Social Studies 10 European History

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III. Industry Changed Ways of Life
1. More people live in cities than ever before
2. Problems arose as cities grow:

1)Cholera Epidemics

2)Average Age of Working Poor:

*Manchester - 17yrs.

*in Rural areas - 38yrs.
3. The Industrial Revolution Changed Working Conditions
a.Despite bad living conditions, people went to cities for jobs
b.Average Worker - 14 hour day, 6 days a week
c.Danderous working conditions esp. Mines
III. Children suffered in mills and mines
1. 6-7 year old started work in mines to crawl into tight spaces
2. Orphans often worked in factorie s for room and board
3. 1831 Parliamentary Committee investigating child labor
a. 1833 Factory Act- illegal to hire children under 9; limits on working hours for children
b. 1842 Mine Act - limits the conditions on children working in mines
IV. Class Tensions Arose

1. Middle class expanded

2. Rich upper class and upper middle class vs. working poor(no vote)
3. Only those w/ wealth property could vote and hold political office;

those who ruled believed in Laissez-Faire government

4. Riots common in the cities:

*Peterloo Massacre - at St. Peter’s field outside manchester,

workers gathered to hear reformers speak on a Sunday(no work) in 1819. Army soldiers sent to disband them, but kill 11 people.
V. Start of the Unions
1. As individuals, the workers of the lower class had no political power

and very little social power

2. As a united group of workers who organize for better working conditions and higher wages could effect change
3. Unions were more helpful to unskilled workers than skilled workers

Communism and other related crap

Chapter 24
II. Workers Gained Some Influence

A. Socialism- an idealogy and state of society

1. idealogy- a comprehensive set of beliefs or ideas about the nature of human society + its future desirable state

2. state of society- equality, social justice, cooperation, progress, + individual freedom + happiness; the problem is how they seek to meet these goals à by the abolition of private enterprises + replace it w/ public ownership

3. basic premise- the wealth of a country should be shared equally among all its citizens

4. Proudhon, Owen à New Lamark; tests socialism

a. Builds housing for workers, bans child labor, provides education

b. Initially, a success

c. Tries w/ New Harmony, Indiana à fails

5. Nations’ wealth should be shared; no private property

B. Marx called Owen and others “Utopian Socialists” and urged workers to revolt à “scientific socialism”

1. 2 types:

a. “Utopian”

i. promotes cooperation

ii. change system from w/i (reform)

iii. socialism promoted by middle/upper class

b. “Scientific” Socialism

i. advocated revolution of worldwide workers

ii. supported by proletariat (industrial workers)

2. Marx Rejuvenates the Idea of Communism (derived from Plato, Hebrew prophets, and New Testament)

a. Communism- humans can fill their cooperative roles w/i society w/o fears of exploitation

b. Capitalism- an illusion of freedom

C. Communism

1. The Marxist-Leninist political + socio-economic doctrines that guided the USSR until its disintegration in 1991

2. Collective ownership of means of production

3. Central economic planning (govt. ownership + control)

4. Rule by a single party

5. Autocratic control supported by the military

Chapter 28
I. Russia Struggled to Reform

A. Unlike Western Europe, Russia was still dominated by serfdom in the 1800s (80% were serfs)

B. The czar was an autocrat

C. Decembrists Revolted in December 1825

1. 30 army officers w/ 3,000 disorganized soldiers

2. revolted for a constitution

3. occurred in St. Petersburg

4. crushed by the czar, Czar Nicholas I

D. Nicholas I (1825-55) resisted change

1. Thought serfdom was wrong, but needed nobles’ support

2. During life, put down 500 peasant revolts

3. Uses censorship + a secret police to fight against change + reform

4. Crimean War (1853-56)

a. Against Ottomans, British, + French

b. War showed Russia’s weaknesses politically, technologically, + militarily

E. Alexander II (1865-1881) “Freed the serfs”

1. 1861- abolition of serfdom

a. buys ½ the farmable land from landlords to sell to peasants

b. Mir: a peasant community which owned + worked the land, and paid taxes together

c. Note: peasants remained as tied to the land as before; they could not afford to leave; they were ‘freed’ from the bonds of serfdom, but not from the bonds of poverty

2. Zemstvos- local elected councils which dealt w/ education, road maintanence , and other local matters which were set up by Alexander II

3. Nihilism- belief that the existing society + govt. must be destroyed so that a better society can be created

4. Narodniki- students who went among the peasants to teach + help them, and to spread the ideas of revolution (most were sent to Siberia)

a. They were later responsible for the assassination of Alexander II in 1881

F. Alexander III (1881-94) upheld autocracy

1. Completely rejected reform

a. Decreased power of the Zemstvos

b. Increased censorship and power of secret police

2. Wanted to strengthen the autocracy

3. Wanted to strengthen orthodoxy

a. Supported worship in one church, Russian Orthodox Church

4. Wanted to strengthen nationalism

a. “Russification”

b. Russian language and culture encouraged

5. Permitted Pogroms (riots against Jews)

G. Nicholas II became czar in 1894

II. Russia Moved Toward Revolution

A. Russia moved toward revolution

1. Moderates- wanted to limit czar’s power and create a constitutional monarchy

2. Revolutionaries were divided

a. Social revolutionaries

b. Social democrats (Marxists à revolution)

i. Mensheviks: largest of group; believed that Russia needed to industrialize first to have a revolution (be patientà more workers)

ii. Bolsheviks: smaller; believed in immediate revolution by a small, determined Marxist group that would establish a “Dictatorship of the Proletariat” led by Lenin (Vladimar Ilyrich Ulyanov)

B. The Czar made Serious Mistakes

1. Russo-Japanese War (1904-05)

a. Gave Japan Korea + some of China

b. First Asian victory over a European power

c. Ended w/ the Treaty of Portsmouth (Roosevelt)

2. 1905 Revolution

a. “Bloody Sunday”; peaceful protest

b. czar agrees first Russian Parliament (Duma)

c. the Bolsheviks can now spread their word

d. czar dissolves a few months later

e. Bolsheviks go underground

C. WWI Ended Romanov Rule

1. Russians driven back by Germans

2. Nicholas leaves for army; leaves Czarina Alexandria to lead

3. Czarina and Rasputin’s Influence

a. Rasputin gains entrance to the palace by being a faith healer to Nick III, a hemophiliac

b. Appoints supporters in high places

c. Killed by Prince __________

4. February, 1917- rebellious soldiers and workers seize control

5. March 2, 1917- Czar Nicholas abdicates to the Duma

6. Duma appoints a provisional govt. until a constitution can be created under leadership of Alexander Kerensky

a. Forced to continue unpopular WWI by allies

b. Presured to return czar by conservatives; left-wing was mad b/c they worked for the revolution, but didn’t take power

7. Provisional Govt. Failed

a. Right-wing threatens govt. w/ army à Kerensky arms Bolsheviks, thinking united they can defeat the conservatives à Bolsheviks become the Red Guard

8. Workers and soldiers joined soviet (elected worker’s council) started in 1905 throughout Russia

III. The Bolsheviks Led a Second Revolution

A. Bolsheviks led a 2nd Revolution

1. Lenin returns in April from exile in Germany by the Germans in hope of Russia leaving the war

2. Lenin took control on October 24, 1917

a. Bolshevik’s Red Guard seized govt. officers, provisional govt. leaders were arrested by St. Petersburg Soviet

b. November 1917 Elections- Social Revolutionary Party won a majority in a new assembly

i. Bolsheviks closed assembly and Lenin started a dictatorship by the Bolsheviks

c. Farmland was divided among peasants

d. Workers’ councils would run the govt. owned factories

e. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) w/ Germany

i. ¼ the land, 1/3 population, + ½ industry goes to Germany

3. Civil War divided Russia (1918-1920): White armies vs. Red Army

a. “white armies”- various anti-Bolshevik groups were divided and wanted to restore property to former owners

b. Red Bolshevik Army à led by Leon Trotsky

c. 15 million Russians died

d. July 1918- czar and family were shot by the Bolsheviks

4. Lenin Restored Order

a. Cheka (Bolshevik Secret Police) increased efforts against so-called “enemies of the revolution”

b. Kronstadt Revolution by sailors in March 1921 (who wanted elections, free speech, + end to the Cheka) was crushed by the Bolsheviks

c. Lenin’s New Economic Policy (1921)

i. Allows trading of goods for profit and some private ownership; compromise w/ capitalism

d. 1922- Russia was renamed the USSR; capital moved to Moscow

e. Bolsheviks rename their party the Communist Party after the Marxian term

5. Trotsky and Stalin Struggled to Succeed Lenin, who died in 1924

a. Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronstein)

i. The obvious successor (Lenin’s right-hand man)

ii. Popular founder of the Red Army

iii. Assassinated in 1940

b. Stalin (Joseph Djugashinli)

i. Party Secretary

ii. Expelled Trotsky form USSR in 1929

IV. Stalin Became Dictator

A. Stalin Became Dictator

1. Whereas Lenin and Trotsky had wanted world revolution, Stalin was content to have “socialism in one country”

a. Stalin blended Marxism w/ extreme Russian nationalism

2. Stalin’s 5-Year Plan

a. Aimed to have Russia’s industry catch up w/ the West quickly (we are 50 to 100 years behind; must make up in 10 years)

b. Caused amazing growth in the production of minerals and heavy machinery, but neglected consumer goods in order to do so

c. Developed Siberia’s mining capacities

3. Stalin’s Agricultural Revolution

a. Abolished all private farms and organized collective farms which had modern machinery à “collectivization”

b. Over 10-20 million peasants were either executed or sent to Siberia for resisting

4. 1932- after discovering her husband’s many atrocities, Stalin’s wife Nadia killed herself à Stalin offered to resign, but fearful advisors asked him to stay

B. The USSR Became a Totalitarian State

1. Totalitarian state- country in which a dictator or small group controls every part of the lives of its citizens

a. Stalin was an absolute dictator

b. The secret police arrested and executed millions of suspected traitors

2. Stalin targeted religion

a. In 1929, the govt. closed many churches, synagogues, + mosques

b. Schools taught the backwardness of religion

3. Stalin turned against the Communist Party itself

a. The during the late 1930s, thousands of old Bolsheviks were brought to trial and executed for ‘crimes against the soviet state’

b. Among them were every member of Lenin’s govt. but himself

4. Factory and farm managers were in danger if their targets were not met

5. Stalin was responsible for the USSR’s rise in global power

a. w/o improved industrialization, Russia would not have been able to defeat the Germans in WWII

b. The Soviet Union became a modern power

c. Standard of living rose

d. Education and technology improved
3rd Trimester

Chapter 25- The Age of Imperialism

I. Nations Competed for Overseas Empires

Imperialism- the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a

nation esp. by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control

over the political or economic life of other areas

A. Intro:

1. initial European expansion/Imperialism (c. 1450-1763)

a. began c. 1450 w/ Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal and would go up the 1763 (end of 7 Years’ War)

b. 7 Years War (French-Indian Wars in N. America; French vs. British East India Co. in India)- war b/w Prussia and Austria; includes all the major powers in Europe + is fought on 3 continents: Europe, Asia, + America

i. France lost Canada and India; Prussia held on to Silesia; Austria gained nothing

ii. only major prizes went to Great Britain- India and Canada

2. Lull in expansion (1763-1871)

a. Europe was busy w/ Revolution, Counter-Revolution, Industrialization, + Nation-Building

B. “New Imperialism” (1871-1914)

1. 4 reasons or parts of Imperialism

a. Industrialization

i. liberal businessmen believed they could secure additional raw materials and markets for their industrial empires

ii. as historians have shown, in most cases the nations actually gained little and in Italy’s case lost money in the process

iii. traders dealt w/ natives

b. nationalism

i. national prestige

ii. measure of status

iii. provided naval bases and additional men for their massive militaries

c. evangelizing religion

i. missionaries spread the New Testament

ii. sensationalized the activities of Livingstone + Stanley to attract people and $$$$$$

d. conquest

i. missionaries and traders led the way, then they ask for govt. help, militaries intervened, then took control of govt. and it becomes a colony

ii. industrialized vs. non-industrialized

C. Imperialism Fostered Rivalries

1. New Imperialists

2. race for colonies was more for pride and status than for economy

3. A-H, Germany, Italy, and Russia; also U.S. and Japan

D. Leading Figures

1. David Livingstone (1813-1873)- Scottish missionary in Africa; ended East African slave trade

2. Henry Stanley- an American newspaper reporter, went looking for Livingstone in Zanzibar in 1871; found him at Lake Tanganyka

3. Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)- wrote stories and poems about Imperialism and the superiority of Europeans; he saw imperialism as a mission to “civilize” non-Europeans; anti-Irish

a. “White man’s burden”

b. “Backwards” people

c. “Lesser Breed”

4. Cecil Rhodes- Englishman who got rich from diamonds in S. Africa would become leading imperialists in southern Africa

Chapter 26: The Turn of the Century
I. Section 5: Europe Faced Rising Tensions

A. European nations developing and changing

1. Great Britain

a. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)- Prime minister of England, Conservative, Reform Bill of 1867, which was amended by liberal, gave voting rights to a bulk of proletariat class. Bill created a growing sense of allegiance to the British National Government; promotes British Nationalism

b. William F. Gladstone (As opposed to Bill Sadstone)

i. Liberal member of Pariliament

ii. Became Prime Minister in 1865

-Reform Bill of 1884 gave voting rights to most of the rural males, therefore, by 1884almost every male householder or renter in Great Britain could vote

-Ireland: had been controlled by England since William & Mary (c. 1689). Controlled directly from London since 1801

Irish Home Rule Bill- Sought measures of Independence for Ireland, conservatives opposed on the grounds opposed on grounds that others in Great Britain's empire would want self rule, Liberals supported it in hope of giving Irish more representation, they may become supportive

-1918 Woman Suffrage

c. David Lloyd George-

i. 1906, Liberal party comes under his control through backing of the labor party, Champion of Liberal Causes

-Parliamentary Reform Act of 1911:

Stripped the House of Lords of most of its former power; it could only delay bills, not reject them; makes the House of Commons Supreme; also put through a program for accident, sickness, and unemployment insurance

2. France

a. Second Empire of Napoleon III ended w/ Franco Prussian War 1870-1871

b. The Third Republic was proclaimed

c. Many opposed the Republic:

i. Monarchists (Orleanists, Bourbons and Bonapartists), Professional Military, Roman Catholic Hierarchy, and large numbers of peasant proprietors

ii. here was a rise of anti-Semitism

d. 1890's- Dreyfus Case

i. Anti-republican forces rallied around a group of military officers who falsely accused Captain Dreyfus of being Jewish

ii. Rising militant nationalism and anti-Semitism

iii. Emile Zola, a novelist, helped get Dreyfus acquitted (After 12 years on Devil's Island)

iv. The Dreyfus case strengthened the Republic and discredited its enemies

e. Between 1871-1914, France increased its Imperial holdings and joined other nations in a dangerous international rivalry that combined nationalism and militarism. Used anti-German sentiment to build up its military

3. Germany

a. Second Reich, created by Bismarck

b. A 2 house system was a limited democracy

i. Reichstag- lower house, members elected by universal manhood suffrage

ii. Bundesrat- Upper house, members appointed by Germany's 25 states (usually Dukes and Princes)

c. Kaiser Wilhelm I chose his chancellor, Otto Van Bismarck, in 1862

i. Neither the Reichstag nor the Bundesrat had power over the chancellor

d. Bismarck was free to do as he pleased with or without the approval of Parliament

e. Bismarck's goal was not to help the workers but to avoid revolution

i. 1880's- Bismarck gives Germany first large scale welfare system

-Laws included insurance to help workers and an old-age pension

ii. By passing these laws, he hoped to take power away from the socialists

f. Kaiser William II, came to power and forced Bismarck's resignation in 1890

B. Crisis Shook Europes Fragile Peace

1. Nationalism continued

a. France, Great Britain and Germany were fairly stable by 1900

b. Nationalism was still a deeply troubling issue around Europe:

Ireland from GB, Norway from Sweden, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman empires were all multi-national

c. Austria-Hungary was the most troubled with many multi-national groups wanting independence

i. Serbs, Croats, Rumanians, etc. all spoke slavic languages

ii. Russia called itself the defender

Chapter 27- World War I (1914-1918)
I. Conflicts Divided Europe

A. European Alliances

1. Germany + Bismarck: “Security and Retrenchment”

a. France: he know that the French wanted revenge, he also knew that the French could not act alone against Germany; that they would need help from Britain or Russia

b. Austria-Hungary: 1879 Dual Alliance- military alliance w/ A-H

c. Great Britain: nurtured a friendly relationship by refraining from naval and imperialistic rivalries (initial expansion under Bismarck was limited to areas the British were not interested in)

d. Russia: 1873, 3 Emperor’s League (Russia, Germany, A-H); it failed; 1887 Reinsurance Treaty; friendship + neutrality b/w Germany + Russia

e. Triple Alliance (1882): Germany, A-H, Italy

2. Germany and Kaiser William (Wilhelm) II

a. Bismarck reluctantly resigns in 1890

b. Kaiser reverses Bismarck foreign policy

i. the Reinsurance Treaty w/ Russia is allowed to lapse

-Kaiser had interest in extending Germany into the Balkans and the

Ottoman Empire; this would be a threat and an infringement on Russia

-1894, Russia forms an alliance w/ France; something which Bismarck had worked hard to avoid

ii. alienation of Great Britain

-Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad threatened the British interest in the Near East (Suez) and India

-Germany also became very active in China; Tsingtao (port) on the Shantung peninsula

-Naval Policy, Kaiser always wanted a large navy; he appoints von Tripitz minister of Marine, to build a navy to rival the army built by Roon and Moltke and to challenge British naval superiority

-in response to the German Naval Program, Britain launched its own huge, costly naval building program

-1904, Britain signed treaty of friendship w/ France, and in 1907, w/ Russia in the Triple Entente, which was a defensive alliance; only a maximum alarm would bring them together

-entente: friendly understandings rather than alliances

c. conclusions:

i. in 17 years, the Kaiser reversed all Bismarck had done by the encirclement of Germany by Europe’s 3 great powers

ii. industrially, Germany became a leader in most areas, surpassing Britain in many

iii. by 1907; 2 rival camps existed in Europe: Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance

B. Imperialism Created Hot Spots in the World

1. Near East of Mid-East (or Far-East, what the hell, it’s all the same)

a. Berlin-to-Baghdad Railroad

b. German Imperialism in the Balkan +Mid-east area

2. China

a. Germany in Shantung Peninsula

3. Africa

a. almost every European country involved in rivalry there

4. The Balkans were a powder keg

a. Austria-Hungary

i. many problems w/ nationalist groups

ii. Ottoman Empire’s decline seen as an opportunity to extend the sphere of influence on Balkan peninsula

b. Russia

i. was delighted w/ Austria-Hungary’s problems w/ nationalists

ii. Ottoman Empire’s decline seen as an opportunity to extend sphere of influence to the Black Sea and Bosporous + Dardanelles

c. Russia and A-H were on a collision course

i. 1908: Austrian annexed Bosnia + Herzegovina (2 large Slavic areas)

ii. Serbian officials (who wanted the areas for themselves) + Russia offered Serbia full support

iii. Russia was unprepared for war and when Germany stood behind A-H, Russia backed down (humiliating)

d. after constant humiliations over the years by various countries, by 1913 no one was willing to yield

C. Warlike Mood in Europe
exaltation of a professional military class

? predominance of the military in the administration policy of a state

? a policy in which military preparedness is of primary importance
1. every European nations, w/ exception of Britain maintained a large-standing army; militarism- the glorification of armed strength, won support of many civilians, too

2. military leaders would urge for war before the other European nations could catch up militarily

3. many military leaders believed that war was inevitable and needed to solve the many problems

4. many military leaders experts also predicted that a war would last no longer than 6 months b/c of the advanced weapons of destruction at their disposal

D. Anarchy

1. anarchy- an absence of govt.; a state of lawlessness or political disorder due to absence of governmental authority; a utopian society made up of individuals who have no govt. and who enjoy complete freedom

2. June 28, 1914, archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip (a Serbian nationalist and member of the Black Hand, a secret society of Slavic extremists or anarchists)

E. Conclusions

1. the causes of WWI were a combination of the following:

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