Sponsored by Department of Biology College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Frostburg State University Maryland usa




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The 6th Conference of

International Carnivorous Plant Society

June 1-5 2006
Sponsored by

Department of Biology

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Frostburg State University

Maryland USA
Co-Sponsored by

Indiana University Southeast

Also sponsored by:

USDA Forest Service, 180 Canfield Station, Morgantown WV, 26505.

The Carnivorous Plant Nursery (http://www.carnivorousplantnursery.com/)

Meadowview Botanical Research Station (http://www.pitcherplant.org/)

Scott Bennett and Doug Darnowski at Indiana University Southeast

Teresa Golembiewski at University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Siggi and Irmgard at www.hartmeyer.de

Mike Wilder at www.3dsyndrome.com

And


The 6th ICPS Conference

Tentative Program


Date

Time

Location

Activities

6/1/06

Thursday


13:00-17:50

CH 2nd Atrium

Registration

18:00 -

CH 3rd Atrium

Dinner (meal plan holders)

18:30 -

CH 2nd Atrium

  • Reception offered by the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, FSU. Free to registered, cash bar for wines.

  • Open Ceremony

19:30 -

CH 226

  • DVD: Drosera: Snap-Tentacles & Runway Lights

  • DVD: The Carnivorous Syndrome in 3D

  • Movie: Little Shop of Horrors

6/2/06

Friday


07:30-08:45

Appalachian Station

Breakfast (meal plan holders)

09:00-13:00

CH 2nd Atrium

Vendors and display booths.

09:00-11:50

CH 328

Poster session

09:30-10:20

CH 358

Educational Workshop-1

10:30-11:20

CH 358

Educational Workshop-2

12:00-13:00

Appalachian Station

Lunch (meal plan holders)

13:00-14:30

CH 226

Sessions 1: Student research Symposium

14:30-15:00




Break

15:00-16:30

CH 226

Sessions 2: Morphology, evolution, and phylogenetics.

16:30-18:30


CH 2nd Atrium

  • Vendors & Booths.

  • Show for the Best Plants

18:30-

Appalachian Station.

Dinner (meal plan holders)

19:30-22:30

CH 358

Art Workshop

6/3/06

Saturday


07:00-08:15

Appalachian Station

Breakfast (meal plan holders)

08:30-09:30

CH 226

Sessions 3: Herbal Medicinal Research Symposium.

09:30-10:00




Break

10:00-11:50

CH 226

Session 4. Ecology Symposium (IUS sponsored)

12:00-13:00

Appalachian Station

Lunch (meal plan holders)

12:00-13:00

CH 2nd Atrium

Vendors and display booths.

13:00-14:50

CH 226

Session 5: Physiology & development

14:50-15:00




Break

15:00-16:50

CH 226

Session 6: Conservation

16:50-18:30


CH 2nd Atrium

  • Vendors & Booths.

  • Public Auction.

18:30-

Appalachian Station.

Banquet (separate fee) with Dr. Martin MacKenzie

DVD: Nepenthes@Borneo Exotics



6/4/06

Sunday


07:00-08:00

Appalachian Station

Breakfast for people with meal plan.

08:30-09:30

CH 226

Session 7: Horticulture – Research -Education

09:40-18:00

Local Field Trip with lunch at the Deep Creek Interpretation Center.

12:00-13:00

Lunch at Appalachian Station for other meal plan holders.

Shuttles to the BWI Airport for participants who reserved for the shuttle.

6/5/06 Monday

6:30 am-

Eastern Field Trip




Shuttles to the BWI Airport for participants who reserved for the shuttle.

* The schedule may be changed with announcement at the conference.



Presentation Sessions

(All presentations are in CH 226)




1. Student Research Symposium, 13:00-14:30, Friday, 6/2/06. Hongqi Li presiding.

13:00-13:30

The use of Nepenthes madagascariensis in traditional medicine and healing among the people of Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. Tara Schoenwetter, *Linda M. Lyon, Linda H. Hardesty, William Seddon. Department of Biology, Frostburg State University, Frostburg, MD, 21532. USA. Email: llyon@frostburg.edu

For centuries people have managed and modified the environment for pharmaceutical purposes (Frei et al. 2000; Alcorn 1984; Posey 1985; Frechione et al. 1989; Voeks 1996; Heinrich et al. 1998; Heinrich et al. 1998). The biodiversity of Madagascar has long allowed the island to be seen as an oasis of pharmaceutical possibilities. However, this biodiversity is constantly being threatened by expanding human population using inappropriate agricultural technology and subsequent encroachment on forested areas (Richard and O’Conner 1997). This research examined the use of Nepenthes madagascariensis in traditional medicine and healing among the people of Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. Random interviews were conducted with local residents to ascertain the number of people either actively using N. madagascariensis or at least familiar with its healing properties. Only 8% of the 400 local residents interviewed for this study could be placed in either of these categories. These results could be due to the limited native range of the plant that separates it from the urban city of Fort Dauphin by 25km. Although the native range of this plant might keep it safe from over harvesting by the Malagasy people, its habitat is quickly being encroached upon by an international mining company investing in the rich soils surrounding Fort Dauphin.



13:30-14:00

Meadowview, Ten Years of Progress – Phil Sheridan*, Meadowview Biological Research Station, 8390 Fredericksburg Tnpk., Woodford, VA 22580, USA. Email: meadowiew@pitcherplant.org.

Meadowview Biological Research Station is a non-profit 501-(c)(3) organization started in 1995 to preserve and restore pitcher plant wetlands and associated ecosystems in the states of Maryland and Virginia. Our methods involve a five step process that includes discovery, propagation, research, reintroduction, and education. Over a ten year period we have: discovered several new pitcher plant populations; developed an extensive and novel propagation system; performed significant published research on pitcher plant and associate species genetics, biochemistry, phytogeography, and ecology; reintroduced Sarracenia flava L. and associate taxa to most of their historic range in Virginia and developed state guidelines for rare plant reintroduction; involved a variety of students in both scientific and reintroduction work and maintained a continuous educational outreach to the general public. We have now met out ten year goal by purchasing our first pitcher plant preserve in southern Virginia known as Joseph Pines Preserve.



14:00-14:30

Using SEM LAV model to observe carnivorous plants. - Michael Gould* and Hongqi Li, Department of Biology, Frostburg State University, Frostburg, MD, USA, 21532. Emails: mgould0@frostburg.edu and hli@frostburg.edu.

Previously it is expensive and time consuming to prepare SEM samples, because we have to dry the samples and coat them with desired carbon, gold, or other material, before we can observe the plant material with SEM. This requirement made it more difficult to handle pollen or tiny plant seeds. However, the new JOEL SEM has a Low VAC model that can allow us to directly put a plant specimen, even a tiny fresh flower, into the SEM sample chamber and observe it. Once we adjust the model to the best setting, the images come out very clearly. We will share some SEM photos of pollen and seeds of several Sarracenia species and Dionaea (Venus Fly Trap), and structures of other carnivorous plants.



14:30-15:00 Break

2. Morphology, evolution, and phylogenetics, 15:00-16:30, Friday, 6/2/06. Jan Schlauer Presiding.

15:00- 15:30

New species of Heliamphora. Andreas Wistuba; Mudauer Ring 227; 68259 Mannheim; Germany. Email: andreas@wistuba.com

The genus Heliamphora is one of three genera of the family Sarraceniaceae. Currently Heliamphora consists of thirteen species generally accepted. Seven of these were published within the last decade. These publications resulted from analysis of the collected material in various herbaria and field studies done by various groups of researchers. Most species of Heliamphora are growing on the flat tops of a group of remote and isolated table-mountains 2500 to 3000 m high with almost vertical walls, so-called Tepuis. These sandstone mountains are located in the Guyana Highlands of Venezuela near the Borders to Brazil and British Guyana. Many of them have just been explored in recent years, some not at all so far. Due to isolation, a lot of endemic plants and animals, among them the different species of the genus Heliamphora, could evolve on their plateaus. In this talk an overview of the genus will be given with some emphasis on the newer species. The natural habitats and ecologic preferences will be presented and discussed.



15:30-16:00

Comparative study of the fossil Archaeamphora with sarraceniaceans. Hongqi Li, Department of Biology, Frostburg State University, Frostburg, MD, 21532. USA. Email: hli@frostburg.edu.

After I reported a new and the only fossil pitcher plant, Archaeamphora longicervia, from the Jianshangou Formation, Low Cretaceous (225 million years ago), at Beipiao, western Liaoning, China, in 2004-2005, my further biochemical and morphological (in both vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as associated organisms) comparisons suggest a close relationship with modern sarraceniaceans, especially with Sarracenia purpurea. Because Sarraceniaceae belong to the crown group of eudicots, the discovery of the pitcher plants among the currently known, earliest fossil angiosperms suggest that the early flowering plants should have originated much earlier, possibly in early Mesozoic and even in the Late Paleozoic.



16:00-16:30

Recent Developments in Carnivorous Plant Systematics. Jan Schlauer, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Email: jan.schlauer@uni-tuebingen.de

Based on predominantly genetic studies performed by several independent research teams both the systematic placement of the major carnivorous plant clades (Caryophyllidae-Nepenthales, Rosidae-Oxalidales, Asteridae-Ericales, and Asteridae-Scrophulariales) in the plant kingdom and the phylogenetic relationships between the species within these families have been clarified to a considerable degree during the last decade. The paper will outline the most remarkable conclusions, limits of present knowledge, and future challenges.



16:30-17:00

A Carnivorous Plant Trip to the European High Arctic: The Quest for Pinguicula villosa. Jan Schlauer, Germany & Heiko Rischer, Finland. Email: jan.schlauer@uni-tuebingen.de

During a brief expedition by car beyond the Arctic circle in Scandinavia in 2005, several carnivorous plant habitats were visited. The observed species included Pinguicula villosa, P. alpina, P. vulgaris, Drosera rotundifolia, and D. anglica. Most attention was devoted to P. villosa, which is the only true arctic species of carnivorous plants (not known S of 60º N in Europe). This will be presented with a DVD show.



17:00-18:30 Vendors, Booths, and Show for the Best Plants in the Atrium on the second floor.




3. IUS Sponsored Molecular & Medicinal Research, 8:00-9:50, Saturday, 6/3/06. Kenneth Skau presiding

8:30-9:00

Historical Aspects of Carnivorous Plants in Medical Practice. Kenneth A. Skau*, College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, 3223 Eden Ave. Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA. Email: Ken.skau@uc.edu

Carnivorous Plants (CP) have often been described as having medicinal value. This property has been difficult to substantiate with evidence for effectiveness. In this talk I will review some of the literature that attributes healing power to CP primarily from a historical perspective. Although there are anecdotal references to Venus’ Fly Trap extract (Dionaea), Pitcher Plants (Sarracenia) and Butterwort (Pinguicula) extracts the most frequent references are to sundews (Drosera species). As early as the 16th century extracts of ros solis (dew of the sun) appeared in herbals with suggestions that these extracts had medicinal value. Drosera extracts have been used in Hindu medicine as rubefacients. In the United States, during the 19th century, a medical philosophy called Eclectic Medicine advocated the use of specific herbal preparations to treat common diseases. The Phytoid Medicinal Extract of Drosera was advocated for disease conditions including cough, measles, pertussis and nervous conditions. A decoction of Drosera was once used in Mexico to relieve toothaches. Extracts of Drosera were once considered “official” in the US and descriptions appear in texts such as “Pharmacognosy” by Claus and Tyler. In modern times science is attempting to isolate specific substances with pharmacological activity



9:00-9:30

Using THz Spectrum to Examine Dynamic Inter-Change between Naphthoquinones and Glutathione. Weining Wang1 and Hongqi Li2. 1Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100037, China. 2Department of Biology, Frostburg State University, Frostburg, MD, USA, 21532. Emails: wwn-phy@mail.cnu.edu.cn and hli@frostburg.edu.

Plumbagin is a naphthoquinone, commonly found in Plumbago, Nepenthes and Drosera, with antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. It is reported as an anticancer agent because it can induce cell apoptosis. However, it is also a strong oxidant, leading to the formation of the superoxide that causes the cytotoxicity and thus necrosis. This limits the chemotherapeutic use of plumbagin. Previous reports suggest that the cytotoxicity is due to the oxidization of glutathione (GSH) into GSSG, while another naphthoquinone, juglone, could combine GSH into another molecule rather than resulting in GSSG. Decreasing GSH will cause various diseases because it is our body A.I.D. (Antioxidant, Immune system, and Detoxifier). The highly sensitive Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) appears to be a desirable technique, normally within the range of 0~10 THz, to be used to select more effective and safe anticancer agents. Although plumbagin, menadione, and juglone all belong to naphthoquinones with the same basic molecular structure, we have found that they have different absorption peaks in the range of 0.2~2.5THz with THz-TDS. This indicates that THz-TDS is very sensitive in distinguishing these similar naphthoquinones just based on their functional branch-groups. On the other hand, GSH has been found with four absorption peaks centered at 0.85, 1.20, 1.52, and 1.64 THz, while GSSG has no absorption peaks. With THz-TDS, therefore, when GSH reacts with naphthoquinones in different dosages respectively, we could comparatively trace the changes of the absorption peaks of each molecule to find out the correlations between the peak changes of naphthoquinones and the peak disappearances of GSH. In this way, we can understand the chemotherapeutic mechanism of naphthoquinones so that we can select more efficient anticancer agents from naphthoquinones, and even from other chemicals in the future.



9:30-10:00 Break


4. IUS Sponsored Ecology Symposium, 10:00-11:50, Saturday, 6/3/06. Stephen Willams presiding

10:00-10:30

Experimental ecology of aquatic carnivorous plants. Douglas W. Darnowski, Department of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, 4201 Grant Line Road, New Albany, IN 47150, USA. Email: ddarnows@ius.edu.

My laboratory has been working on both genera of carnivorous plants which include aquatic species, Aldrovanda and Utricularia. These studies have included both work on plants’ preference for abiotic environmental conditions such as mineral ions and work on the prey preferred by different species of aquatic carnivorous plants. This work will be reviewed with particular reference to differences among common species and between the two genera of plants.



11:00-11:30

The Utricularia of Michigan. Michael Chamberland, United States Department of Agriculture, U.S. National Arboretum, 3501 New York Avenue, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002.

Michigan’s natural landscape features many wetlands, ponds, and lakes. These habitats are home to nine species of Utricularia (Lentibulariaceae). All are aquatic or amphibious in habit. Several species are common in wetlands across the state. Others are rare, and two are State listed Threatened and Endangered species. The Utricularia present in Michigan all have wide ranges and many are circumboreal in distribution. The rare species are either at the edge of their range, or are particular to certain habitats which are disproportionally impacted by human activities. Utricularia are delicate plants. The Michigan natives have several strategies for surviving prolonged freezing in winter.



5. Physiology and development, 13:00-14:30, Saturday, 6/3/06. Doug Darnowski presiding

13:00-13:30

Cytokinins Promote Tuber Formation In Vitro on Detatched Leaves of the tuberous Australia sundew Drosera peltata-Alan D. Tate* and Douglas W. Darnowski, Department of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, 4201 Grant Line Road, New Albany, IN, USA, 47150. Emails: alatate@ius.edu and ddarnows@ius.edu.

The action of cytokinin hormones, specifically benzyladenine (BA), on detatched leaves of Drosera peltata was studied in vitro. Tuber formation was optimal at 0.1 mg l-1 BA ion 1/5 strength MS medium with Gamborg’s vitamins (1/5 MS/B5). The histology of tuber formation was followed over six weeks, along with tuber outgrowth after formation. Tubers formed just below glandular hairs, similar to shoots formed on leaf cuttings of other types of sundews.



13:30-14:00

Carnivory at the Time of Flowering in Triggerplants (Stylidium; Stylidiaceae): 300+ New Carnivores-Douglas W. Darnowski1,5, Deborah M. Carroll2, Bartosz Plachno3, Elizabeth Kabanoff4, and Emily Cinnamon1, 1 Department of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, 4201 Grant Line Road, New Albany, IN 47150, USA; 2 Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, 600 South Paulina St. Suite 440, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA; 3 Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, 52 ul. Grodzka, 31-044 Krakow, Poland; 4 Microscopy and Image Analysis Centre for Horticulture and Plant Sciences (CHAPS), University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury Campus, Bldg S8, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797, Australia. Email: ddarnows@ius.edu.

Australia’s Triggerplants (Stylidium spp.; Stylidiaceae) 1) share habitat (wet, low nutrient soils) with accepted genera of carnivorous (Drosera, Utricularia, Cephalotus) and subcarnivorous/ protocarnivorous (Byblis) plants and 2) possess glandular hairs which trap insects and which secrete material that can support enzymatic digestion. Several lines of evidence were found to support the hypothesis that triggerplants are carnivorous: 1) trapping rates (prey m-2) for triggerplants and for accepted genera of carnivorous and subcarnivorous plants were very similar at three sites separated by 1500 km; 2) triggerplants, like Drosera capensis and unlike non-carnivorous plants, produced proteases in an inducible fashion when prey-trapping was simulated using yeast extract. This was true for plants flowering on soil as well as for plants flowering in vitro, the latter possibility excluding digestion by microorganisms on the plant surface. It is very interesting that this carnivory is timed to just before and during flowering



14:00-14:30

The Snap Tentacles of Prostrate Species of Drosera and the Special Appendages of Drosera hartmeyerorum-Siegfried Hartmeyer* and Irmgard Hartmeyer, www.hartmeyer.de. Email: S.Hartmeyer@t-online.de.

A DVD film has been prepared which clearly demonstrates the snap tentacles found at the leaf margins of various sundews undergoing prostrate growth, whether this growth is continuous throughout the life of the plant or is simply a portion of the lifecycle. An explanation has been derived to explain why small, prostrate species should develop such extra mechanisms for holding their prey but not upright species which catch flying prey. Also, an explanation is presented for the special yellow appendages which are unique, as far as is known to date, to D. hartmeyerorum.



14:30-15:00

A New Film on Development of Various Carnivorous Plants Shot in Three Dimensional Time Lapse-Mike Wilder, www.3dsyndrome.com. Email: it_290@hotmail.com.

A DVD film has been produced which examines the development and physiology of several genera of carnivorous plants using a unique three-dimensional time lapse technology based on a Lego™ robot. Many phenomena are shown including leaf development and secretion of digestive fluid. The film opens with an animated description of why carnivorous plants are carnivorous and then proceeds to examine various carnivorous plants.



15:00-15:30 Break

6. Conservation 15:30-15:30, Saturday, 6/3/06. Phil Sheridan presiding

15:30-16:00

Conservation issues at the Watson Pinelands Preserve, Tyler County, Texas. Michael Howlett,* Naturalist, Jesse H. Jones Park & Nature Center, 20634 Kenswick Dr., Humble, TX 77338. E-mail: mhowlett@hcp4.net.

The Watson Pinelands Preserve is a 12-acre privately owned facility nestled in the Big Thicket of East Texas, and is home to many species of carnivorous plants. Development and maintenance of the preserve as a living record of the rich diversity of East Texas herbaceous and woody plants has not been an easy task, and has had its share of conservation issues as well. This presentation will discuss some of the many conservation issues that affect the Watson Pinelands Preserve, and what can be done to reduce and/or remove some of these effects.



16:00-16:30

The Making of a Public Carnivorous Plant House. Steven R. LaWarre, Frederik Meijer Gardens & Sculpture Park, Horticulture Department, 1000 E Beltline NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49525; slawarre@meijergardens.org or www.meijergardens.org

Frederik Meijer Gardens & Sculpture Park, a spectacular botanic garden and world–class sculpture park in Grand Rapids, Michigan, opened the Kenneth E. Nelson Carnivorous Plant House on October 31, 2001. This 40 square meter indoor habitat was designed to display dozens of temperate and tropical carnivorous plants from around the world. This design included elaborate simulated trees and rockwork as well as waterways that spill into bog-like collection pools. Many challenges needed to be addressed in the planning of this permanent display; water filtration, planting media, hardscape materials, educational focus, signage, collections support and marketing, to name a few. The completed room is now arguably the most unique public carnivorous plant display in the Midwest.



16:30-18:30 Vendors, Booths, and Public Auction in the Atrium

18:30-

Banquet DVD: Nepenthes@Borneo Exotics

A historical study of the local floras of Sarracenia purpurea, by Dr. Martin MacKenzie, Forest Pathologist, USDA Forest Service, 180 Canfield St., Morgantown WV, 26505. Email: mmackenzie@fs.fed.us

The pharmacist, Joseph E. Harned (1870 - 1951) who practiced in Oakland MD, will be best remembered as the author of the “Wild Flowers of the Alleghenies” (Harned, 1ST ed 1931). The 2nd edition of his book (1936) had 5 extra pages and one entry in particular will interest members of the ICPS, this entry set the scene for a locally unfolding carnivorous plant detective story. In 1936, Harned lamented the extirpation of showy lady’s slipper orchid (Cypripedium reginae Walt) from his area of study and this tragedy appeared to influence his response to the discovery of a local natural population of Sarracenia purpurea L. To set the scene for this talk the following quote is taken from his book.

“During a period of thirty years’ botanizing in swamp areas of MD, WV, and PA wherein the pitcher plant was most likely to grow, I made diligent search, following suggestions of natives who thought they had seen such a plant. In each instance my effort proved futile. Finally, about three years ago a small boy presented for my examination a herbarium of native plants in prize competition. In this collection, to my great surprise, was the long–sought pitcher plant. Personal contact with the boy resulted in his leading to the source from which he had obtained his specimen. For the sake of wildflower preservation I deem it best to withhold both the name of the boy and the exact location of the swamp wherein the plant grows.”

As a preamble to the local field trip, to visit the descendants of the Harned population, this talk will outline the re-discovery of where the population once was and where some of the descendants are now growing.


7. Horticulture – Research –Education, 8:30-9:30, Sunday, 6/4/06. Michael Szesze presiding

8:30-

9:00


An Examination of the Spatial Pattern of Transplant Sarracenia purpurea Populations in Southwestern Pennsylvania and West Virginia. A.M. Hnatkovich, Frostburg State University, Department of Biology, 101 Braddock Road, Frostburg, MD 21532; AmHnatkovich0@frostburg.edu

Approximately 60 years ago, in an effort to preserve the last known, native population of Sarracenia purpurea in the western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, and West Virginian region, individuals were transplanted to Spruce Flats Bog (PA), Mount Davis Bog (PA), Big Run Bog (WV), Helmick Run Swamp (WV) Cranesville Swamp (WV), Cranberry Swamp (WV), Rock Lodge wetland (MD), and the University of Maryland’s 4-H study area (MD). These transplant populations present unique circumstances for a comparative study of population development histories and plant population dynamics of S. purpurea. We hypothesize that all study populations are arranged in aggregated patterns, and that density of S. purpurea varies significantly among these populations. In a pilot study, we have examined the spatial patterns of S. purpurea at the three largest S. purpurea populations at Mount Davis Bog, Spruce Flats Bog, and Big Run Bog using nearest-neighbor methods. Our study will continue at the remaining five transplant populations. Determining spatial pattern of these populations will aid in developing appropriate sampling strategies to obtain precise estimates of S. purpurea population density.



9:00-

9:30


The cultivation of Roridula. – Matthew R. Opel* Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Ct 06269, USA. Email: matthew.opel@uconn.edu

The two species of Roridula (Roridulaceae) are South African endemics with adhesive leaves that trap insects and other prey. Cultivation of these carnivorous shrubs has proven to be difficult for most who have attempted it. A consideration of the native environment of Roridula, in the mountains of the Western Cape, provides clues to its cultural needs. Minimal requirements seem to be intense sun, good air circulation, and moderate humidity levels. Since wild Roridula plants depend upon symbiotic assassin bugs to digest their prey, supplemental foliar feeding may be required for plants cultivated in the absence of assassin bugs. Propagation is primarily via seed, which benefits from treatment with smoke.




Posters and Display:

Ecological characteristics of Utricularia ochroleuca and U. intermedia in the Czech Republic. - Lubomír Adamec, Institute of Botany of the Acad. Sci. of the Czech Republic, Section of Plant Ecology, Dukelská 135, CZ-379 82 Třeboň, Czech Republic. Email: adamec@butbn.cas.cz.

Utricularia ochroleuca (incl. the taxon of U. stygia) and U. intermedia are aquatic carnivorous plants with distinctly dimorphic shoots. Physical and chemical habitat factors were measured in dense stands of both species in shallow dystrophic waters at some prolific sites in Třeboň basin, Czech Republic, and plant morphometric characteristics were estimated. Out of all water chemistry factors studied, the only statistically significant difference between the 1-3 cm deep free-water zone with green photosynthetic shoots and the 10 cm deep loose sediment with chlorophyll-free carnivorous shoots with traps was found in [O2] (range 1.7-7.2 vs. 0.0-0.8 mg.l-1). The waters can be characterized as mesotrophic. Total dry biomass of both species in dense stands ranged between 2.4-97 g.m-2. The proportion of carnivorous shoots to the total biomass as investment to carnivory ranged from 40-59 % and that of traps from 18-29 % in both species. As the mean length of main carnivorous shoots and the trap number per plant in carnivorous shoots in both species were highly significantly different between sites, it is possible to conclude that the quantitative development of these carnivorous organs as investment in carnivory are under ecological regulation in both species as the structural and maintenance costs of their traps are very high. Givnish et al. (1984) postulated for terrestrial carnivorous plants that carnivory is only beneficial in nutrient-poor, moist, and sunny habitats. It is evident that many aquatic carnivorous plant species in their typical habitats do not obey this principle due to shortage of light and sometimes also free CO2.
Trap gland morphology and its systematic implication in Taiwan Utricularia. Yi-Shan Chao*, Ho-Yih Liu, Yuen-Po Yang. Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 80424; E-mails: d932010006@student.nsysu.edu.tw, hoyih@mail.nsysu.edu.tw and ypo@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

In aquatic carnivorous plants genus Utricularia, highly specific glands play a very important role in digestion and absorption. However, there were few morphological studies in this genus. In this study, the scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the gland morphology of Taiwan Utricularia. Eight species were recorded in Taiwan, and six species were studied: U. aurea Lour., U. australis R. Br., U. bifida L., U. caerulea L., U. gibba L., and U. striatula Sm. The glands on both outer and inner surfaces of the trap were fully examined. There are three types of external glands and two types of internal glands. The external glands had little diagnostic value, but the internal glands could be used in species identification. Furthermore, the evolution transformation series of gland character can be inferred from known molecular phylogeny. The systematic value of gland morphology was discussed.


Differentioal allocation of heterotrophic versus autotrophic carbon during inflorescence phenology in the Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula-Erica M. Waters* Doug Darnowski‡ and Maxine A. Watson* *Department of Biology, Roberts Hall, Indiana University Blomington, Bloomington, IN, 47405 and ‡ Department of Biology, Indiana University Southeast, 4201 Grant Line Road, New Albany, IN, USA, 47150. Emails: watsonm@indiana.edu and ddarnows@ius.edu.

Radioactive amino acids were fed to flowering Venus Flytrap plants in the Spring of 2006 to determine the routes taken by nutrients from prey. Plants were dried and examined both by autoradiography and scintillation counting. Though the sample size was limited, amino acids could be determined to have been maximally absorbed during inflorescence development, and no nutrients were shared with mycorrhizal fungi. More label was taken up autotrophically than heterotropically.


Vascular Land Plant Evolution. Jon Wallace, High School Science Teacher Meriden, CT, Another School Program. 169 Colony St., Meriden, CT 06451. Email: fjwallace@snet.net

This display is presented in order to put insectivorous plant evolution into perspective. Starting about 400 million years ago in the Devonian Period, the display exhibits fossils of simple land plants which appear in the geologic record. This display shows examples of these fossils from the Rhynie Chert and then explores the continued evolution of land plants. Particular attention is paid to the Carboniferous Period which occurred about 350 million years ago and many examples of fossil plants are shown. Coal ball peels from fossils of this period are exhibited and their importance is explained. Plant examples are shown from the Devonian to modern plants which exemplify the tremendous diversity of this kingdom.






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