|SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD IN KENYA
20. a) State three methods which were used by the colonial government to acquire land for
Through signing of treaties with Africans e.g. Maasai agreement’s 1904 & 1911.
Through use of force
Some parts of unoccupied were declared crown land. They were leased, granted or sold to settlers
3 x 1 = 3 marks
b) Apart from providing settlers with land explain six other ways through which the colonial
government promoted settler agriculture in Kenya. (12 marks)
The government provided continuous flow of African labour to settlers by imposing heavy taxes and imposing forted labour laws. The Kipande system was introduced to restrict movement of labourers.
Agricultural activities of the Africans were controlled to reduce competition for markets upto 1930’s. Africans were not allowed to grow any main cash crops.
The colonial government boosted settler agriculture by providing adequate transport network to ease marketing of their produce and delivery of farm produce.
The colonial government provided extension services through the department of agriculture and established research stations to facilitate the development of better breeds for better yields
Banking system & loan facilities were introduced to subsidize settler initiatives.
The government encouraged settlers to form co-operatives e.g. KCC & KFA. This facilitated marking of the produce & purchasing of farm inputs.
Through political representation in the Legco they managed to get many concessions e.g. tariffs barriers & removal of custom duties.
Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks)
ANS 20 DIST 1
6.Name the engineer who was in charge of he construction of Uganda Railway (1mk)
-George White house (1mk)
20.(a) Identify the terms of Devonshire white paper of 1923
(i) Kenyan highlands were set aside for white settlers only
(ii) Indians were to elect five members to Legco
(iii) The European demand for a self government was rejected
(iv) Racial segregation in residential areas was abolished
(v) Africans interest were to be given the first priority since Kenya was an African country
(vi) The colonial secretary was to have strict control of the affairs of the colony
(vii) A missionary was to be nominated to represent African interest in the Legco
(viii) Settlers were to maintain their numbers in the Legco. 1x5 = 5mks
(b) Discuss ways in which the Agikuyu were affected by colonial land policies before 1963
- They lost their land
- Much of their land was occupied by the settlers
- Landless kikuyu were moved to native reserve
- The Agikuyu who lost their land became very poor
- Over utilization of land led to serious soil erosion
- Some went to work in settlers arm s wage laborers or squatters
-Others migrated to towns in search of employment
- They formed extremist groups called Mau Mau
- Agikuyu spearheaded the struggle for independence by encouraging formation of national movement
ANS 6,20 DIST 2.
9. The head of the executive council in Kenya during the colonial period
- The governor
1 x 1 = 1mk
21. (a) Three factors which enabled the white settlers to establish farms in Kenya during the colonial
Government policy/support i.e providing loans, land and labours
Favourable climate/adequate rainfall and temperature
Availability of transport especially railway and the feeder roads
Fertile soils in the highlands
Any 3 x 1 = 3mks
(b) Six results of the development of railway transport in Kenya during the colonial period.
It led to the loss of land among some African communities
Facilitated the movement of goods and people
Led to the development of urban centres/towns
Encouraged the coming of white settlers to Kenya
Led to the development of agriculture/ settler plantation
Promoted the development of trade between Kenya and the outside world/ building of industries
Provided a source of revenue to the government
Led to opening up of the up of the interior
It made it possible for the missionaries to spread Christianity into the interior
It enabled the government to administer more effectively/colonization
It led to employment opportunities to many people
It encouraged construction of feeder roads thus improving transportation in the interior
Any 6 x 2 = 12mks
ANS 9,21 DIST 3
7. Give two ways in which the construction of the Kenya Uganda Railway helped stop
Slave trade in Kenya (2mks)
- Slave porters were no longer needed since the railway would ferry goods to and
from the coast. 1 x 1 = 1mk
It enabled the quick movement of troops into the interior to stamp out the trade
It helped promote other profitable sources of income which acted as an alternative to slavery and slave trade.
8. Identify any two groups that provided Education to Africans during the colonial period
- The missionaries 2 x 1 = 2mks
The colonial government
The African themselves 2 x 1 = 2mks
20. a) State five benefits of the construction of the Uganda railway to the colonial
government in Kenya (5mks)
- It enabled the British to administer the colony more effectively
The railway promoted the exploitation of natural resources of the colony.
It promoted the growth of trade.
It was a major source of revenue for the colonial government
It enhanced the development of other forms of transport and communication.5 x1 = 5mks
b) Outline the efforts made to improve health services in Kenya during the colonial
Various missionary groups established medical facilities in the country
- The missionaries started medical training centres after 1 st world war e.g Alliance medical college
The government provided financial support to ensure that Europeans were protected from typhoid, Malaria, dysentery.
Africans were taught hygiene through public baraza.
Vaccines were introduced to prevent diseases
After 1945 development and Research Authority gave £47 000 for health care and improvement of health services
1951 the King George hospital began to train female nurses.
The government established public health centres and hospitals in different parts of the country. 5 x 2 = 10mks
ANS 7,8,20 DIST 6
7. Give two main aims of the building of the Kenya – Uganda railway. (2 mks)
i) To provide a quicker and cheaper means of transport from the coast to the interior.
ii) To be able to export various commodities e.g cotton from Uganda.
iii) To transport colonial administration and officials thus help to establish effective British
iv) To help stamp out slave trade ( any 2 x 1 = 2 mks)
18. b) Describe how seyyid said contributed towards the development of international trade along the Kenyan coast in the nineteenth century. ( 10 mks)
i) He encouraged foreign traders to trade along the Kenyan coast.
ii) He signed trade agreements with European countries and U.S.A to promote foreign trade .
iii) He invited Indian Banyans to settle along the East African coast and trade.
iv) He encouraged several international powers to trade with East African west of Britain France , Germany.
v) He gave the countries he signed treaties with the right is open consults in Zanzibar.
vi) He created political stability along the East African coast which was conduce the international trade.
vii) He provided security for slave traders hence intensified slave trade between the Kenyan coast and the outside world.
viii) He established a well organized long distance trade into the interior of E. Africa which provided commodities for international trade.
ix) He financed some of the Arab and foreign traders who participated in international trade.
x) He established plantation agriculture which produced commodities for international
trade e.g doves. Any 5 2 = 10 mks
ANS 8,18b DIST 7
10. State two factors that facilitated the development of urban centres in the pre-colonial Kenya along distance trade routes (2mks)
-They acted as goods collection centres
-They acted as resting centres
23. a) Identify the main features of settler farming in Kenya during colonial period .
-Cash crop farming of sisal, pyrethrum, coffee, tea, wheat, maize.
-They used farm machinery like ox-drawn ploughs, tractors, seed drills, harvesters, sprayers, threshers.
-Crop-rotation and fallowing
-The use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides
-Mixed farming of Livestock keeping of grade cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and crop cultivation. (5x1=5mks)
b) Explain five methods used by the colonial government to ensure Africans in Kenya provided labour
-Colonial authorities used force to ensure that Africans provided labour
-The colonial authorities established crowded reserves for Africans. This forced many Africans to look for employment in European farms or as domestic servants.
-The colonial authorities alienated African land and gave it to European settlers leading to landlessness thus compelling many to look for employment
-The colonial authorities created unfertile reserves for Africans that could not enable them survive on such land
-They made it mandatory for the Africans to pay taxes. This forced them to work in European farms in order to earn money
-The colonial authorities trained a few for clerical jobs in the civil service. Those trained for such jobs felt privileged and so went to work (5x2=10mks) well - explained.
ANS 10,23 DIST 8
7. Identify the development strategy used in Kenya after 1978 (1mk)
i) Nyayoism / Nyayo philosophy / foot steps / love peace and unity. 1 x 1 = 1mks
11. In what two ways did the construction of the Kenya – Uganda Railway contribute to urbanization in Kenya. (2mks)
i) Urban centre emerged along railway stations and terminus.
ii) Trading centres became urban /Easened transport where small businesses sprung up.
iii) Indian railway workers established shops along the railway which turned into urban centres
iv) Administrative posts sprung up to urban centres (2 x 1 = 2mks)
ANS 7,11 DIST 9
Give two terms of the Devonshire White paper of 1923. (2mks)
The Kenyan highlands were exclusively reserved for white settlers
The interests of the Africans were to be Paramount to those of immigrants races if there was a conflict
A missionary would be nominated to the Legco to represent the interests of the Africans
The colonial secretary would exercise strict control over the affairs of the colony
Racial segregation in all the residential areas plus restrictions on immigration were abolished
The Indians would elect five members to the Legco, not on a common roll but on a communal roll. Any 2x1 = 2marks
a) What were the reasons for the construction of the Uganda railway during the Colonial period (3mks)
To establish effective control over the British East Africa
To facilitate maximum economic exploitation of the region
To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade
To facilitate the movement of troops and government administration into the interior parts of the protectorate
To link Uganda with the Coast and the outside world
To make it possible for Britain to effectively protect her strategic interest in the region e.g. Uganda which was the source of river Nile
Any 3x1 = 3marks
ANS 7,20 DIST 10
8.i) Kenya Highlands were to be exclusively for the white settlers.
ii) Indians were allowed to elect 5 members to the legco , but on a communal roll.
iii) European settlers demand for se-government in Kenya was rejected .
iv) Racial segregation in all residential areas and restriction on immigration were abolished.
v) African interests were to be given priority before those of immigrant races if there was a conflict.
vi) A missionary was to be nominated to the legco to represent the African interests.
(2 x2= 1)
13.i) Europeans were given large tracts of land for Agriculture .
ii) Europeans were assured of African labour on their farms. (2x1=2mks)
ANS 8,13 DIST 11
6. – Colonial government alienated land for them.
- Colonial government provided technical assistance.
- Provided with credit facilities.
- Security provided by colonial government.
- Colonial government provided marketing facilities through cooperatives.
- Stopped competition from Africans.
- Forced labour was available. (Any 2x1=2mks)
- Facilitate movement of troops and government administrators into the interior parts of the protectorate.
- Link Uganda to the Coast.
- Stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade.
- Facilitate maximum economic exploitation of the region.
- Establish effective control over British East Africa.
- Enable Britain to protect her strategic interests in the region e.g. Uganda, the source of River Nile.
b) – Led to growth of towns along the railway line e.g. Voi.
- Indians involved in its construction settled in Kenya and started commercial activities.
- Enabled settlers to come into the country and occupy it.
- Facilitated introduction of cash crops in Kenya e.g. tea, coffee, and sisal.
- Opened up the interior of Kenya to the outside world by easing transportation.
- Facilitated spreading of Christianity in the interior.
- Contributed to transferring of Kenya’s capital from Mombasa to Nairobi after the railway reached Nairobi, it became the capital as it was centrally located.
- Led to development of transport and communication as its construction went hand in hand with construction of other means of transport and communication e.g. roads.
- Led to change of political boundaries i.e. after it reached Kisumu in 1902 the boundaries of the colony were changed (altered). Any 6x2=12mks
ANS 6,18 DIST 12
9.Name the settler farmer who introduced wheat in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
1 x 1 = 1 mark
ANS 9 DIST 14
5.What was the main significance of Devonshire white paper of 1923. (1 mk)
The interests of the Africans were given priority in the case of a conflict with other races.
ANS 5 DIST 15
9. - To create a settlement for whites
- To produce raw materials for British industries
- To check Indian immigration to Kenya
- To raise income to meet administrative costs
- To raise income to cover the cost of railway construction
- Wanted to deploit the un used land. (1 x 1=1mk)
ANS 9 DIST 17
18. a) i) The colonial government wanted to make Kenya a white mans country by encouraging
white settlers to form the backbone of the economy
ii) The settlers were to finance administrative cost of the colony without involving the
Economic activities of the white settlers would help pay the construction of railway line
Apart from the vast empty land there was no other natural resources to be exploited
Africans lacked funds and technical know-how to engage large scale farming
Settlers were expelled to produce raw materials for industries in Britain
Kenya highlands were suitable for European settlers as they have cool climate and good volcanic soil
Colonial government wanted to counter Indian and Asian influence in Kenya by settling more whites (7x1=7mks)
b) i) Attacks from hostile African communities
ii) Lack of labour e.g. Africans not willing to work
Prevalence of tropical diseases
Limited market for their produce
Lack of basic farming knowledge and experience
Not conversant with the weather changes (season)
Cattle and crop diseases
Poor transport network (1x8=8mks)
ANS 18 DIST 18
7.State two ways in which the Uganda railway contributed to the development of settler farming in Kenya
It provided cheap and reliable transport for Europeans settlers into the interior.
It opened up the interior/highlands to the settlers.
European troops could easily be transport to offer security to the settlers.
Was used to transport farm inputs/machinery and farm produce to the farm and market respectively.
(2 x 1 = 2mrks)
ANS 7 DIST 19
11 State one way in which the construction of the Kenya-Uganda Railway
contributed to the development of settler farming. (1mk)
Accessibility to the Kenya Highlands
Transport of farms inputs
Transport of farm produce/output
Enabled easier administration which provided security to the settlers
Enabled more land to be alienated for settler use
18 (a) Explain three terms of the Heligo-land treaty of 1890 (3mks)
(i) Ugandan was recognized as an area within the British sphere of
Germany abandoned her claim over witu in exchange of the Island of Heligoland
Germany acquired a strip on Lake Tanganyika and also bought the coastal strip from the Sultan of Zanzibar
The British laid claim over Kenya and the sultans dominion
1 X 3=3 mks
Explain six effects of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923 (12 mks)
Africans were represented in the legco by a European missionary
Africans became more politically aware and began forming political groupings to address their problems
The Indians were bitter and even refused to take up their seats in the Legco or in Municipal Councils
The paper intensified rivalry between the Indians and white settlers
African problems especially that of land and labour were not resolved.
Africans became the main beneficiaries since Kenya was declared an African territory and the interests of Africans became paramount when there was racial conflict.
Indians were disappointed because they were not allowed to settle in the
white highlands and have political equality with the whites
Ban on Indian immigration in Kenya was lifted.
Whites I n the colony felt betrayed by the paper as they did not achieve their goal for self independence
ANS 11, 18 DIST 20