Species fact sheet scientific Name




Дата канвертавання25.04.2016
Памер43.06 Kb.

SPECIES FACT SHEET




Scientific Name: Nanonemoura wahkeena (Jewett, 1954)

This species is currently listed as Zapada wahkeenah on the Interagency Special Status Species list.



Common Name: Wahkeena Falls Flightless Stonefly

Phylum: Mandibulata

Class: Insecta

Order: Plecoptera

Family: Nemouridae

Subfamily: Nemourinae


Taxonomic Note: Jewett (1954) originally named this species Nemoura wahkeena, and tentatively assigned it to the subgenus Zapada. When Zapada was elevated to genus status, this species became known as Zapada wahkeenah, although the generic placement was considered questionable (Baumann 1975). Recent work by Bauman and Fiala (2001) resulted in the placement of this species in a new, monospecific genus, Nanonemoura.
Conservation Status:

Global Status (2009): G2   


National Status (United States): N2 

State Status (Oregon): S2



(NatureServe 2011).
Technical Description:

Adults: This species belongs to a newly described, monospecific genus (Nanonemoura) in the family Nemouridae. Nemouridae stoneflies, also known as spring stoneflies, are distinguished from other Plecoptera families by the following set of characters: front wings generally held flat at rest with an apical cross-vein, labium with glossae and paraglossae about the same size, basal tarsal segment short (much shorter than third segment), second segment of tarsi very short (much shorter than both the basal and third segments), and cerci short and one-segmented (Triplehorn and Johnson 2005, Stewart and Stark 2008).
The general appearance of this species is like a small grasshopper nymph (Bauman and Fiala 2001). The body is dark brown dorsally, and lighter in color ventrally. The legs are yellow, darker at joints, and quite long, especially the hind legs, which are more than twice the length of abdomen. The wings are very small, micropterous, and seldom extend beyond the thorax. The wing venation is reduced to major veins, with few crossveins. The eyes are large and prominent, and the antennae are long, with around 35 segments. The maxillary palpi are long. The thorax is stout with oversized legs, and wings on the dorsolateral margins. The abdomen is as long as the head and thorax combined. Abdominal cerci are one-segmented (Baumann and Fiala 2001). Adults are easily distinguished from all other Nemourinae by the long maxillary palpi, micropterous wings, and very long legs, especially the hindlegs (Baumann and Fiala 2001). Differences in genitalia are also apparent between Nanonemoura and the closely related Zapada, Lednia, and Visoka genera (Bauman and Fiala 2001).
Nanonemoura wahkeena male genitalia are described as follows (Bauman and Fiala 2001): The epiproct is lightly sclerotized apically and laterally at median expanded areas, and covered with numerous rows of small, wartlike processes. The large dorsal sclerite of the epiproct extends over the entire dorsal surface. The ventral sclerite is heavily sclerotized, subequal in area to dorsal sclerite, and bears around 30 stout, ventrally directed spines that are randomly spaced over most of ventral surface. The paraprocts have a heavily sclerotized inner lobe that terminates in a sharply bifurcate apex; the outer lobe is partially membranous, with a sclerotized outer margin, bearing around 25 short stout spines. The hypoproct is broadest at base, with the anterior 1/3 tapering to truncate apex, bearing a thin, sharp, pointed projection medially. The vesicle is present, thin and elongate. The cerci are sclerotized dorsolaterally and drawn out into a narrow apex that ends in a hooked tip. The diagnostic features of the male genitalia are as follows: (1) the epiproct consists of dorsal and ventral sclerites that are large and flat and approximate each other in size, (2) the dorsal sclerite has lightly sclerotized, slightly swollen areas medio-laterally, covered by rows of small, wartlike processes, (3) the ventral sclerite has around 30 stout ventrally directed spines scattered over the entire ventral surface, and (4) the paraprocts have two well-developed lobes, the inner lobe darkly sclerotized, narrow, and with a bifurcate apex. See Baumann and Fiala (2001) for illustrations of the genitalia of this species.
Female genitalia of Nanonemoura wahkeena are described as follows (Bauman and Fiala 2001): The seventh sternum is enlarged into a pregenital plate, broadly rounded and extending over most of the eighth sternum. The eighth sternum is more darkly sclerotized, forming a small subgenital plate with a narrow, dark sclerotized band over the vaginal opening. The cerci are membranous but large and long, almost like tiny ears. The two diagnostic features of the female genitalia are the well-developed pregenital plate covering most of the next segment, and the small sclerotized bar over the vaginal opening. See Baumann and Fiala (2001) for illustrations of the genitalia of this species.
Immature:

Nymphs in the Nemouridae family are small, robust, and hairy, less than 12 mm in body length (Stewart and Stark 2008). They are distinguished from other stonefly families by the following characters: paraglossae and glossae about equal in size; gills not conical; no ventral gill tufts; hind legs reaching about the tip of the abdomen; midline of the metathoracic wing pads strongly divergent from the body axis; and cervical gills present (Stewart and Stark 2008).


The nymph of this species is uniformly brown in color, with a darker pattern on head and thorax (Baumann and Fiala 2001). The head is covered with numerous tiny hairs, and the eyes are prominent. The thorax bears many long, darkly sclerotized spines. The pronotum is completely encircled, the meso- and metanotum bearing a pair of long, hairlike spines lateral to midline. The legs are short and stout. The femur bears 8–10 long spines scattered randomly on lateral margins, and the tibia bears two rows of short, stout spines, one on each lateral margin, and a sparse fringe of long, thin hairs on the ventral margin. The abdomen is without setae or spines, except for two rows of long, thin spines, one on each side of midline, running the entire length of abdomen. The cerci are well developed, and with around 20 segments. Intercalary spines are present. The anterior 2/3 of cercal segments are encircled with whorls of long spines. Two cervical gills are present on each side of the midline. The gills are thin and divided, with three lobes each. The lobes arise from midlength to apex, not from a common stalk. The nymph is distinct in having two pairs of cervical gills, each with three branches arising linearly and not from a common stalk. Additionally, the mostly random setation on the femora is diagnostic. Detailed illustrations of diagnostic features of the nymph of this species are provided in Baumann and Fiala (2011).
Life History:

The larval behavior and diet of this species are unknown. Other members of the Nemourinae subfamily are sprawlers/clingers, and are classified as shredders and scrapers, feeding on detritus, microalgae, and moss (Stewart and Stark 2008). Very little is known about this species’ adult mating, oviposition, and dispersal behavior. The micropterous wings indicate that adults are flightless, and dispersal is therefore likely only by aquatic immatures. The emergence season of this species are not well-documented, although a nymph has been collected on February 29th, and known records for adults are from March 23rd to May 8th. The life span of this species is unknown.


Range, Distribution, and Abundance:

This species is known only from Wahkeena Creek in the Wahkeena Falls area of the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, Multnomah Co., Oregon.


BLM/Forest Service land: This species is documented from the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area.
Abundance: Abundance estimates at known population sites have not been conducted, although population sizes are presumed to be small. Recorded collections range from one to twenty adults (Baumann 2011, pers. comm.).

Habitat Associations:

Although frequently reported to occur in waterfalls, Baumann and Fiala (2001) state that this species is restricted to seepage areas adjacent to Wahkeena Creek, and does not live in the waterfalls or the large spring source.


Threats:

Any activities that degrade water quality or increase water temperatures in seepage areas would likely have negative impacts on this species. Most plecopteran species have highly specific preferences with regard to water temperature, velocity, dissolved-oxygen levels, and substrate characteristics, and are therefore sensitive to a wide array of habitat alterations. Increased sedimentation, eutrophication, and chemical and thermal pollution by road construction and heavy recreation use in the watershed could harm this species. Continued global climate change further threatens the long-term survival of this species. Projected effects of climate change in this region include increased frequency and severity of seasonal droughts and flooding, reduced snowpack to feed river flow, increased siltation, and increased air and water temperatures (Field et al. 2007), all of which could impact this species and its habitat unfavorably.



Additionally, over-collecting may threaten this species, since published sites in the Columbia River Gorge are easy for collectors to access, and populations are already small and presumably vulnerable (Wisseman 2011, pers. comm.).
Conservation Considerations:

Because this species belongs to a monospecific genus and is endemic to a single creek system, it is considered a high priority for conservation.


Inventory: Despite repeated attempts to find this stonefly in other localities in the Columbia River Gorge, especially along the trail to, and at, nearby Multnomah Falls, it is still known only from the Wahkeena Falls site (Baumann and Fiala 2001, Baumann 2011, pers. comm.). Since stonefly habitat in the area has been thoroughly surveyed for this species over a period of several decades, additional population sites are unlikely (Baumann 2011, pers. comm.). At the Wahkeena Creek site, the species has been reliably encountered in the appropriate habitat since 1982, and was last documented in 2003 (Baumann 2011, pers. comm.). Since recent habitat changes in the area have been minimal (Baumann 2011, pers. comm.), and since the habitat of this species is very fragile and sensitive to damage from collectors (Wisseman 2011, pers. comm.), surveys for this species are not of high priority at this time.
Research: Since very little is known about the life history of this species, research examining the larval diet and behavior of this species may be warranted. As always, researchers should use extreme care to avoid disruption to the highly sensitive habitat where the species occurs.
Management: Protect known sites and their watersheds from heavy recreational use, trail development, road construction, and other practices that would adversely affect any aspect of this species’ life cycle. Riparian habitat protection, including maintenance of water quality, substrate conditions, and canopy cover, would likely benefit and help maintain this species.
Version 2:

Prepared by: Sarah Foltz Jordan, Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation

Date: December 2011

Edited by: Sarina Jepsen, Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation

Date: December 2011

Final edits by: Rob Huff, Conservation Planning Coordinator, FS/BLM-Portland

Date: January 2012
Version 1:

Prepared by: Eric Scheuering

Date: January 2006

Edited by: Rob Huff

Date: June 2007


ATTACHMENTS:

  1. References

  2. List of pertinent or knowledgeable contacts

  3. Map of known records

  4. Illustrations of this species

  5. Plecoptera Survey Protocol, including specifics for this species


ATTACHMENT 1: References.
Baumann, Richard W. 2011. Personal communication with Sarah Foltz Jordan, Xerces Society.
Baumann, R.W. and G.R. Fiala. 2001. Nanonemoura, a new stonefly genus from the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon (Plecoptera: Nemouridae). Western North American Naturalist 61(4): 403-408.
Baumann, R.W. 1975. Revision of the stonefly family Nemouridae (Plecoptera): a study of the world fauna at the generic level. Smithsonian Contributions to

Zoology 211:1–74.


Field, C.B., Mortsch, L.D., Brklacich, M., Forbes, D.L., Kovacs, P., Patz, J.A., Running, S.W. and Scott, M.J. 2007. Chapter 14: North America. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E., eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Jewett, S.G., JR. 1954. New stoneflies from California and Oregon. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 30:167–179.
NatureServe. 2011. “Nanonemoura wahkeena.” NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Feb. 2009. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Data last updated: July 2011. Available at: www.natureserve.org/explorer (Accessed 30 November 2011).
Stewart, K.W. and B.P. Stark. 2008. Chapter 14. Plecoptera. pp. 311-384. In An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. 4th edition. Merritt, R.W., K.W. Cummins, and M.B. Berg (eds). Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Duquque, Iowa.
Triplehorn, C. and N. Johnson. 2005. Introduction to the Study of Insects. Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA. 864 pp.
Wisseman, Robert W. 2011. Personal communication with Sarah Foltz Jordan, Xerces Society.

ATTACHMENT 2: List of pertinent, knowledgeable contacts.
Richard W. Baumann, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
Robert Wisseman, Aquatic Biology Associates, Inc. Corvallis, OR.

ATTACHMENT 3: Map of known records.

Records of Nanonemoura wahkeena, relative to Forest Service and BLM lands. The known sites for this species are on Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area land.


ATTACHMENT 4: Illustrations of this species.


Nanonemoura wahkeena male adult, habitus. Illustration by Jean Stranger, extracted from Baumann and Fiala (2001), courtesy of Western North American Naturalist. Used with permission.


Nanonemoura wahkeena nymph, habitus. Illustration by Jean Stranger, extracted from Baumann and Fiala (2001), courtesy of Western North American Naturalist. Used with permission.

ATTACHMENT 5: Trichoptera Survey Protocol, including specifics for this species.
Survey Protocol

Taxonomic group: Plecoptera

Species: Nanonemoura wahkeena
Where:

Plecopterans utilize a diversity of freshwater aquatic habitats, including headwater springs, streams, rivers, seepage areas. They are mainly associated with lotic (moving water) habitats, although a number of species are known from large, oligotrophic lakes (Stewart and Stark 2008). Most species have highly specific preferences with regard to water temperature, velocity, dissolved-oxygen levels, and substrate characteristics. Larvae are often highly specialized in their dietary preferences, and in the manner and location in which food is obtained. Most plecopterans are either shredder-detritivores or engulfer-predators, and feeding habits are usually consistent within a particular family (Voshell 2002). For species-specific diet and habitat information, see the section at the end of this protocol.


When:

Adults are surveyed within the window of the species’ documented flight period. Larvae and pupae are most conveniently surveyed at the same time as adults.


Adults:

Adult plecopterans are predominantly encountered in the vicinity of water, close to their emergence or oviposition sites. Adults are frequently collected from riparian vegetation with an aerial sweep net; they can also be hand-picked from tree bark, the undersides of bridges and culverts, and from the sides and upper-surfaces of partly-submerged logs. Since some species are attracted to light, adults can often be collected in large numbers in soapy-water pan traps placed under a light (e.g. a vehicle headlight) and left overnight. Specimens can also be collected at night directly from lights or an illuminated sheet using an aspirator or finger dipped in alcohol. An aspirator is especially useful for capturing small species. Emergence traps placed over habitat where the larvae are known or suspected to occur are another good method for obtaining adults.


Adults should be killed and preserved in 70% alcohol, or killed in cyanide and transferred to alcohol. Cyanide-killed adults may also be pinned, particularly to preserve color patterns, but pinned adults often shrink, resulting in damage to the genitalia, gill remnants, and other critical aspects of the specimen (Triplehorn and Johnson 2005).
Since plecopteran identification often involves close investigation of adult genitalia, photographs and sight records will not provide sufficient evidence of species occurrences. However, such observations may be valuable in directing further study to an area.
Immature stages:

The immature stages of stoneflies are found underwater, creeping slowly along the substrate or remaining stationary in a place with ample dissolved oxygen and current velocity (Voshell 2002). Larvae often have a strong preference for coarse substrates, such as boulders, cobble, pebbles, pieces of water-soaked wood, and accumulations of coarse detritus (Voshell 2002).


When surveying for larvae, care must be used to avoid disrupting stream banks, shorelines, vegetation, and habitat. Depending on the habitat, a variety of nets can be useful. D-frame nets with mesh size fine enough to retain small larvae (0.5 mm, 0.02 in.) are the most versatile, as they can be used in both lotic and lentic habitats. In stream systems, the standard kick-net technique can be applied. The net is held vertically with the opening facing upstream and the flat side pressed tightly against the bottom substrate, so that water flows neither under nor over the net. Large rocks and wood immediately upstream of the net are gently scrubbed by hand or with a soft brush and the bottom substrate is disturbed with the hands, feet, or a stick while the current carries the uncovered and dislodged insects and material into the net. The stream bottom is disturbed to a depth of 4 – 6 cm (1.2 – 2 in.) for about three minutes, following which the net is removed from the water for specimen retrieval. When lifting the net, the bottom of the frame is swept forward in a scooping motion to prevent insects from escaping. Net contents are then flipped or rinsed into shallow white trays to search for larvae more easily, as they are often quite cryptic and can be difficult to see if they are not moving. In addition to nets and shallow trays, the following equipment is also useful: fine-mesh strainers/sieves for washing mud and silt from samples, squirt bottles for rinsing the net, five-gallon buckets for holding rinsing water, and white ice-cube trays, forceps, and a hand lens for sorting insects.
Immature stages should be preserved on-site in 70% alcohol, unless collection for rearing is an objective. Since many plecopteran species have not been described in their larval stage, rearing can be critical in both (1) enabling species identification and (2) providing novel associations of larvae with adults. Generally, final instar nymphs are more likely to survive to adulthood in rearing chambers than early larval stages. Detailed techniques for rearing stream-dwelling organisms in the laboratory, including transportation, aeration, current production, temperature control, food, and toxic substances, are provided by Craig (1966), and available online at http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Bio14Tuat02-t1-body-d1.html (last accessed 29 November 2011).

Although quantitative collecting of plecopterans is difficult, population-size data is important in evaluating a species’ stability at a given locality and in assessing its conservation needs. Relative abundances of immature plecopterans can be estimated by using a uniform collecting effort over a given sample period at comparable habitats. The area or volume of substrate samples can also be standardized, although the aggregated spatial distributions of many species can complicate this approach.


While researchers are visiting sites and collecting specimens, detailed habitat data should also be acquired, including substrate type(s), water temperature, water source, water velocity, water depth, stream width, canopy cover, streamside vegetation density, and degree of human impact. Algal or cyanobacterial blooms and other signs of eutrophication should be watched for and noted.
Species-specific Survey Details:

Nanonemoura wahkeena
This rare species is known only from Wahkeena Creek in the Columbia River Gorge, Multnomah County, Oregon, where it occurs in small to large seeps along the creek. Despite repeated attempts to find this stonefly in other localities in the Columbia River Gorge, especially along the trail to, and at, nearby Multnomah Falls, it is still known only from the Wahkeena Falls site (Baumann and Fiala 2001, Baumann 2011, pers. comm.). Since stonefly habitat in the area has been thoroughly surveyed for this species over a period of several decades, additional population sites are unlikely (Baumann 2011, pers. comm.). At the Wahkeena Creek site, the species has been reliably encountered in the appropriate habitat since 1982, and was last documented in 2003 (Baumann 2011, pers. comm.). Since recent habitat changes in the area have been minimal (Baumann 2011, pers. comm.), and since the habitat for this species is very sensitive to damage from collectors (Wisseman 2011, pers. comm.), surveys for this species are not of high priority at this time.
Springtime surveys have proven most productive for this species (Bauman and Fiala 2001). A nymph has been collected on February 29th, and known records for adults are from March 23rd to May 8th. According to Baumann (2011, pers. comm.), this species is especially difficult to collect, and it usually takes someone to actually show you (first-hand) how to find it.
Since both the larval and adult stages of this species are described, rearing of immature stages is not necessary for identification. Males, females, and immatures of this species can be positively identified using features provided in the species fact sheet.
References (survey protocol only):

Baumann, Richard W. 2011. Personal communication with Sarah Foltz Jordan, Xerces Society.


Baumann, R.W. and G.R. Fiala. 2001. Nanonemoura, a new stonefly genus from the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon (Plecoptera: Nemouridae). Western North American Naturalist 61(4): 403-408.

Craig, D.A. 1966. Techniques for rearing stream-dwelling organisms in the laboratory. Tuatara 14(2). Available online at http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Bio14Tuat02-t1-body-d1.html (last accessed 29 November 2011).

Stewart, K.W. and B.P. Stark. 2008. Chapter 14. Plecoptera. pp. 311-384. In An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. 4th edition. Merritt, R.W., K.W. Cummins, and M.B. Berg (eds). Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Duquque, Iowa.


Voshell, Jr, J. R. 2002. A guide to common freshwater invertebrates of North America. McDonald and Woodward Publishing Co., Blacksburg, Virginia. 442 pp.
Triplehorn, C. and N. Johnson. 2005. Introduction to the Study of Insects. Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA. 864 pp.
Wisseman, Robert W. 2011. Personal communication with Sarah Foltz Jordan, Xerces Society.


База данных защищена авторским правом ©shkola.of.by 2016
звярнуцца да адміністрацыі

    Галоўная старонка