Supplementary Figure 1




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
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Supplementary Figure 1 Diagrammatic depiction of the study design for surveying dung beetles across an 1170 km environmental gradient in the Botswana Kalahari (results for carrion-associated beetles were not presented in the present paper as their distribution patterns diverged from those for dung-associated beetles)



Supplementary Table 1 Density of larger-bodied terrestrial mammals in sampled reserves of the Botswana Kalahari (Ministry of Wildlife, Environment & Tourism, 2004; Botswana Central Statistics Organisation, 2005).

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Indigenous mammals Density / km2 Dung type Mass kg

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Chobe NP CKGR Transfrontier

10 589 km2 55 300 km2 28 000 km2

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Herbivores

Elephant (Loxodonta africana)^ 3.047 0 0 Coarse-fibred* 1725

Burchell’s zebra (Equus quagga) 0.109 0 0 Coarse-fibred* 313

Warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) 0.016 0.002 0 Coarse-fibred 79

Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) 1.001 0 0 Pads** 450

Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) 0.099 0.042 0 Pellets 1192

Eland (Taurotragus oryx) 0.021 0.890 0.148 Pellets** 840

Roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) 0.020 0 0 Pellets** 270

Common waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) 0.017 0 0 Pellets** 260

Gemsbok (Oryx gazella) 0 0.419 1.092 Pellets** 240

Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) 0.011 0 0 Pellets** 230

Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) 0.041 0.086 0.012 Pellets** 228

Lechwe (Kobus leche) 0.019 0 0 Pellets** 192

Red hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) 0 0.203 0.281 Pellets** 165

Blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) 0.014 0.054 0.090 Pellets** 134

Impala (Aepyceros melampus) 0.155 0 0 Pellets** 55

Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) 0 0.058 0.088 Pellets** 41

Common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) 0 0.015 0.003 Pellets** 21

Steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) 0.009 0.044 0.152 Pellets** 11

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Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) 0.027 0.029 0 Omnivore 31.8

Lion (Panthera leo) 0.009 0.012 0.002 Carnivore 190

Spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) 0.001 0.012 0.007 Carnivore 59

Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) 0.009 0.033 0.006 Carnivore 54

Brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea) 0.007 0.221 0.039 Carnivore 47

Black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) 0 0.001 0.005 Carnivore 8

Bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) 0 0 0.005 Carnivore 4

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Domestic livestock Herbivores

Cattle (Bos primagenius taurus) 0 0.062 0.029 Pads** 270

Goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) 0 0 0.075 Pellets** 27.5

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*Monogastric herbivore, **Ruminant herbivore. ^Underestimated by 3.5 times according to recent census figures.




Supplementary Table 2 Classification of local dung beetle assemblage structure according to spatial variation between three study sites and association with four dung types (P = Pig, C = Cattle, E = Elephant, S = Sheep dung) with results for factorial GLM ANOVA.

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Chobe Classification (number of traps) (2 unclassified) Influences on factor loadings

Ordination factors _________________________________________________ ________________________________________

(Variance 85.4%) Site 1 (57 spp.) Site 2 (43 spp.) Site 3 (44 spp.) Site F2, 36 Dung F3, 36 Site*dung F6, 36

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Factor 1 P, C, E, S (15) 134.708*** 1.888 1.448

Factor 2 C, S (7) C, S (8) 45.920*** 56.588*** 5.499***

Factor 3 P (1) E (4) E, P (6) 14.919*** 38.345*** 5.528***

Factor 4 P (3) P (2) 20.687*** 14.001*** 8.529***

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Savuti Classification (number of traps) (1 unclassified) Influences on factor loadings

Ordination factors _________________________________________________ ________________________________________

(Variance 80.6%) Site 1 (59 spp.) Site 2 (56 spp.) Site 3 (43 spp.) Site F2, 36 Dung F3, 36 Site*dung F6, 36

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Factor 1 C, S (8) C, S (8) C, S (4) 21.856*** 82.450*** 0.669

Factor 2 E (4) E (4) E (3) 25.210*** 83.219*** 1.608

Factor 3 P, C, E, S (5) 82.133*** 10.960*** 0.221

Factor 4 P (4) P (4) P (3) 12.625*** 81.716*** 1.370

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North CKGR Classification (number of traps) (2 unclassified) Influences on factor loadings

Ordination factors _________________________________________________ _______________________________________

(Variance 87.7%) Site 1 (27 spp.) Site 2 (30 spp.) Site 3 (26 spp.) Site F2, 36 Dung F3, 36 Site*dung F6, 36

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Factor 1 P, C, E, S (14) P, C, E, S (14) C (1) 71.578*** 17.510*** 1.859

Factor 2 P, C, E, S (12) 78.725*** 3.467* 1.712

Factor 3 S (2) 0.481 17.545*** 2.854*

Factor 4 S (1) 13.522*** 8.190*** 2.985*

Factor 5 E, S (2) 22.498*** 16.020*** 0.853

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Khutse Classification (number of traps) (1 unclassified) Influences on factor loadings

Ordination factors _________________________________________________ _______________________________________

(Variance 82.8%) Site 1 (45 spp.) Site 2 (42 spp.) Site 3 (46 spp.) Site F2, 36 Dung F3, 36 Site*dung F6, 36

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Factor 1 C, S (6) C, S, P (4) 26.049*** 7.849*** 1.946

Factor 2 C (2) C, S (6) 48.928*** 22.863*** 1.324

Factor 3 P, E (8) P, E (7) P, E (8) 3.895* 51.535*** 1.047

Factor 4 S (2) S (3) S (2) 2.487 46.426*** 0.513

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Mabuasehube Classification (number of traps) Influences on factor loadings

Ordination factors _________________________________________________ _______________________________________

(Variance 89.3%) Site 1 (38 spp.) Site 2 (32 spp.) Site 3 (30 spp.) Site F2, 36 Dung F3, 36 Site*dung F6, 36

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Factor 1 S, C (6) S (4) S, C, E (9) 22.872*** 53.103*** 3.640**

Factor 2 P (4) P (4) P (4) 6.485** 342.632*** 8.977***

Factor 3 C (1) C (4) C (1) 5.211* 51.637*** 3.144*

Factor 4 E, C (5) E (4) E (2) 22.514*** 53.289*** 1.907

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Transfrontier Classification (number of traps) (4 unclassified) Influences on factor loadings

Ordination factors _________________________________________________ _______________________________________

(Variance 89.4%) Site 1 (33 spp.) Site 2 (32 spp.) Site 3 (27 spp.) Site F2, 36 Dung F3, 36 Site*dung F6, 36

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Factor 1 S, C (4) S (2) P, C, E, S (14) 113.645*** 37.413*** 2.233

Factor 2 P, C, E (8) 102.715*** 20.539*** 4.496**

Factor 3 P (4) P (1) 37.915*** 44.949*** 3.276*

Factor 4 E (2) E (4) 3.006 44.609*** 3.534**

Factor 5 S (1) 18.978*** 43.641*** 1.338

Factor 6 C (1) C (3) 10.177*** 30.407*** 1.759

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*P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001


Supplementary Table 3 Total abundance of 132 species of dung beetles recorded in six study areas across the Botswana Kalahari.

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Species Chobe Savuti N CKGR Khutse Mabua. Transf.

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Pachylomera femoralis (Kirby) 1029 1 1 6768 0 1

Pachylomera opaca van Lansberge 0 0 0 1 0 37

Scarabaeus (Kheper) cupreus (Castelnau) 0 0 2 0 0 0

Scarabaeus (Kheper) kalaharicus

Davis, Deschodt, Scholtz 0 0 0 0 0 43



Scarabaeus (Kheper) lamarcki Macleay 5211 84 0 23 0 0

Scarabaeus (Kheper) prodigiosus (Erichson) 184 58 0 1 1 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) ambiguus (Boheman) 0 0 1 0 0 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) costatus (Wiedemann) 0 0 0 0 0 65

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) ebenus Klug 0 4 0 0 0 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) galenus Westwood 0 0 0 2 0 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) goryi (Castelnau) 1 6 0 14 0 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) proboscideus Guérin 0 0 0 219 604 886

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) satyrus (Boheman) 0 0 3 1 0 4

Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) zambesianus Péringuey 1072 80 18 0 0 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) anderseni Waterhouse 1 0 1 44 23 1

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) sp. nr anderseni 0 0 0 0 2 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) bohemani Harold 0 0 10 0 0 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) damarensis Janssens 0 21 0 138 670 1

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) flavicornis (Boheman) 42 2 0 234 1455 245

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) sp. nr flavicornis 0 0 0 11 1 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) inopportunus Ferreira 0 0 0 0 301 134

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) inquisitus Péringuey 0 0 4 0 0 0

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) kochi Ferreira 0 0 0 105 38 4

Scarabaeus (Scarabeolus) parvulus (Boheman) 0 0 0 0 0 6

Anachalcos convexus Boheman 232 4 0 0 0 0

Pycnopanelus krikkeni Cambefort 0 0 0 0 6 10

Allogymnopleurus thalassinus (Klug) 1 119 24 13 0 0

Gymnopleurus aenescens Wiedemann 0 306 257 285 548 0

Gymnopleurus asperrimus Felsche 0 0 0 0 0 131

Gymnopleurus ignitus Klug 1 0 0 0 0 0

Sisyphus goryi Harold 0 3 0 0 0 0

Heliocopris atropos Boheman 4 2 1 4 1 0

Heliocopris japetus Klug 51 16 0 9 0 0

Pedaria picea Fahraeus 0 0 0 21 0 0

Pedaria sp. a - sensu Davis et al. (2008) 4 0 0 125 190 72

Pedaria sp. A 1 1 0 0 0 0

Pedaria sp. B 17 1 0 0 0 0

Pedaria sp. C 0 37 0 0 0 0

Copris bootes Klug 0 17 0 0 0 0

Copris cassius Péringuey 0 0 0 28 0 0

Copris cornifrons Boheman 0 0 0 0 0 1

Copris elphenor Klug 1 55 0 2 0 0

Copris evanidus Klug 1 0 5 3 0 0

Copris vilhenai Ferreira 0 11 0 0 0 0

Catharsius calaharicus Kolbe 44 5 9 61 19 15

Catharsius heros Boheman 16 0 4 0 0 0

Catharsius melancholicus Boheman 6 0 0 37 8 0

Catharsius tricornutus (DeGeer) 0 6 0 0 0 0

Metacatharsius dentinum Ferreira 161 7 34 164 36 21

Metacatharsius exiguiformis Ferreira 0 0 0 2149 1132 1253

Metacatharsius exiguus (Boheman) 1 0 0 2 1 0

Metacatharsius latifrons (Harold) 0 0 0 1 2 4

Metacatharsius marani Balthasar 0 0 0 0 0 6

Metacatharsius opacus (Waterhouse) 512 305 3 5 5 0

Metacatharsius pumilioniformis Ferreira 0 0 0 0 1 5

Metacatharsius troglodytes (Boheman) 679 231 717 154 0 0

Metacatharsius sp. A - sensu Davis et al. (2008) 0 0 0 26 165 7

Metacatharsius sp. 7 2 1 83 0 0

Cheironitis hoplosternus Harold 0 0 1 1 0 0

Cheironitis indicus van Lansberge 0 24 0 0 0 0

Onitis alexis Klug 0 0 4 0 2 0

Onitis deceptor Péringuey 7 0 0 0 0 0

Onitis granulisetosus Ferreira 25 0 0 0 0 0

Onitis inversidens van Lansberge 5 0 0 0 0 0

Onitis orthopus van Lansberge 92 4 0 0 0 0

Onitis viridulus Boheman 1 0 0 0 0 0

Caccobius cavatus d’Orbigny 3099 468 0 199 0 0

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Supplementary Table 3 cont.

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Species Chobe Savuti N CKGR Khutse Mabua. Transf.

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Caccobius ferrugineus Fahraeus 2440 1317 171 68 8 0

Caccobius nigritulus klug 14013 995 2 4 8 0

Caccobius sp. 1 2 0 0 0 0 0

Cleptocaccobius convexifrons (Raffray) 3170 0 0 0 1 0

Cleptocaccobius viridicollis (Fahraeus) 2 0 4 5 0 0

Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius) 1 90 6 1 1 0

Euonthophagus carbonarius (Klug) 444 27 0 0 0 0

Euonthophagus flavimargo (d’Orbigny) 0 0 0 16 1 146

Hyalonthophagus alcyon (Klug) 1 2 0 0 0 0

Milichus apicalis (Fahraeus) 1 17 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus anomalus (Klug) 1435 4 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus bicavifrons d’Orbigny 0 0 0 1 0 0

Onthophagus flavolimbatus Klug 0 2 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus impressicollis Boheman 0 0 0 9 0 0

Onthophagus juvencus Klug 2 0 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus leroyi d’Orbigny 0 6 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus pallidipennis Fahraeus 1 0 0 11 1 10

Onthophagus plebejus Klug 107 2 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus probus Péringuey 0 0 0 0 134 1176

Onthophagus sp. nr probus 430 1 13 3721 4060 13

Onthophagus sp. nr pullus (a) - Davis et al. (2008) 2240 2685 3501 877 956 749

Onthophagus sp. nr pullus 21 0 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus quadraticeps Harold 27 3 3 760 39 440

Onthophagus quadrinodosus Fahraeus 0 2 0 3 1 7

Onthophagus rugulipennis Fairmaire 0 0 1 0 0 0

Onthophagus semiflavus Boheman 0 0 0 0 395 5073

Onthophagus signatus Fahraeus 1544 494 855 2632 2389 641

Onthophagus suffusus Klug 8 1055 6 0 0 0

Onthophagus sugillatus Klug 238 0 297 0 0 0

Onthophagus sp. nr variegatus 36 329 19 265 1 152

Onthophagus verticalis Fahraeus 180 19 0 3 0 0

Onthophagus vinctus Erichson 3506 63 4 3 0 0

Onthophagus virescens Harold 555 67 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus sp. A - sensu Davis et al. (2008) 0 0 0 119 72 0

Onthophagus sp. B - sensu Davis et al. (2008) 0 6 2 566 585 26

Onthophagus sp. g - sensu Davis et al. (2008) 0 0 0 1 0 0

Onthophagus sp. k - sensu Davis et al. (2008) 218 0 730 2266 4272 658

Onthophagus sp. 1 0 14 1 2 9 0

Onthophagus sp. 2 0 0 0 5 0 0

Onthophagus sp. 4 0 0 1 0 0 0

Onthophagus sp. 6 1 0 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus sp. 7 0 0 0 1 1 0

Onthophagus sp. 8 0 0 1 0 0 0

Onthophagus sp. 10 3 0 0 0 0 0

Onthophagus sp. 11 65 6 0 0 0 0

Phalops boschas Klug 0 22 0 0 0 0

Phalops dregei Harold 0 0 2 0 0 0

Phalops rufosignatus van Lansberge 0 0 8 0 2 209

Phalops wittei Harold 0 0 3 1 10 364

Proagoderus bicallosus Klug 12 21 0 0 0 0

Proagoderus loricatus Klug 0 19 0 0 0 0

Proagoderus sappharinus Fahraeus 0 6 0 45 25 0

?Tomogonus sp. 1 0 1 0 0 0



Drepanocerus kirbyi Kirby 1 2 0 0 0 0

Eodrepanus fastiditus (Péringuey) 4 0 0 0 0 0

Ixodina sp. nr freyi (Janssens) 17 10 0 0 0 0

Latodrepanus laticollis (Fahraeus) 203 515 0 0 0 0

Euoniticellus intermedius (Reiche) 3 7 1 0 0 1

Euoniticellus kawanus Janssens 0 3 0 0 0 0

Euoniticellus sp. 6 12 0 0 0 0

Liatongus militaris (Castelnau) 0 1 0 0 0 0

Oniticellus egregius Klug 0 0 4 0 0 0

Oniticellus formosus Chevrolat 0 21 0 0 0 0

Oniticellus planatus Castelnau 0 5 0 0 0 0

Tragiscus dimidiatus Klug 0 1 0 0 0 0

Total abundance (overall: 113 030) 43446 9731 6736 22318 18182 12617



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Davis ALV, Scholtz CH, Deschodt C (2008) Multi-scale determinants of dung beetle assemblage structure across abiotic gradients of the Kalahari-Nama Karoo ecotone, South Africa. J Biogeogr 35:1465–1480


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