Supplementary Discussion for Fi




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Supplementary Discussion
Supplementary Discussion for Fig. 2.

Moving models explaining sound transmission through the middle ear in land mammals, and in cetaceans can be founds at:



http://www.neoucom.edu/DEPTS/ANAT/Thewissen/whale_origins/hearing.html

The model for cetacean hearing is based on studies of odontocetes (ref. S12). Here, we use this model to explain certain features of the evolution of middle ear transmission in archaeocetes. Sound transmission through the mysticete middle ear is poorly understood, and no working model is available. The odontocete middle ear transmission system appears to be more plesiomorphic than that of mysticetes, and can thus be used to study archaeocete sound transmission. Further research on mysticete sound transmission is necessary to clarify this.



Supplementary Discussion for Fig. 4
Phylogeny and sister group relations are discussed in refs S2-S4, S15-S16.

Supplementary References

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S2. Luo, Z. in The Emergence of Whales: Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea (ed. Thewissen, J. G. M.) 269-301 (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1998).

S3. Luo, Z. & Gingerich, P. D. Terrestrial Mesonychia to aquatic Cetacea: transformation of the basicranium and evolution of hearing in whales. Univ. Michigan Papers Paleontol. 31, 1-98 (1999).

S4. Thewissen, J. G. M., Williams, E. M., Roe, L. J. & Hussain, S. T. Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. Nature 413, 277-281 (2001).

S5. Thewissen, J. G. M. & Hussain, S. T. Origin of underwater hearing in whales. Nature 361, 444-445 (1993).

S6. Thewissen, J. G. M. & Bajpai, S. Dental morphology of Remingtonocetidae (Cetacea, Mammalia). J. Paleontol. 75, 463-465 (2001).

S7. Sahni, A. & Mishra, V. P. Lower Tertiary vertebrates from western India. Monogr. Paleontol. Soc. India, Lucknow 3, 1-48 (1975).

S8. Kumar, K. & Sahni, A. Remingtonocetus harudiensis, new combination, a middle Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from western Kutch, India. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 6, 326-349 (1986).

S9. Williams, E. M. in The Emergence of Whales: Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea (ed. Thewissen, J. G. M.) 1-28 (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1998).

S10. Spoor, F., Bajpai, S., Hussain, S. T., Kumar, K. & Thewissen, J. G. M. Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans. Nature 417, 163-166 (2002).

S11. Lancaster, W. C. The middle ear of the Archaeoceti. J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 10, 117-127 (1990).

S12. Hemilä, S., Nummela, S. & Reuter, T. A model of the odontocete middle ear. Hear. Res. 133, 82-97 (1999).

S13. Nummela, S. Scaling of the mammalian middle ear. Hear. Res. 85, 18-30 (1995).

S14. Nummela, S., Wägar, T., Hemilä, S. & Reuter, T. Scaling of the cetacean middle ear. Hear. Res. 133, 71-81 (1999).

S15. Uhen, M. D. in The Emergence of Whales: Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea (ed. Thewissen, J. G. M.) 29-61 (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 1998).



S16. Geisler, J. H. & Uhen, M. D. Morphological support for a close relationship between hippos and whales. J. Vertebr. Paleont. 23, 991-996 (2003).


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