Supplementary Information Carbone et al

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Supplementary Information Carbone et al.
Data were obtained from Carbone & Gittleman (2002) and the additional sources below.

Additional Sources for data in Table S1:


Least weasel
Mustela nivalis
(Jedrzejewski et al. 1995)

Canadian lynx

Lynx canadensis

(Parker et al. 1983; Poole 1994)

European badger

Meles meles

(Revilla and Palomares 2001)


Canis latrans

(Nellis and Keith 1976; Patterson and Meisser 2001)

Spotted hyena

Crocuta crocuta

(Whateley 1981; Mills 1984; Tilson and Henschel 1986; Fuller and Kat 1990; Sillero-Zubiri and Gotteli 1992; Hofer and East 1995; Creel and Creel 1996)


Panthera leo

(Rudnai 1973; Elliott and Cowan 1978; Van Orsdol et al. 1985; Chellam and Johnsingn 1993; Viljoen 1993; Hanby et al. 1995; Yamazaki 1996)


Panthera tigris

(Sunquist 1981; Mishra 1982; Karanth 1995; Karanth and Nichols 1998; Chundawat et al. 1999; Smirnov and Miquelle 1999; O’Brien et al. 2003)


Chellam, R., and A. J. T. Johnsingn. 1993. Management of asiatic lions in the Gir forest, India. Symp.zool.soc.Lond. 65:409 - 424.

Chundawat, R. S., N. Gogate, and A. J. T. Johnsingh. 1999. Tigers in Panna: preliminary results from an Indian tropical dry forest in J. Seidensticker, Christie, S. & Jackson, P., ed. Riding the Tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Creel, S., and N. M. Creel. 1996. Limitation of African wild dogs by competition with larger carnivores. Conservation Biology 10:526-538.

Elliott, J. P., and I. M. Cowan. 1978. Territoriality, density and prey of the lion in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 56:1726 - 1734.

Fuller, T. K., and P. W. Kat. 1990. Movements, Activity, and Prey Relationships of African Wild Dogs (Lycaon-Pictus) Near Aitong, Southwestern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 28:330-350.

Hanby, J. P., J. D. Bygott, and C. Packer. 1995. Ecology, demography, and behaviour of lions in two contrasting habitats: Ngorongoro Crater and the serengeti plains, Pages 351 - 330 in S. A. a. A. P, ed. Serengeti II Dynamics, management and conservation of an ecosystem. Chicargo, University of Chicarge Press.

Hofer, H., and M. L. East. 1995. Population dynamics, population size, and the commuting system in Serengeti spotted hyaenas., Pages 332-363 in A. R. E. S. P. Arcese, ed. Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management and Conservation of an Ecosystem. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Jedrzejewski, W., B. Jedrzejewska, and L. Szymura. 1995. Weasel Population Response, Home-Range, and Predation On Rodents in a Deciduous Forest in Poland. Ecology 76:179-195.

Karanth, K. U. 1995. Estimating Tiger Panthera-Tigris Populations From Camera-Trap Data Using Capture-Recapture Models. Biological Conservation 71:333-338.

Karanth, K. U., and J. D. Nichols. 1998. Estimation of tiger densities in India using photographic captures and recaptures. Ecology 79:2852-2862.

Mills, M. G. L. 1984. The comparative behavioural ecology of the brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnae) and the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) in the southern Kalahari. Koedoe:237 - 247.

Mishra, H. R. 1982. Balancing Human Needs and Conservation in Nepal's Royal Chitwan Park. AMBIO Vol II.

Nellis, C. H., and J. B. Keith. 1976. Population dynamics of coyotes in central Alberta 1964 - 1968. Journal of wildlife Management 40:389 - 399.

O’Brien, T. G., M. F. Kinnaird, and H. T. Wibisono. 2003. Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. ANIMAL CONSERVATION 6:131-139.

Parker, G. R., J. W. Maxwell, L. D. Morton, and G. G. J. Smith. 1983. The ecology of the lynx (Lynx canadensis) on cape Brenton Island. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 61:770 -786.

Patterson, B. R., and F. Meisser. 2001. Social organization and space use of coyotes in Eastern canada relative to prey distribution and abundance. Journal of Mammalogy:463 - 477.

Poole, K. G. 1994. Characteristics of an unharvested lynx population during a snowshoe hare decline. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:608-618.

Revilla, E., and F. Palomares. 2001. Differences in key habitat use between dominant and subordinate animals: intraterritorial dominance payoffs in Eurasian badgers? Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 79:165-170.

Rudnai, J. A. 1973, The social life of the lion - a study of the behaviour of wild lions (Pantera leo) in the Nairobi National park, Kenya. Lancaster, Medical and technical publishing company, ltd.

Sillero-Zubiri, C., and D. Gotteli. 1992. Spotted hyeana in an equatorial mountain forest. Afr. J. Ecol. 30:292 - 300.

Smirnov, E. N., and D. G. Miquelle. 1999, Population dynamics of the Amur tiger in Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik, Russia: Riding the Tiger: tiger conservation in human-dominated landscapes. Cambridge UK, Cambridge University Press.

Sunquist, M., E,. 1981, The Social Organization of Tigers (Panthera tigris) in Royal Chitawan National Park, Nepal: Smithsonian Institution 336, v. 336. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press.

Tilson, R. L., and J. R. Henschel. 1986. Spatial arrangement of spotted hyaena groups in a desert environment, Namibia. Afr. J. Ecol. 24:173 - 180.

Van Orsdol, K. G., J. P. Hanby, and J. D. Bygott. 1985. Ecological correlates of lion social organisation ( Panthera leo). Journal of zoology London Series A 206:97 - 112.

Viljoen, P. C. 1993. The effects of cahnges in prey availability on lion predation in a large natural ecosystem in Northern Botswana. Symp.zool.soc.Lond. 65:193 - 213.

Whateley, A. 1981. Density and home range of spotted hyaenas in umfolozi game reserve, Natal. The Lammergeyer 31:15 -20.

Yamazaki, K. 1996. Social variation of lions in a male-depopulated area in Zambia. Journal of Wildlife Management 60:490-497.

Table S2

summary(lm(formula = logN ~ logM * logP))


Min 1Q Median 3Q Max

-1.47015 -0.26533 -0.03806 0.28440 1.46609


Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)

(Intercept) 1.22248 0.27259 4.485 1.16e-05 ***

logM -1.40693 0.17167 -8.196 1.77e-14 ***

logP 0.22551 0.10853 2.078 0.0388 *

logM:logP 0.25882 0.06474 3.998 8.62e-05 ***


Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 0.4821 on 229 degrees of freedom

Multiple R-squared: 0.607, Adjusted R-squared: 0.6019

F-statistic: 117.9 on 3 and 229 DF, p-value: < 2.2e-16

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