Species name Typea




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Table 1. Genetic estimates of dispersal and corresponding estimates of PLD for benthic marine species.

Species name

Typea

Taxonomyb

Dispersal

scale (km)c

PLD

(days)d

PLD References

Acanthaster planci e

I

Echinodermata:Asteroidea

167

21

Nishida and Lucas 1988, Benzie 1994

Acanthurus triostegus e

F

Perciformes:Acanthuridae

38.1

65

Planes 1993, Planes 1994

Acropora cuneata

I

Cnidaria

0.053

0.17

Shanks et al. 2003

Acropora palifera

I

Cnidaria

0.089

0.17

Shanks et al. 2003

Adalaria proxima

I

Mollusca:Opisthobranchia

0.067

1.5

Todd et al. 1998

Alaria marginata

M

Phaeophyta

4.2

2

Kusumo and Druehl 2000

Amphiprion clarkii

F

Perciformes:Pomacentridae

25.1

11.5

Froese and Pauly 2002

Amphiprion melanopus

F

Perciformes:Pomacentridae

32

15.5

Doherty et al. 1995

Celleporella hyaline

I

Bryozoa:Cheilostomatida

0.303

0.15

Goldson et al. 2001

Chthamalus montagui e

I

Crustacea:Cirripedia

180

19.5

Burrows et al. 1999

Chthamalus stellatus e

I

Crustacea:Cirripedia

176

23

Burrows et al. 1999

Dascyllus aruanus

F

Perciformes:Pomacentridae

142

24

Froese and Pauly 2002

Dascyllus trimaculatus

F

Perciformes:Pomacentridae

47.5

23

Froese and Pauly 2002

Echinometra lucunter

I

Echinodermata:Asteroidea

75.5

14

Emlet 1995

Gadus morhua

F

Gadiformes:Gadidae

170

100

Froese and Pauly 2002

Gnatholepis thompsoni

F

Perciformes:Gobiidae

168

81.5

Shulman and Bermingham 1995

Halichoeres bivittatus

F

Perciformes:Labridae

176

24

Shulman and Bermingham 1995

Haliotis cracherodii

I

Mollusca:Gastropoda

24.2

7

Hamm and Burton 2000

Heliocidaris erythrogramma

I

Echinodermata:Echinoidea

7.2

4

Emlet 1995

Littorina littorea

I

Mollusca:Gastropoda

22.9

30

Janson 1987, Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 2002

Ostrea edulis

I

Mollusca:Bivalvia

88.1

12

Borsa et al. 1997

Pandalus borealis

I

Crustacea:Decapoda

112

105

Kartavtsev 1994

Pecten jacobaeus

I

Mollusca:Bivalvia

501

24.5

Ríos et al. 2002

Pocillopora damicornis

I

Cnidaria

0.2

0.17

Shanks et al. 2003

Sciaenops ocellatus

F

Perciformes:Sciaenidae

527

14

Gold and Turner 2002

Semicossyphus pulcher

F

Perciformes:Labridae

94.2

37

Froese and Pauly 2002

Solea solea

F

Pleuronectiformes:Soleidae

134

36

Froese and Pauly 2002

Stegastes leucostictus

F

Perciformes:Pomacentridae

76.7

20

Wellington and Victor 1989

Stylophora pistillata

I

Cnidaria

0.044

0.17

Shanks et al. 2003

Tridacna derasa

I

Mollusca:Bivalvia

144

8.5

Benzie 1994

Tridacna maxima e


I

Mollusca:Bivalvia

142

8.5

Benzie and Williams 1997

Zoanthus coppingeri

I

Cnidaria

30.5

21

Burnett et al. 1995


aType of organism; M=Macroalga, I=Invertebrate, F=Fish.

bHigher taxonomy; Division (Macroalgae), Phylum:Class (Invertebrates), Order:Family (Fish).

cMean dispersal distance estimated from genetic isolation-by-distance slope, from Kinlan and Gaines (in press).

dMean PLD estimated from otolith aging, laboratory culture studies, and/or field observations.

eAverage of multiple independent genetic dispersal estimates for this species.
Literature Cited
Benzie, J. A. H. 1994. Patterns of gene flow in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Pages 67-79 in A. Beaumont, editor. Genetics and evolution of aquatic organisms. Chapman and Hall, London.

Benzie, J. A. H., and S. T. Williams. 1997. Genetic structure of giant clam (Tridacna maxima) populations in the West Pacific is not consistent with dispersal by present-day ocean currents. Evolution 51:768-783.

Borsa, P. 1997. Intraspecific zoogeography of the Mediterranean: population genetic analysis on sixteen Atlanto-Mediterranean species (fishes and invertebrates). Vie Milieu 47:295-305.

Burnett, W. J., J. A. H. Benzie, J. A. Beardmore, and J. S. Ryland. 1995. Patterns of genetic subdivision in populations of a clonal cnidarian, Zoanthus coppingeri, from the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology 122:665-673.

Burrows, M. T., Hawkins, S. J., and A. J. Southward. 1999. Larval development of the intertidal barnacles Chthamalus stellatus (Poli) and Chthamalus montagui Southward.  Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 79:93-101.

Doherty, P. J., S. Planes, and P. Mather. 1995. Gene flow and larval duration in seven species of fish from the Great Barrier Reef. Ecology 76:2373-2391.

Emlet, R. B. 1995. Developmental mode and species geographic range in regular sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Evolution 49:476-489.

Froese, R., and D. Pauly. 2002. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org.

Gold, J. R., and T. F. Turner. 2002. Population structure of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, as inferred from variation in nuclear-encoded microsatellites. Marine Biology 140:249-265.

Goldson, A. J., R. N. Hughes, and C. J. Gliddon. 2001. Population genetic consequences of larval dispersal mode and hydrography: a case study with bryozoans. Marine Biology 138:1037-1042.

Hamm, D. E., and R. S. Burton. 2000. Population genetics of black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, along the central California coast. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 254:235-247.

Janson, K. 1987. Allozyme and shell variation in two marine snails (Littorina, Prosobranchia) with different dispersal abilities. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 30:245-256.

Kartavtsev, Y. P. 1994. Wide-scale genetic differentiation among pink shrimp Pandalus borealis populations. Pages 41-53 in A. Beaumont, editor. Genetics and evolution of aquatic organisms. Chapman and Hall, London.

Kinlan, B. P., and S. D. Gaines. Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: a community perspective. Ecology. In press.

Kusumo, H. T., and L. D. Druehl. 2000. Variability over space and time in the genetic structure of the winged kelp Alaria marginata. Marine Biology 136:397-409.

Marine Biological Association of the UK. 2002. MarLIN: The Marine Life Information Network for Britain and Ireland. http://www.marlin.ac.uk/.

Nishida, M., and J. S. Lucas. 1988. Genetic differences between geographic populations of the crown-of-thorns starfish throughout the Pacific region. Marine Biology 98:359-368.

Planes, S. 1993. Genetic differentiation in relation to restricted larval dispersal of the convict surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus in French Polynesia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 98:237-246.

Planes, S. 1994. Geographic structure and gene flow in the manini (convist surgeonfish, Acanthuris triostegus) in the south-central Pacific. Pages 113-123 in A. Beaumont, editor. Genetics and evolution of aquatic organisms. Chapman and Hall, London.

Rios, C., S. Sanz, C. Saavedra, and J. B. Pena. 2002. Allozyme variation in populations of scallops, Pecten jacobaeus (L.) and P. maximus (L.) (Bivalvia:Pectinidae), across the Almeria-Oran front. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 267:223-244.

Shanks, A. L., B. Grantham, and M. H. Carr. 2003. Propagule dispersal distance and the size and spacing of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13 (Suppl.):###-###.

Shulman, M. J., and E. Bermingham. 1995. Early life histories, ocean currents, and the population genetics of Caribbean reef fishes. Evolution 49:897-910.



Todd, C. D., W. J. Lambert, and J. P. Thorpe. 1998. The genetic structure of intertidal populations of two species of nudibranch molluscs with planktrophic and pelagic lecithotropic larval stages: Are pelagic larvae "for" dispersal? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 228:1-28.

Wellington, G. M., and B. C. Victor. 1989. Planktonic larval duration of one hundred species of Pacific and Atlantic damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Marine Biology 101:557-67.


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