of feathers. Journal of Experimental Zoology 285: 291-306.

Quay WB (1969). Structure and evolutionary implications of the musculi arrectores pilorum in chiroptera. The Anatomical Record 163: 587-593.

Smith F (1888). The histology of the skin of the horse. Journal of Anatomy 22: 142-153.

Sokolov VE (1983). Mammal skin. Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.

Spinage C (1994). Elephants. London, T & AD Poyser Ltd.

Spotorno AE, Zuleta CA, Valladares JP, Deane AL, Jiménez JE (2004). Chinchilla laniger. Mammalian Species 758: 1-9.

Starcher B, Aycock RL, Hill CH (2005). Multiple roles for elastic fibers in the skin. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 53: 431-443.

Thigpen LW (1940). Histology of the skin of a normally hairless rodent. Journal of Mammalogy 21: 449-456.

Yin J-X, Wang H-M, Racey P, Zhang J-S (2011). Microanatomy of the fishing bat skin. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 43: 387-392.



Zherebtsova OV (2006). Morphofunctional interpretation of the quills stridulating in tenrecs (lipotyphyla, tenrecidae). Russian Journal of Theriology 5: 1-11.




База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка