Social Studies 10 European History

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a. militarism

b. alliances

c. imperialism

d. nationalism

e. anarchy

II. Europe Plunged into WWI

A. Austria urged an Ultimatum to Serbia

1. ultimatum- a set of demands that if not met, would end negotiations and lead to war

2. July 23, 1914, A-H ultimatum terms:

a. Serbia was to stop all anti-Austrian activity

b. allow Austrian officials into Serbia to investigate the killing and judge those accused of the crime

c. 48 hours to reply

3. Serbia choices:

a. to accept: it would humiliate Serbia and allow Austrian officials to rule Serbia

b. to not accept: would lead to war w/ A-H

c. Serbia rejects ultimatum, and on July 28, 1914, A-H declares war

4. Germany had promised Austria-Hungary full support in any war that might develop; Kaiser William on July 5 had set no limits on his support

B. Russia

1. Russia was defender of “protector” of the Slavic people and promised Serbia protection

2. Russia mobilizes for war against A-H and its ally, Germany

C. Germany

1. on August 1, 1914, as a reaction to Russia’s mobilization, Germany declares war on them, and 2 days later declared war on France, Russia’s ally

2. Germany now involved in a 2 front war (Bismarck’s Nightmare)

D. France

1. had built a series of fortresses along the French-German border

2. Elan- spirit in battle; the French believed that to attack the enemy boldly was all that counted in battle (Plan 17); there was no need for defensive tactics, b/c French generals believed that the army that attacked more vigorously would win

E. The Fighting of WWI

1. Germany used the von Schlieffen Plan (1890s) to fight a 2 front war

a. destroy France quickly

b. then hit Russia before she can fully mobilize

i. Germany invaded neutral Belgium to get to France b/c speed was essential if this plan had any chance of succeeding

2. French elan did not prevent the Germans from pushing the “Western Front” to near Paris (Gen. von Kluck commands Right Wing)

3. Germany (under von Moltke) diverted troops to the “Eastern Front” due to an unexpected quick Russian mobilization

4. Battle of the Marne (Sept. 6-12, 1914)

a. first major clash on the “Western Front”

b. stopped the German advance and saved Paris (French Gen. Galaeni)

c. made the Schlieffen Plan impossible to carry out

5. Stalemate on the “Western Front”

a. trench warfare à “No-mans Land”; space b/w opposing trenches

b. propoganda; rationing; civilians involved in total war

i. total war- war in which nations put all their resources into the war effort

III. The War Dragged on For Years

A. WWI was an industrialized war

1. machine gun à trenches

2. poison gas (chlorine + mustard gas) à trenches; first used in Yerbes; created by German scientist Haber

3. tank invented by the British and first used in 1916 at the Somme; it was plagued w/ problems and did not become a factor until the end of the war

4. airplane à first used for recon; later used as a bomber, fighter, and weapon against ground troops (first bombing à 5/25/17 on London)

5. U-Boats à submarines (to combat, used merchant convoys)

B. Death Toll Mounted in the West

1. Battle of Verdun (Feb. 21- July 11, 1916)

a. German offensive designed to end the war

b. Erich von Falkenheim was the German general

c. Henri Phillippe Petain was the French general

d. “They shall not pass”

e. 650,000 men were killed (350,000 were French)

f. Germans gain 4 miles in the 5-month battle

2. Battle of the Somme (July 1, Mar. 18, 1916)

a. British attacked to relieve the pressure on the French at Verdun

b. each side lost over 500,000

c. British advance 5 miles

3. both battles are examples of WWI as a “war of attrition”

4. Tactics

a. Full-line Assault à long front, one general; easy targets for machine guns and artillery

b. only 1 general was casualty of the war à due to suicide (Samsonov)

C. The Eastern Front

1. Russia had invaded both Austria and Germany at the outbreak of the war w/ great success

2. Battle of Tannenberg (1914)

a. Germans beat back the invading Russians

b. Generals; Germany à von Hindenberg; Ludendorf; Russian à Samsonov

3. although the Russians are constantly beaten and pushed back, suffering huge casualties; the Germans must tie up much of their forces in the east diverting then from the West

D. Ottoman Front

1. the Gallipoli campaign (1915)

a. Allies attempt to open up the Bosporous and Dardanelles straits to supply the Russians

b. the sea and later land invasions both fail miserably after a year, the Allies pull out (ANZACs were used [Australian/New Zealand Army Corps])

2. British organized Arab revolts in the Ottoman Empire to divert troops from the Eastern and Western fronts (Gen. Allenby, Capt. Thomas Lawrence [of Arabia])

E. Italian Front

1. Italians joined Allies in 1915; saying the Triple Alliance was a defensive treaty, and the Germans and Austrians had violated the treaty by being the aggressors

2. Italians are not much help; army, equipment, and training are lacking but divert Austrian troops from the Eastern Front

F. Japan took German possessions in China (Shantung) and Pacific

G. Britain and France took most of Germany’s African colonies

H. 1917- Russian Revolution; Russia eventually left the war

1. Germany had allowed Lenin to return to Russia, in return, he promised to sign a treaty w/ Germany

2. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk w/ Germany (1918); Russia ends war and gives up ¼ of Russia’s European territory to Germany (Baltic provinces); Finland, Poland, Ukraine

I. The U.S. enters the war in 1917

1. 1915 sinking of the Lusitania ended unrestricted submarine warfare (Naval Prize Rules)

2. 1917- Germany again returns to unrestricted submarine warfare

3. January 19, 1917 Zimmerman telegraph; Germany asking Mexico to attack the U.S. (by Western Union)

J. The War’s End

1. to counter the submarine threat, the Allies use the convoy formation to protect shipping and deter submarine attacks

2. Russia’s departure from the war allowed Germany to divert troops to the Western Front and for the first time in the war have the numerical advantage on the Western Front

3. U.S. troops arrive approx. 225,000 a month; Germany’s troops are depleted and a poor potato crop leads to food shortage and public unrest

a. U.S., British, and French troops push the Germans back and start to advance into Germany

b. 11/9/18 à Kaiser William II abdicates

c. new German govt. signs armistice w/ French Marshall Foch; 11/11, Germany surrenders

K. War’s Cost

1. killed 21 million soldiers and 6 million civilians

2. promotes bitterness and pessimism in the 1920s and 1930s, “Lost Generation”

IV. Peace stood on Shaky Foundation

A. Wilson’s 14 points; key parts:

1. self-determination: determination by people of a territorial unit of their own future political state

2. creation of League of Nations

B. 1914 Versailles Conference

1. conflicting demands

a. Britain, France, and U.S. dominated the conference

2. “Big Three”

a. Woodrow Wilson à for the U.S.

b. David Lloyd George à for G.B.

c. George Clemenceau à for France

C. 1919 Versailles Treaty dictated harsh peace terms for Germany; the treaty was supposed to be just and peaceful, but was harsh and vengeful; Terms of the Treaty of Versailles:

1. Germany territorial losses: (13% of land)

a. Alsace-Lorraine à France

b. 15 year-right to work in mineral-rich Saar Basin à France

c. “Polish Corridor” à Poland

d. colonies in Africa and Pacific go to Britain, France, and Japan as mandates

e. mandate- an order or commission granted by the L of N to a member nation for the establishment of a responsible govt. over a former German colony or other conquered territory

2. military restrictions on Germany

a. limited army (only 15,000)

b. banned subs and airplanes

c. Germany could not place troops in the Rhineland

3. Germany must accept full war guilt and pay $31 million in reparations (article 231)
Chapter 30- the Inter-war Period
I. Europe Recovered from WWI

A. by 1918, every major European nation was nearly bankrupt

1. Japan and US profited from WWI

2. Europe’s influence in world affairs declined

B. New Democracies were created after WWI

1. Very unstable:

a. Fragile coalition- temporary alliances of several parties to form parliamentary majorities

b. Long-term goals become impossible

c. In difficult times, people are often tempted to sacrifice democratic coalition govt. for strong leadership (dictator, one-party rule, etc.)

C. The Newly Created German Republic was weak

1. Weimar republic

2. Germany had few democratic traditions and many political parties

3. Weimar govt. had signed the treaty of Versailles

a. Many Germans didn’t recognize the treaty; they hated it and blamed the govt. for signing it

4. Tremendous debt- $37 billion fighting WWI

5. 1923

a. inflation

b. govt. refuses to pay war debt à strategic factories were seized by France and Belgium

c. Nazis try to take over Bavaria (fails, but strengthens party)

D. The Dawes Plan brought Stability

1. $200 million in American loans to German govt. in 1924 and a realistic schedule for paying off reparations of WWI

E. Treaties Raised Hope for Peace

1. Locarno Pact (1925)- Gustav Stresseman (Germany’s foreign minister) and Aristide Briand (France’s FM) signed a treaty promising no future wars on either side; respect existing borders of France and Belgium; and Germany admitted to the League of Nations

2. Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928): Frank Kellogg- American secretary of State arranged agreement w/ France’s Briand

a. Resulted from Spirit of Locarno

b. Countries that signed the treaty “renounced war as an instrument of national policy”

c. Problem was it could not be enforced

i. League of Nations had no armed forces of its own

II. Society Faced Rapid Changes “War gets the pot of progress abroil. War quickens the imagination and rewards ingenuity, which is turned to the solution of basic problems.”

A. Technology Made the World seem smaller

1. The automobile- improvements such as Electric fuel pump, air tires, and more powerful engines would make them much more practical and user-friendly

2. Airplanes- begin to be used for travel, which cut down on time

3. Radio- developed by Marconi (1895) and improved during WWI; was now available to the public relatively affordable; radio stations begin to pop up

B. Science challenged Old Ideas

1. Marie Curie- Polish-born French scientist; won a Nobel prize for her ground-breaking research on radioactivity; would die in 1934 from radiation poisoning

2. Albert Einstein- German physicist, advanced theories of relativity: idea that time and space are not absolute; that they are actually changing (quantum physics)

3. Sigmund Freud- suggested that the unconscious mind drives human behavior

a. Interpretation of dreams- 1900

b. “Thoughts for the times on war + death”- 1915

III. Wall Street’s Crash Opened the Depression

A. 1929 Stock Market Crash

1. Black Thursday: Oct. 24, 1929 at the NYSE

2. Over-selling led to a collapse of stock prices and financial panic

3. The “Great Depression” Began

a. Unemployment à 3.2% à 1929; 25% à 1933

B. the World Economy had Weaknesses

1. overpopulation and under-consumption

2. the Farmer’s Plight- world surplus of crops

3. speculation in stocks

C. the Depression Spread Worldwide

1. U.S. Stock Market Crash à American investors called back loans to Europe à Austria’s Creditenstalt

2. Bank failed à other banks and businesses failed à world manufacturing fell by 38% and international trade dropped by 65%

D. F.D.R. and the New Deal

1. “Fireside Chats”- radio addresses; President talked of large public works projects to provide jobs paid by govt. to start economic recovery

E. Ramsey MacDonald’s “National Govt.” in G.B. increased tariffs and taxes; lowered interest rates to encourage industrial growth

F. “The Popular Front”- In France, was a coalition govt. of moderates, socialists, and communists that were united in opposing groups wanting dictatorships

IV. Fascist Leaders Formed Totalitarian Dictatorships

A. Many people lost faith in democratic govt. during the Great Depression and turned to either Communism or Fascism for a solution

B. Totalitarianism System- a single political party w/ a revolutionary ideology controls the govt. It appeals for active support from the masses, and is dominated by a dictatorial leader. No opposition is tolerated. Propaganda, force, and terror are openly used to ensure control and further the goals of the govt.; the liberal ideology (democracy) of limited govt. and individual right is formerly rejected in a Totalitarian System; both communism and Fascism were Totalitarian states that were a threat to liberal democracy

1. Communism à Left-wing Totalitarianism

2. Fascism à Right-wing Totalitarianism

C. Fascism

1. Believed in extreme nationalism (stronger nations must conquer the weak)

2. Glorified the state and its authoritarian leader

3. Uniforms, salutes, war cries, songs, + mass rallies all glorifying the nation and its people

4. Like Communism, Fascism supported one-party dictatorships and scorned both democracy and individual rights

5. Unlike Communism, Fascism was allied w/ purely nationalistic aristocrats and industrialists (Capitalists)

D. Mussolini

1. Italy “lost” more than it gained in WWI

a. Gained little territory in Treaty of Versailles: Trieste & Tyrol; but wanted further acquisitions east of the Adriatic and the Ottoman and German possessions in Asia and Africa; blow to Italian national pride

b. Unemployment and war debt; many soldiers were unemployed
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