Species Study location




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Appendix.

Appendix S1. Species used in the current study. Mating system has been simplified to either: Unknown (U) if there is no or ambiguous information available; Haremic (H) if mate monopolisation is permanent; Lek (L) if monopolisation is temporary for mating; Aggregation (A) if the species is known to form large breeding aggregations periodically (mostly the groupers); and Monogamous (M) for monogamy. The exact nature of the mating system is often unknown for most species, as it can vary greatly from location to location (Robertson 1981). The column headed ‘First Sex’ refers to direction of sex change (protogyny = female to male (F); protandry = male to female (M)). *The ‘Early Maturers’ column refers to whether all fish are born into one sex (N), or whether both sexes are produced to start with, and a certain fraction of the ‘first sex’ goes on to change later (early maturers present, Y). The size and age at sex change were calculated as shown in section 2 of this paper.





Species

Study location


Mating system

First sex

Presence of Early Maturers*

Size at Sex Change (in mm)

Maximum Size (in mm)

Age at Sex Change (in years)

Age at Maturity (in years)

Acanthopagrus berda (Tobin, et al., 1997)

Australia

U

M

N

191

310

1.95

1.15

Achoerodus viridis (Gillanders, 1995)

Australia

U

F

N

526

620

18

8

Amphiprion akallopisos (Fricke, 1979)

Indian Ocean

M

M

N

72

108







Amphiprion frenatus (Moyer & Nakazono, 1978b)

Japan

M

M

N

66

85







Amphiprion oscellaris (Moyer & Nakazono, 1978b)

Japan

M

M

N

44

40







Amphiprion perideraion (Moyer & Nakazono, 1978b)

Japan

M

M

N

54

76







Amphiprion polymnus (Moyer & Nakazono, 1978b)

Japan

M

M

N

92

106







Amphiprion sandrasinos (Moyer & Nakazono, 1978b)

Japan

M

M

N

51

61







Bodianus rufus (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

H

F

N

172.8

230







Centropyge interruptus (Moyer & Nakazono, 1978a)

Japan

H

F

N

127

150







Chrysoblephus puniceus (Garrat, 1986)

SE Coast Africa

U

F

N

377

450







Clepticus parrae (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

N

157.8

180







Coryphopterus nicholsi (Cole, 1983)

BC, Canada

H

F

N

69

90







Cryptotomus roseus (Robertson & Warner, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

N

57.5

70







Dascyllus flavicaudus (Godwin, 1995)

Hawaii

H

F

N

68

77







Epinephelus chlorostigma (Grandcourt, 2002)

Seychelles

A


F

Y

464

500

13

2.5

Epinephelus marginatus (Marino et al., 2001)

Mediterranean Sea

A

F

N

880

1050

12

5

Epinephelus morio (Brule et al., 1999)

Gulf of Mexico

U

F

N

755.5

895

9.5

4

Epinephelus rivulatus (Mackie, 2000)

Australia

A

F

N

756

895






Genicanthus semifasciatus (Shen & Liu, 1976)

Taiwan

H

F

N

93

116







Gobiosoma multifasciatum (Robertson & Justines, 1982)

Caribbean Panama

U

F

N

20

27







Halichoeres bivittatus (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

Y

302

350







Halichoeres garnoti (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

N

73

140







Halichoeres maculippina (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

Y

109

120







Halichoeres pictus (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

Y

79

120







Halichoeres poeyi (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

Y

83

100







Labroides dimidiatus (Robertson & Choat, 1974)

Australia

H

F

N

88

140







Lethrinus choerorynchus (Young and Martin, 1982)

NW Australia

U

F

N

281

331







Lethrinus fraenatus (Young and Martin, 1982)

NW Australia

U

F

N

246

305







Lethrinus lentjan (Grandcourt, 2002), (Young and Martin, 1982)

Seychelles, NW Australia

U

F

N

308

398







Lethrinus mahsena (Grandcourt, 2002)

Seychelles

U

F

Y

320

360

16

6

Lethrinus nebulosus (Young and Martin, 1982)

NW Australia

U

F

N

408

562







Lethrinus nematacanthus (Young and Martin, 1982)

NW Australia

U

F

N

180

245







Lethrinus variegates (Young and Martin, 1982)

NW Australia

U

F

N

291

304







Lithognathus mormyrus (Kraljevic et al., 1995; Lorenzo et al., 2002)

Canary Islands, E. Adriatic

U

M

N

252.5

370

3.5

2.5

Mycteroperca bonaci (Crabtree & Bullock, 1998)

Florida

A

F

N

1233

1500

15.5

5.2

Plectropomus leopardus (Ferreira, 1995)

Australia

L

F

N

321

360

16.00

6.00

Pseudoanthius squammipinis (Shapiro, 1981; Suzuki et al., 1978)

Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Japan

H

F

N

50

62.5







Sarpa salpa (van der Walt & Mann, 1998; Villamil et al., 2002)

South Africa, Canary Islands

U

M

N

250.5

375

3.75

1.75

Scarus ghobban (Grandcourt, 2002)

Seychelles

U

F

U

290

370

7

2

Scarus iserti (Robertson & Warner, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

H

F

Y

96

170







Scarus rubroviolaceus (Grandcourt, 2002)

Seychelles

U

F

U

374

425

13

4

Scarus vetula (Robertson & Warner, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

H

F

Y

252

320







Semicossyphus pulcher (Cowen, 1990)

California

L

F

N

301

440

7.9

4.25

Sparisoma atomarium (Robertson & Warner, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

H

F

N

55

90







Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Robertson & Warner, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

H

F

N

175

240







Sparisoma rubripinne (Robertson & Warner, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

N

250

310







Synbranchus marmoratus (Liem, 1968)

Pearl Island Pacific Panama

U

F

N

340

650







Tenualosa macrura (Blaber et al., 1999)

Sumatra

U

M

N

190

320

0.9

0.65

Tenualosa toil (Blaber et al., 1996)

Sarawak, Malaysia

U

M

N

110

130

1.24

0.63

Thalassoma bifasciatum (Warner & Robertson, 1978)

Caribbean Panama

L

F

Y

83

120







Thalassoma lunare (Robertson & Choat, 1974)

Australia

L

F

Y

110

130








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