Social Studies 10 European History

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5. system of etiquette

F. France led Europe in the Arts (baroque and rococo)

1. Jean Baptiste Lully- chief court musician and opera writer

2. Moliere (Jean Baptiste Puochin)

a. wrote satirical plays about French society like The Miser

3. Pierre Conelle and Baptism Racine- authors who modeled their tragedies in the ancient Greek way

4. many art works were monuments to king’s power

G. Louis Fought Costly Wars

1. the other nations of Europe often joined together to stop French aggression to preserve a balance of power

2. 1700- the childless king of Spain, Charles II, left his Spanish empire to Louis XIV’s grandson Philip; threat of an increase in the power of the Bourbon dynasty

3. War of Spanish Succession

a. France and Spain vs. England, Austria, Netherlands, Denmark, Portugal, and several German states, such as the duchy of Saxony

b. Treaty of Utrecht (1713)

i. Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip V could remain kingof Spain if France and Spain were not united

ii. France kept Alsace

iii. Britain got Gibraltar from Spain

iv. Britain got Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay territory from France

v. Austrian Hapsburgs got Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, Naples, and Milan from Spain

vi. German state of Prussia and Italian duchy of Saxony get increased recognition

4. a new balance of power emerges

a. Bourbon Spain and France vs. Britain, Austria, and the Netherlands

5. Louis died in 1715 after having levied enormous taxes on the French people to pay for the building and too many wars; his great-grandson, Louis XV took the throne at age 5

Chapter 21
Intro: during the reign of Louis XV, France lost a lot in the 7 Years’ War; Louis XVI,

tragic figure

I. France’s Monarchy Faced Crisis

A. The Old Regime had 3 States

1. First Estate à Roman Catholic Clergy represented 1% of population, but controlled b/w 10% and 20% of the land. Controlled education and the press.

a. Upper Clergy à bishops and abbots from the aristocracy; rich and powerful

b. Lower Clergy à priests and monks from the middle-class; modest wealth

2. Second Estate à the nobility represented 2% of popul., 20% of land; not taxed

a. nobles at Versailles à most powerful and influenced; absentee landowners; played at Versailles w/ king

b. nobles of the Robe or Gown à bought their position, members of the Bourgeissee; people who challenged them were challenging the king

3. Third Estate à everyone else

a. Bourgesie à most frustrated; they were business professionals, bankers, merchants, shopkeepers, and lawyers. They were the middle-class b/w nobles and peasants. Were rich and well-off, but had no power; couldn’t reform and move toward capitalism

b. proletariat à the city workers; laborers and unskilled workers

c. the peasants à majority of the population (16-90% of pop., 30% of land); the farmers, many of them sharecroppers

i. most direct taxation

ii. still bound to the land economically

iii. public works

d. the Third Estate paid the heaviest of all the taxes to the govt., landlord, and church

B. Louis XVI Was a Weak Ruler

1. wife Marie Antoinette of Austria was resented by the poor

2. in May 1789, Louis called the Estates General into power to gain the nobles’ approval to being taxed

a. the Estates General had not met since 1614; each group of the Estates General elected or selected their reps.

b. the 3rd Estate had the most reps. even w/ the other 2 put together; but each estate had only 1 vote (under Medieval rules)

C. Third Estate Forms a National Assembly

1. The 3rd Estate demanded equal representation; debate began at the first formal session on May 5, 1789

a. the 1st 2 estates wanted the 3 estates to have 1 vote each

b. the 3rd estate demanded voting be by person

2. on June 17, the 3rd Estate, led by a sympathetic clergyman named Abbe Sieyes declared the 3rd Estate was now the French National Assembly, which spoke for the people

a. on June 20, the members of the 3rd Estate took the Tennis Court Oath- vowing to never disband until they get a constitution

b. finally, Louis XVI, a few days later, ordered the 3 estates to meet jointly, and vote by head

D. The Storming of the Bastille

1. on July 14, 1789, Parisians stormed the Bastille

2. the use of force by the Parisians at the Bastille was the beginning of the French Revolution

E. The Great Fear Swept France

1. rebellion spread from Paris and a panic swept the countryside

2. peasants terrorized nobles’ estates and many nobles fled the country (emigres)

3. August 4, noblemen in the assembly renounced their feudal rights and privileges, ending feudalism

4. Oct. 5+6. Parisian women, angry over the rising bread prices, marched on Versailles, demanding Louis XVI + Marie Antoinette to come to Paris

II. Revolution Brought Reform and Terror

A. The National Assembly Adopted Many Reforms

1. voted to end feudalism, serfdom, church taxes

2. on August 27, Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen adopted by the National Assembly

a. Natural rights; liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression

b. followed English Bill of Rights by hundred years and preceded American Bill of Rights by 2 years

c. document which guaranteed many basic rights and freedoms

3. in 1791, an new constitution was ratified; reforms:

a. judicial à new court system, no torture

b. economics à laissez-faire; abolished unions

c. financial à tax on land, trade, + industry; a uniform tax code w/ no exemptions; assigna = money that’s church-land-backed

d. religion à church land nationalized; monasticism abolished; clergy elected by people; paid by state; clergy had to swear oath to state, not pope

e. political à 83 departments; 3 branches of govt. (j,l,e)

f. voting à age 25 + male; pay 3 days wages to vote, then you were an active citizen (4 million); if not, passive (2 million); 70,000 for public office (had to pay a lot)

g. king à king handled foreign relations; couldn’t declare war or sign a treaty w/o consent of legislature

B. Louis XVI approves constitution + Declaration

1. after approving the Constitution, national assembly disbands + gave way to a newly elected legislative assembly

2. Louis and his family try to flee France to Austrian Netherlands, but are caught

3. his failed escape discredits him and the idea of a constitutional monarchy; radicals increase their power

C. France Was Split by Factions; the legislative assembly was divided into 3 groups

1. conservatives (“on the right”); were against further change and called for a limited monarchy

a. emigres- extreme rightists who fled France during the Great Fear and plotted to restore the Old Regime

2. radicals (“on the left”); were for sweeping changes; called for a republic ruled by the common man

a. Sans cullote of Paris- extreme leftists whose radical leaders set up a new city govt. known as the Paris Commune

3. moderate (“centrist”); fell somewhere in b/w

D. France Went to War w/ Austria and Prussia in 1790

1. after defeat by the Austrians and Prussians + as the armies advanced toward Paris, panic in the city

2. Parisian radicals imprisoned the king and persuaded the Leg. Ass. to abandon the Constitution of 1791, and called for new elections

3. Jacobin Club- the most radical of the Parisian bourgeoise political clubs; its favored an end to the monarchy à wanted a republic

a. Jean Paul Marat à editor of radical newspaper called The Friend of the People

b. George Jacques Danton à a leader of the Paris commune

c. Maximillian Robespierre- lawyer

4. The National Convention replaced the Legislative Assembly. The National Convention was led by the Jacobins: Marat, Danton, Robespierre

a. first act was to declare France a republic

b. next, they deposed the king on charges of treason

c. finally, a few days later à Louis XVI, guillotined

d. ended the monarchy

e. gave every adult male the right to vote

f. Danton assumed emergency leadership + quickly sent troops to check the Austrian-Prussian advance


Nobles & Monarchy (Old Order) American & French Revolution

class system civil liberties + rights

feudalism à absolute monarchy representative forms of govt.

religion used to control the masses nationalism exploited to use masses

unequal/unfair taxation elimination or reform of class system

encourages controlled confusion equal justice

unfair/unequal justice system equal taxation

armies controlled the masses promotion of general education

aristocracy promotion based on merit

church controls power church loses power

human suffrage
Chapter 23
I. European Leaders Sought Stability

A. Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)

1. restore old ways (prior to Napoleon) and create such a stability that revolution would not be possible

2. 5 great powers:

a. Austrian Empire (Emperor Francis I, Metternich)

b. Russian Empire (Czar Alexander I)

c. Kingdom of Prussia (Frederick William III)

d. France (Louis XVI, Tailleran)

e. Great Britain (Castlereagh)

3. all 5 wanted a new balance of power

B. Age of Metternich (1815-1848)

1. Metternich, chief minister of Austria

2. dominant player at Council of Vienna

3. had greatest influence on Europe at the time

C. 3 Main Goals of Congress of Vienna and Metternich:

1. containment- the encirclement of France (contain revolution)

a. strengthen nations bordering France to prevent further French aggression

b. Netherlands is united, Switzerland is made independent and neutral, Kingdom of Sardinia strengthened, German Confederation of the Rhine recognized

2. compensation- Balance of Power

a. Russia gains Poland

b. France is allowed to be preserved

c. Austria is given Venetia, Tuscany, + N. Italian states

d. Prussia gains Aix-La-Chapelle & Cologne

3. legitimacy- restoration of the monarchs removed by Napoleon

a. House of Orange restored in the Netherlands

b. House of Savoy restored in Sardinia

c. Bourbon monarchs restored in Spain (Ferdinand VII), France (Louis XVIII), and Kingdom of the 2 Sicilies

d. Pope restored to Papal States

II. New Ideals Effected Politics and Art

A. Nationalism- belief that a person’s greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state

Sect.1 European Leaders Sought Stability
I. Congress Of Vienna (1814-1815)

Restore old ways (prior to Napoleon) and create such a stability that revolution would not be possible

5 Major/Great Powers

Austrian Empire-Emperor Francis 1

Real leader: Klemis Metternich

Russian Empire-czar Alexander

Kingdom of Prussia-King Frederick William 3

France-King Louis XVIII, Tallyrand

Great Britain & Ireland-Castlerey
->All five wanted a balance of power
II. Age of Metternich(1815-1845)

->Dominated the Congress of Vienna

->His structure of peace is named after him

III. Three Main Goals of the Congress of Vienna:

1.Containment: the encircle ment of France

-Strengthen the nations bordering France to prevent further French aggressions

-Restores, strengthens, unites the Netherlands

-Switzerland is made independent and neutral to act as a buffer state

-The kingdom of Sardinia is restored & strengthened

-Recognize the German states at Rhine and borders of France

2. Compensation: to restore the balance of power

-Russia gets Poland

-Austrian Empire gets Verona Lombardy, Tuscany and Vinieta

-Prussia gets Aix-La Chapelle & Cologne

3. Legitimacy: restoration of monarchs removed by Napoleon

-House of Orange in Netherlands restored

-House of Savoy is restored in Sardinia

-Bourbon Monarchs are restored in Spain-King Ferdinand 7, in France-Louis XVIII, and in Sicily(Kingdom of Two Sicily’s)

-Pope is restored to Temporal power in Rome and Papal states
IV. New political Philosophies
1Conservation- anti-revolution, pro monarchy, less likely to change

-dominated the Congress of Vienna

2.Liberalism- Continue with current political system but called for parliaments with limited representation
3.Radicalism- supported the ideas of the revolution and called for a democratic govt., for drastic, violent change if necessary

Goals & Desires of the Balance of Power:




-system of alliances

-limit power of large nations

-increase power of small nations

-Combat Revolution
Problems Maintaining the Balance of Power:





Constant shifting of alliances:

-gains/loses of power

Inequality is always going to exist

Instruments used by governments to regulate the Balance of Power:



->Holy Alliance: Austria, Russia & Prussia agreeing to prevent reform or revolution in their countries

Sect.2 New Ideas Effected Politics and Art
Nationalism- belief that a person’s greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state
Nation-State: a group of people who share similar traditions, history , language; make up a nation. Usually they live in the same geographic area as well. if such a group is united under its own government it is known as a nation-state.
How did nationalist ambition interfere with the Congress of Vienna’s goals of Legitimacy and Restoration?

The aristocracy felt closer ties to themselves than with the middle and lower class members of their own country.

1. In 1815 many national groups were not united under government but ruled by other nations
II. Early Independence Movements In Europe

In 1821 Greeks revolted against ottoman rulers. They gain Allies: the nations of Great Britain, Franc e and Russia help Greece & its nationalistic movement. The 3 countries’ fleets defeat the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Navarino(1827).

-support nationalist cause for economic reasons
1. 1830- Traety of Adrianople grants Greece full independence
2. Belgium gained Independence from the Netherlands (1830)
3. Mazzini sparked Italian Nationalism:

a.Began w/ Napoleon 1805 Kingdom of Italy

b.Nationalist movement group Young Italy

c.Problems for unity

-Outside powerful forces against it

-North was wealthier, South-poorer, less culture and education, foods


a.39 nations - German Confederation

b.Powerless Federal Diet in Frankfurt

c.Auistria largest member

II. Romanticism

-was a reaction to 1700’s enlightenment

A. 4 Main Characteristics:

1.Heavy emphasis on emtion and passion - Express feelings over thinking (Enlightenment)

Johann Wolfgang Goethe German Scientist, Novelist: “What I know anyone can know, but my heart is my own peculiar to itself.”
2.Emphasis on the Individual

King Arthur writing

3.Celebration of Nature

Amandine Aurora Dupe - writer Penn name -> George

4.Glorified the Past
-Romanticism fueled Nationalism

Lord Byran, Delcioux- “Liberty on the Baracades” Painting

Music- Ludwig Van Beethoveen: 9th symphony is an example of Romantic music
Sect.4 Reform and Revolution Swept Europe
I. Frech Overthrew last Bourbon King Charles X
1. Tried to rule as an absolute monarch by stripping powers away from the Chamber of Deputies
2.Liberal leaders crown Louis Phillippe “Citizen King” (1830)
II. Britain’s middle class won right to vote

-Reform Bill of 1832:

a liberal bill that demonstrated that non-violence and democracy
1.Established a new election district
2.Doubled the # of British voters to wealthy renters of property and merchants
3.Working calss had no political power and limited social power -- no vote
I.1848 was a year of Revolution

1. working class radicals and middle class liberals dissatisfied

2. 3 major reasons for revolution:

1)Demand for Democratic Government

2)Unification - Germany and Italy

3)Nation-States (Austrian Empire, Hungary)

3. January 1848-50 revolts occur in 4 months

1)Kingdom of Two Siclies

2)France - wanted democracy

3)Hungary(Louis Kossuth) and other groups in Austrian empire

4)German States want united Germany
IV. Conservative Governments make concessions

Armies are able to force Austrian out for a brief time; the Austrians take back everything but Piedmont shortly after

-becomes the leader of Italian unification
1)Prussia Frederick William IV

2)Austria Metternich resigns (sent into exile)

->Austrians form a republic briely, restore control over Hungary & Slovic states
Counter Revolution; Monarchs staged an armed counter revolution against the increasingly divided rebel groups
VI. France changes again

1)February 1848 - Paris riots and Louis Philippe’s govt.

2)Unstable Government:

*Alphonse de Lamartine vs. Louis Blanc

VII. Naoleon III (Napoleon’s nephew)

1)Louis Napoleon Bonaparte won the december 1848 Presidential

2)1851 - dissolved Parliament and soon declared himself Emporer

Napoleon III (Disfranchise Act)

Section 3: Italy and Germany Form United Nations
I. Cavour and the Making of Italian Unity
A. Congress of Vienna left Italy Divided

1.Kingdom of Sardinia

included: Sardinia, Piedmont, Nice, Savoy
2.Austrian Empire

included: Lombardy & Vinietia

3.Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Lucca
4. Papal States


B. Mazzini’s Republican Government in Rome lasted only briefly during 1848 Revolution
C. Italian Nationalists increasingly looked to Kingdom of Sardinia led by the House of Savoy for leadership
D.Camillo Benso

1.Just before Rev. of 1848, fpounded Il Riorgiment(the ressurection) which preached Italian unification

2. 1850 made minister of commerce and agriculture

3. 1852, King Victor Emmanuel II named Count Camillo di Cavour

as his Prime Minister
E. Unlike the Romantic Mazzini, Cavour was calculating in uniting Italy

1. Strove to make Sardinia the model state

2. Built R.R.’s throughout Italy à economic unity = political unity

Unit 2.4

Industrial Revolution
Chapter 22: The Industrial Revolution (1700-1850)

Section 1: Many Factors Aided Industrial Growth

I. Agricultural Revolution- the use of new scientific techniques in farming to increase farm production
2. Enclosure Movement- period in Great Britain in which wealthy landowners

bought the open fields of villages, fenced them in, and then rented the land to tenant farmers.

a. enabled landowners to consolidate farms (efficiency of crops)

-cuttting down labor, increase food production

b.Results: greater food production
2. Early Scientific Farmers
a. Jethro Tull - seed drill
b. Charles “Turnip” Townshed - Crop Rotation

(certain crops can refurnish the soil) Ex: Turnips - will produce, will

make a profit, return nutrients to the soil
c. Robert Bakewell - selsctive breeding of livestock

-Only bred the best & healthiest live stock to produce more, better

cattle in the next generation. Breed the cows whon produce the most. The hope is the next generation will show dominant characteristics

3. Effects on Population

a.More food->improved nutrition->increased population

b. Small farmers move to city for industry

Advances In Medicine

ie. Edward Jenner - Vaccine for small pox

II. Advantages That Helped Great Britain Industrialize
1.Abundant Natural Resources:

a. (Before steam) Water Power (water wheel- clean, safe, cheap, constant)

b. Coal (steam engine- efficient, generates heat, burns long. Polution, dirty when mining)

c. Iron Ore (iron- ships , machines, tools, boilers. Cheap, moldable, durable, quality of strength)

d. Good Food Supply (See Agricultural Revolution)

e. Large work force (See Agricultural Revolution)

2.Great Britain was an Island Nation

1)Excellent harbors & ports (importing, exporting)

2)Easy to Keep secrets

3)Large Navy

4)Large Trading/Merchant Fleet

5)Colonies to export manufactured goods & import from

*Large shipping fleet and overseas trade gave Britain access to new raw materials globally, new marketts to sell goods in, and investment capital from rich shippers.
3. A nation which welcomed new ideas *Royal Society - World famous scientific “club”
4. The Bank of England founded 1694: Worlds First Modern Bank: lent money at low interest rates
5. Political stability - no revolutions or war in 1700’s in Britain. Most

wars were fought in Europe or colonies therefore industries

unaffected by devastaion of war.
Section 2: Britain led in Rise of industry
Flying Shuttle (1733) John Kay Doubled the speed of weaving
Spinning Jenny James Hargriaves Spinners could spin many threads

(1764) at the same time

Water Frame(1768) Richard Arkwright Water power to spinning wheels
Spinning Mule Samuel Crompton Stronger thread

(1779) H20 frame- Mule

Power Loom (1785) Ed Cartwright H20 - Loom
Cotton Gin (1793) Eli Whitney Took seeds from cotton
A. These 6 inventions increased British cotton cloth production by 5,000 % between 1785-1850
B. Watt’s Steam Engine

3. Existing Newcomen steam engines were inefficient and expensive to operate.

2. James Watt & Matthew Boulton (a wealthy investor) were entrepreneurs

Entrepreneurs - Person who organizes, manages, and takes on risk of


Section 3: Industry grew and spread to new lands

I. Roads and Canals
1. Canal - a human made waterway used for transportation
2. John Mc Adam - Scottish engineer, built better roads
II. Rail Age (1800’s)
1. Richard Trevithick - made a engine small and powerful. Built first

locomotive engine in 1804 (high pressure steam)

2. George Stephenson - built first railroad line (1821)

27 miles from Yorkshire to Stockton

- Father of the Steam Locomotove

- 1814, constructs 1st, Blutcher

- 1829 - Rocket (first real success)
3. 4 Major effects of the railroad:

1) Sped Industrial Growth

2) Provided new jobs
3) Raised Agricultural Production
4) People were more open to traveling long distances for work and

Section 4: Industrialization Spred to Other Nations

I. Ideas leave Great Britain
1. Samuel Slater - Built a spinning machine in U.S. from memory
2. Moses Brown - financed the first factory in pawtucket, Rhode Island. 1790 or 1791
3. William Cockerill and sons built spinning machines and factories in Belgium (1799)
I. Britain dominates the world in Industry
1. Britain became known as the “Workshop of the World”

-Britain dominated the world in cloth, iron, & coal production and

railroad development through 1850

-By 1900, U.S. and Germany began to outproduce Britain

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