Supplementary Figure Legends Suppl. Fig. S1 Landmarks used in our analyses to quantify shape variation on the forelimb bones. A




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Supplementary Figure Legends

Suppl. Fig. S1 Landmarks used in our analyses to quantify shape variation on the forelimb bones. A, humerus; B, ulna; C, radius. Black crosses represent landmarks; red dashed-lines represent outlines used for the surface analyses of the articulations of each bone.

Suppl. Fig. S2 Results of the principal components analyses performed on the morphometric data of the humerus: A, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first two principal components; B, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first and the third principal components; C, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the second and the third principal components. Symbols are as follows: green polygon indicates arboreal species; yellow polygon indicates semi-arboreal species; red polygon indicates terrestrial species; brown polygon indicates semi-fossorial species; blue polygon indicates aquatic species. The family of each species is represented by a circle for mustelids, a triangle for procyonids, a square for mephitids and a star for ailurids. Simocyon batalleri is represented by the black star. Abbreviation for each name of species can be found in Table 1.

Suppl. Fig. S3 Results of the principal components analyses performed on the morphometric data of the ulna: A, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first two principal components; B, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first and the third principal components; C, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the second and the third principal components. Symbols are as follows: green polygon indicates arboreal species; yellow polygon indicates semi-arboreal species; red polygon indicates terrestrial species; brown polygon indicates semi-fossorial species; blue polygon indicates aquatic species. The family of each species is represented by a circle for mustelids, a triangle for procyonids, a square for mephitids and a star for ailurids. Simocyon batalleri is represented by the black star. Abbreviation for each name of species can be found in Table 1.

Suppl. Fig. S4 Results of the principal components analyses performed on the morphometric data of the radius: A, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first two principal components; B, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first and the third principal components; C, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the second and the third principal components. Symbols are as follows: green polygon indicates arboreal species; yellow polygon indicates semi-arboreal species; red polygon indicates terrestrial species; brown polygon indicates semi-fossorial species; blue polygon indicates aquatic species. The family of each species is represented by a circle for mustelids, a triangle for procyonids, a square for mephitids and a star for ailurids. Simocyon batalleri is represented by the black star. Abbreviation for each name of species can be found in Table 1.

Suppl. Fig. S5 Results of the principal components analyses performed on the morphometric data of the forelimb: A, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first two principal components; B, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the first and the third principal components; C, scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the second and the third principal components. Symbols are as follows: green polygon indicates arboreal species; yellow polygon indicates semi-arboreal species; red polygon indicates terrestrial species; brown polygon indicates semi-fossorial species; blue polygon indicates aquatic species. The family of each species is represented by a circle for mustelids, a triangle for procyonids, a square for mephitids and a star for ailurids. Simocyon batalleri is represented by the black star. Abbreviation for each name of species can be found in Table 1.

Supplementary Fig. S1

Supplementary Fig. S2


Supplementary Fig. S3




Supplementary Fig. S4



Supplementary Fig. S5




Supplementary table S1 Details of specimens used in the analyses with species, family, species name, institution, specimen, sex, and lifestyle.

Family

Species

Institution

Specimen

Sex

Lifestyle

Abbreviation

Ailuridae

Ailurus fulgens

CG

1960-84

M

A

Af

Ailuridae

Ailurus fulgens

CG

1960-85

M

A

Af

Ailuridae

Ailurus fulgens

CG

1963-358

F

A

Af

Ailuridae

Ailurus fulgens

CG

1998-1972

M

A

Af

Ailuridae

Ailurus fulgens

CG

1999-26

F

A

Af

Ailuridae

Simocyon batalleri humerus

MNCN

B-2390

U

U

Sb

Ailuridae

Simocyon batalleri † ulna

MNCN

B-438

U

U

Sb

Ailuridae

Simocyon batalleri † radius

MNCN

B-430

U

U

Sb

Mephitidae

Conepatus chinga

CG

1897-432

U

SF

Cc

Mephitidae

Mephitis mephitis

USNM

87236

M

SF

Mh

Mephitidae

Mephitis mephitis

USNM

260921

F

SF

Mh

Mephitidae

Mephitis mephitis

USNM

564277

F

SF

Mh

Mephitidae

Mydaus javanensis

NMB

8300

M

SF

Mj

Mephitidae

Mydaus javanensis

CG

A3404

U

SF

Mj

Mephitidae

Spilogale putorius

USNM

564280

F

SF

Sp

Mephitidae

Spilogale putorius

USNM

564281

M

SF

Sp

Mephitidae

Spilogale putorius

USNM

589252

U

SF

Sp

Mustelidae

Eira barbara

CG

2000-646

M

SA

Eb

Mustelidae

Enhydra lutris

CG

A1253

U

AQ

El

Mustelidae

Enhydra lutris

CG

1935-124

U

AQ

El

Mustelidae

Galictis vittata

CG

2001-1971

M

T

Gv

Mustelidae

Gulo gulo

CG

1983-946

F

T

Gg

Mustelidae

Gulo gulo

CG

1995-1208

U

T

Gg

Mustelidae

Lontra felina

CG

1995-185

F

AQ

Lf

Mustelidae

Lutra lutra

CG

1996-2466

M

AQ

Ll

Mustelidae

Martes foina

CG

1994-808

M

SA

Mf

Mustelidae

Martes foina

CG

1998-187

F

SA

Mf

Mustelidae

Martes foina

pers. coll.

pers. coll.

U

SA

Mf

Mustelidae

Martes martes

CG

1994-806

M

SA

Mm

Mustelidae

Martes martes

CG

2005-232

M

SA

Mm

Mustelidae

Meles meles

CG

1917-131

F

SF

Ms

Mustelidae

Meles meles

CG

1978-28

U

SF

Ms

Mustelidae

Meles meles

CG

2005-707

M

SF

Ms

Mustelidae

Mellivora capensis

CG

1928-61

U

SF

Mc

Mustelidae

Mellivora capensis

CG

2000-453

M

SF

Mc

Mustelidae

Melogale moschata

CG

1892-1015

F

SF

Ma

Mustelidae

Mustela eversmanii

CG

2005-668

M

T

Mv

Mustelidae

Mustela lutreola

CG

1962-332

F

T

Ml

Mustelidae

Mustela lutreola

CG

1987-177

M

T

Ml

Mustelidae

Mustela putorius

CG

1991-605

F

T

Mp

Mustelidae

Mustela putorius

CG

2004-639

U

T

Mp

Mustelidae

Neovison vison

CG

1985-165

M

T

Nv

Mustelidae

Poecilogale albinucha

CG

1862-146

U

T

Pa

Mustelidae

Pteronura brasiliensis

CG

A1918

U

AQ

Pb

Mustelidae

Taxidea taxus

NMB

9186

F

SF

Tt

Mustelidae

Taxidea taxus

NMB

9783

M

SF

Tt

Mustelidae

Vormela peregusna

NMB

8548

M

T

Vp

Mustelidae

Vormela peregusna

NMB

8554

F

T

Vp

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon alleni

MCZ

37920

U

A

Ba

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon alleni

MCZ

37922

F

A

Ba

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon alleni

MCZ

37923

M

A

Ba

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon gabbii

CG

1983-945

U

A

Bg

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon gabbii

USNM

395837

U

A

Bg

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon gabbii

USNM

305748

F

A

Bg

Procyonidae

Bassariscus astutus

CG

1854-128

M

SA

Bs

Procyonidae

Bassariscus astutus

CG

1911-768

U

SA

Bs

Procyonidae

Bassariscus astutus

CG

1962-146

U

SA

Bs

Procyonidae

Bassariscus astutus

MCZ

42161

U

SA

Bs

Procyonidae

Bassariscus astutus

USNM

000004/A01619

F

SA

Bs

Procyonidae

Nasua narica

CG

1888-846

U

SA

Nr

Procyonidae

Nasua narica

CG

1894-204

U

SA

Nr

Procyonidae

Nasua narica

CG

1918-10

F

SA

Nr

Procyonidae

Nasua narica

CG

1934-554

U

SA

Nr

Procyonidae

Nasua nasua

CG

A3487

U

SA

Ns

Procyonidae

Nasua nasua

CG

1968-784

U

SA

Ns

Procyonidae

Nasua nasua

CG

2010-640

M

SA

Ns

Procyonidae

Nasua nasua

CG

1974-108

F

SA

Ns

Procyonidae

Potos flavus

CG

1889-292

M

A

Pf

Procyonidae

Potos flavus

CG

1995-954

F

A

Pf

Procyonidae

Potos flavus

CG

1995-956

F

A

Pf

Procyonidae

Potos flavus

CG

1970-366

U

A

Pf

Procyonidae

Potos flavus

CG

1995-957

M

A

Pf

Procyonidae

Procyon cancrivorus

CG

2000-828

M

SA

Pc

Procyonidae

Procyon cancrivorus

CG

1932-2235

U

SA

Pc

Procyonidae

Procyon cancrivorus

CG

2000-364

M

SA

Pc

Procyonidae

Procyon lotor

CG

1934-556

U

SA

Pl

Procyonidae

Procyon lotor

CG

A3495

F

SA

Pl

Procyonidae

Procyon lotor

CG

1948-512

U

SA

Pl

Procyonidae

Procyon lotor

CG

1948-513

M

SA

Pl

Procyonidae

Procyon lotor

NMB

6038

U

SA

Pl

Institutional abbreviations are as follows: CG, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle Catalogue Général, Paris; MCZ, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts; MNCN, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; NMB, Naturhistorishes Museum Basel, Basel; USNM, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, District of Columbia. Sex abbreviations are as follows: F: female; M: male; U: unknown.



Supplementary Table S2 Definition of the landmarks of the humerus used for geometric morphometric analyses.


Landmark

Definition

1

Most medial and distal point of the caudal part of the capitulum

2

Most medial and proximal point of the caudal side of the capitulum

3

Point of maximum of curvature of the olecranon fossa

4

Most lateral and proximal point of the caudal side of the capitulum

5

Point of maximum of convexity of the lateral epicondylar ridge

6

Point of insertion of the lateral epicondylar ridge on the diaphysis

7

Most proximal tip of the entepicondylar area

8

Most distal tip of the entepicondylar area

9

Most medial and proximal point of the cranial side of the capitulum

10

Point of maximum of curvature of the coronoid fossa

11

Most proximal point of contact between the trochlea and the capitulum

12

Point of maximum of curvature of the radial fossa

13

Most lateral and proximal point of the cranial side of the capitulum

14

Most distal and lateral point of the capitulum

15

Most distal point of contact between the trochlea and the capitulum

16

Most distal point of the deltopectoral crest

17

Tip of the lesser tuberosity

18

Most proximal and medial point of the greater tuberosity

19

Most distal and medial point of the greater tuberosity

20

Most lateral and distal point of the cranial side of the capitulum

21

Point of maximum of concavity of the caudo-medio-distal part of the capitulum



Landmark

Definition

1

Most disto-lateral point of anterior side of the ulnar facet

2

Most proximo-lateral point of anterior side of the ulnar facet

3

Point of maximum of concavity of the anterior part of the fovea

4

Tip of the fovea

5

Most disto-medial point of the distal articular facet with the ulna

6

Most proximal point of curvature of the distal articular facet with the ulna

7

Most disto-lateral point of the distal articular facet with the ulna

8

Distal tip of the styloid process

9

Medial tip of the styloid process

10

Most disto-lateral point of the dorsal side of the radius

11

Most proximal point of the groove for extensor digitorum and extensor indicis

12

Most proximal point of groove for extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

13

Most disto-medial point of the anterior side of the ulnar facet
Supplementary Table S3 Definition of the landmarks of the ulna used for geometric morphometric analyses.

Supplementary Table S4 Definition of the landmarks of the radius used for geometric morphometric analyses.

Landmark

Definition

1

Most lateral point of contact between the trochlear notch and the radial notch

2

Most proximo-lateral point of the incisure of the trochlear notch

3

Point of maximum of concavity of the proximal part of the trochlear notch

4

Most proximo-medial point of the incisure of the trochlear notch

5

Most palmo-lateral point of olecranon process

6

Most palmo-medial point of olecranon process

7

Most dorso-medial point of olecranon process

8

Most dorso-lateral point of olecranon process

9

Point where the most medial part of the coronoid process meets the most medio-distal part of the trochlear notch

10

Most anterior point of contact between the trochlear notch and the radial notch

11

Point of maximum of concavity between the radial notch and the trochlear notch

12

Most latero-distal point of insertion of the radial notch

13

Tip of the styloid process

14

Most distal point of the articular facet that articulates with the radius

15

Most proximal point of the articular facet that articulates with the radius

16

Point where the proximo-lateral part of the coronoid process meets the lateral part of the trochlear notch

17

Most distal point of insertion of the medial epicondylar crest on the diaphysis

18

Point of maximum of curvature of the medial epicondylar crest

19

Most proximal point of insertion of the medial epicondylar crest on the diaphysis


Supplementary information for reviewers

Scatter plot illustrating the position of different species on the third and the fourth principal components. Symbols are as follows: green polygon indicates arboreal species; yellow polygon indicates semi-arboreal species; red polygon indicates terrestrial species; brown polygon indicates semi-fossorial species; blue polygon indicates aquatic species. The family of each species is represented by a circle for mustelids, a triangle for procyonids, a square for mephitids and a star for ailurids. Simocyon batalleri is represented by the black star. Abbreviation for each name of species can be found in Table 1.





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