Social Studies 10 European History

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e. France becomes the strongest European nation

C. The Treaty of Westphalia ended the war

1. 1648- Ferdinand II’s son agreed to a treaty which favored his Swedish, French, and Protestant enemies

2. Major Terms

a. France took Alsace on the West bank of the Rhine

b. Swedish took parts of Northern Germany

c. German princes independent of HRE

d. Calvinists were permitted in Germany

e. the Dutch Republic (United Provinces) won recognition as an independent state

Chapter 19
III. Austria and Prussia Rose to Power

A. Weak Empires Ruled Central Europe

1. few clear, natural borders; thus much warfare and migration

2. unlike Western Europe, where serfs and middle-class townspeople increase their freedoms and power, in Central Europe, the landowning aristocracy increased their hold over serfs

3. Poland

a. the nobility elected the Polish king, and made him a figurehead

b. they often elected a foreign king b/c of intense jealousies among themselves

c. king had very little $, land, and no standing army

d. ultimately, the Polish nobility ran the country, and their selfishness and perversity made Poland defenseless against aggression

4. Ottoman Empire

a. the sultans who followed the strong Suleiman the Magnificent in the 1600 and 1700s were generally weak rulers

b. govt. in Istanbul was corrupt and the army was poorly equipped

c. eventually, nationalist movements would tear apart the empire

5. HRE

a. at the end of the 30 Years’ War, Germany was separated into about 360 states and 2,500 imperial knights held sovereign rights to estates (avg. - 100 acres)

b. theoretically all were part of the HRE, but the empire was no longer a viable political entity

c. of the many states, the Electorate of Brandenburg (Prussia) had been ruled since 1415 by the Hohenzollern dynasty and was destined to rule Germany

6. Power vacuum in Central Europe: Who will fill it? Hapsburgs or Hohenzollerns?

B. Austria regained power in the 1700s

1. the Austrian Hapsburgs, although weakened by the 30 Years’ War, was still the strongest German kingdom

2. the Hapsburgs ruled various kingdoms, in addition to Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, and scattered German and Italian lands

3. HRE Charles VI (1711-1740) persuaded Empire’s other rulers to promise that hey would not challenge his only heir, Maria Theresa, when he died; this agreement was called the Pragmatic Sanction (1739)

C. The Hohenzollerns ruled Prussia

1. Three reasons for Hohenzollern success

a. four excellent successive rulers in the dynasty and all wanted to be an absolute ruler and a power in Europe

b. their territories from the Vistula to the Rhine rivers provided bases for diplomatic and military operations throughout Germany

c. absolutism second only to guarantee of order and prosperity

2. Three Goals of the Hohenzollerns

a. absolutism

b. territorial aggrandizement (extending, increasing scope of)

c. become a power in Europe

3. The Great Elector

a. the Hohenzollern prince of Brandenburg, Frederick William (1640-1688) received the honorary title of elector in 1640

i. he limited the power of the junkers (gentry)

ii. replaced nobility w/ his own bureaucracy and founded the Prussian Civil Service

b. Frederick William- “The Great Elector” built up Brandenburg’s army * the army was brought directly under the monarch’s control; organized a General Staff to control army w/; was the best trained, best equipped army in Europe, and maintained control just by its presence despite its small size (30,000), served as the collecting agency and police force of the state

D. Future Hohenzollerns Further Built up Prussia’s army

1. Great Elector’s son, King Frederick I (1688-1713)

a. a timid and sensitive cripple; did not exercise autocratic control over the govt.

b. but he showed his father’s faith in military might and increased his army to 40,000

c. he lent Emperor Leopold 8,000 troops in the War of Spanish Succession

d. in return, Leopold agreed to recognize East Prussia as a kingdom (outside of HRE) in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713)

i. said Frederick is sovereign ruler over the territory as a kingdom and recognized Frederick as king of Prussia (Hohenzollerns’ will not become king of all of Prussia until 70 years later) by virtue of his sovereignty over East Prussia to appease Polish king who ruled West Prussia

2. Frederick William I (1713-1740)- “the Sergeant King” + “the Penny Pincher”

a. became king at age 25; violent teenager, vulgar in speech and action, deeply pious

b. Potsdam Giant Regiment of grenadiers, king’s personal guard all over 6’8” tall

c. doubled the size of the army (40,000-85,000); 4th largest army in Europe

d. only members of Prussia’s landowning nobility could become officers

e. Prussia became a military society w/ best trained army in Europe

3. Frederick II (1740-1786) “Frederick the Great”

a. was the “the great” by virtue of his military prowess, his success in establishing Prussia as a great power, and his intellectual capacity

b. wanted Austria’s iron-rich lands of Silesia and invaded in 1740, when Maria Theresa became the Hapsburg Monarch

c. started the War of Austrian Succession

i. other nations also attacked Maria Theresa’s land

ii. Hungary and Britain aided Austria

iii. Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle (1748)- Austria lost Silesia to Prussia, but kept all other lands

E. Alliances Shifted in Europe

1. 1756- Diplomatic Revolution

a. traditional alliances- France and Prussia vs. Britain and Austria

2. the new line-up, beginning in 1756

a. Austria, France, Russia, and Saxony vs. Britain, Hungary, and Prussia

b. Austria’s foreign minister, Count Kaunitz realized that Austria’s greatest enemy was no longer Bourbon France but Hohenzollern Prussia

3. The 7 Years’ War (1756-1763): the first true world war

a. France vs. Britain over N. America and S. Asia

b. Frederick’s strategy

i. he could defeat any one of his enemies on their own, but together they could crush him

ii. would maintain a policy of keeping his enemies apart, not allowing them to unite

iii. an alliance w/ Russia under Peter III saved Prussia from annihilation in 1762

c. Results

i. Peace of Paris (1763)

ii. Prussia kept Silesia, but gained nothing

iii. France lost Canada and India to Britain

iv. Britain was the only real “winner”

d. Frederick in retrospect

i. gambled in 2 wars (War of Austrian Succession and War of Bavarian Succession) and survived a 3rd (7 Years’ War) winning universal recognition of Prussia

ii. he stimulated the weakening of German nationalism

Chapter 19
II. Peter the Great Changed Russia

A. Russia was isolated from Europe

1. 1480- Ivan III had freed Moscow from the Mongols and declared himself czar

2. Ivan IV’s (“the terrible”) death in 1584 was followed by a struggle b/w the boyars

3. 1613- representatives from 50 Russian cities chose Michael Romanov, grandnephew of Ivan III, as next czar

4. Romanov Dynasty would last from 1613-1917

5. unlike Western Europe in which serfdom ended by the 1300 and 1400s, Russia still had serfs until 1700s. Society in the 1600s was dominated by the boyars

6. unlike Western Europe, Russia didn’t have a Renaissance due to isolation from Mongol rule (1240-1480- “Mongol Rule”); similarly, there was no Age of Exploration or Scientific Revolution in Russia

7. geographically, Russia was also isolated à its only seaport, Archangel, was often icebound

8. unlike Western Europe, which followed Roman Catholicism of Protestant Christianity, Russia followed Byzantine Christianity, which increased separation

B. Peter I dreamed of modernizing Russia (reigned as czar from 1682-1725)

1. Peter I became czar in 1696 at age 24

2. he was 6’9” tall, had a violent and uncontrollable temper, and had many liaisons w/ peasant girls after he put his 16 year-old wife in a nunnery; married Catherine, a peasant girl from Livonia, as his 2nd wife

3. he was also a very able ruler, he was a genius and handled much of the day to day operations of the govt.

4. 1698- age 25- traveled around Western Europe to learn of customs and scientific ideas

C. Peter “the Great’s” many changes

1. increased status of women

a. no veils, must agree to marriage

2. adopted European calendar

a. Russia was using a calendar based on Sept. 1, 5508 B.C. as the date of creation

b. Peter changed to the European calendar on Jan. 1, 1700

3. nobles’ head shaved (or taxed); tax was a % of your total wealth

4. introduced potatoes

a. became a staple crop

b. provided more calories

c. could grow in Russia’s colder climate

5. subsidized the growth of manufacturing and iron mining

a. brought in Western European advisors

b. iron and copper mining are the most successful enterprises

6. newspapers

a. even literate Russians knew little of the events outside their country

b. to combat this ignorance, Peter started Russia’s first newspaper

D. Peter I was an Absolute Ruler

1. Russian Orthodox Church

a. when Patriarch Hadrian, the head of the Russian Orthodox Church died in 1700, Peter neglected to appoint another for 20 years, then abolished the post

b. he created a group of high priests called the Holy Synod, with himself as the leader; the church became a state church

2. Peter reduced the power of the boyers (nobility)

a. rarely gave high govt. posts to powerful boyar families

b. he recruited men from lower families; they were loyal, owed him everything

3. Peter modernized his army

a. when he came to power, the army was mostly part-time cavalry with sabers

b. the rest of Europe had well-trained + equipped infantry, who served full-time

c. to modernize, Peter hired European officers to train his troops in European tactics with European weapons

d. Russian soldiers now worked full-time

e. by the time Peter died, 200,000 men were in his army

f. Peter laid heavy taxes on nearly everyone in Russia to support the army

E. Peter Expanded Russia’s Empire

1. Peter used his army to crush peasant revolts and to win a warm-water seaport

2. to trade with Europe, a strip of land was needed for a warm water port

a. Arkangelsk, Russia’s only port, was often ice-bound

3. Peter tried to take Azov on the Black Sea from the Turks

a. he lost his first campaign (1695) b/c of the need for warships

b. his second campaign (1696) was successful, but the city was recaptured a few years later

c. Next, he tried to take a piece of land on the Baltic Sea from the Swedes

i. this war was called the Great Northern War (1700-1721)

ii. the Swedish king Charles XII scored victories early

iii. then in 1708, the Swedes invaded the Ukraine, and they fell victim to the winter cold; they were left starved and demoralized

iv. in 1709, Peter turned his army on the weakened, frostbitten Swedes, and annihilated them at the Battle of Poltava

d. the remaining 12 years of war went well for Peter

i. Charles XII died in battle in 1719

ii. Peter successfully invaded both Finland and Sweden

iii. the treaty of peace in 1721 gave the Russians a broad piece of land on the Baltic Sea

F. Peter Built a New Capital

1. in 1703, before he actually won the land from the Swedes, Peter began to build a city on Swedish lands occupied by Russian troops

2. the site was at the mouth of the Neva River; it was called St. Petersburg

3. many died from poor working conditions and disease there

4. in 1712, it was declared the new capital of Russia

5. Peter I died in 1725, at 52 years old

Chapter 20
I. European Thinkers Expressed New Ideas

A. Intro: The Age of Enlightenment brought together the ideas of the Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution. They had a more secular outlook. People believed everything had to be tested by the standard of reason.

B. Newton Discovered the Law of Gravity

1. Isaac Newton was a scientist who believed that all physical objects were affected equally by the same forces

2. he came up with the idea that all objects attract one another

a. he called the attraction ‘gravitation’

b. in 1687, he published the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

C. The Philosophes (thinkers who applied reason to all aspects of life) Believed in 5 central ideas

1. Reason

a. believed to be some kind of divine force

b. it was the absence of intolerance, bigotry, or prejudice in one’s thinking

2. Nature

a. the philosophes referred to nature frequently, it was all that was good and reasonable

b. believed that were natural laws to economics and politics, just as there were natural laws of motion

3. Happiness

a. believed a person who lived by nature’s laws would find happiness

b. rejected the Medieval notion that people should accept misery in this world to find joy in heaven; they wanted well-being now

4. Progress

a. were the first Europeans to believe in progress for society

b. they believed people could use a scientific approach to perfect society and humankind

5. Liberty

a. the philosophes envied the liberties the British received after the Glorious Revolution

b. in France, there were restrictions on speech, religion, trade, and travel

c. through reason, liberty could be attained

D. Voltaire Fought Prejudice and Intolerance

1. Real name: Francois Marie Arouet

2. Candide (1758), his classic, a short satirical novel

3. he wrote 20,000 letters to 1,700 different people ranging from contemporaries to king Frederick II (the Great) and Catherine II (the Great); he also wrote plays, poems, novels, and essays

4. ended all letters w/ “crush the infamous thing”; the ‘thing’ is prejudice, superstition, and intolerance

E. Salons were Intellectual Centers

1. in the 1700s, Paris was Europe’s cultural and intellectual centers

2. salons- informal, intellectual, social, and cultural gatherings hosted by the wealthy; usually women

3. Marie Theresa Geoffrin- was the most influential salon hostess in the 1700s

F. Diderot’s Encyclopedia: Diderot had the leading scholars, scientists, economists, and enlightenment figures contribute articles on current thinking of different topics

G. New Music

1. Baroque Period (late 1600s - early 1700s)

a. style was ornate, dramatic, and complex

b. fugue and counterpoint were developed

c. famous composers

i. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)

ii. George Frederick Handel (1685-1759)

2. Classical Period (1750-1820)

a. less ornate than baroque

b. emphasized unity, clarity, and balance

c. new musical forms

i. symphony

ii. concertos

iii. sonatas increased after starting in baroque

d. famous composers

i. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: wrote the operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giavoni, and the Magic Flute

ii. Beethoven (1770-1827): started as classical, finished in Romantic

iii. Haydn- “Father of the Symphony”

II. Writers Advocated Liberty and Reasons

Intro: Liberties were seen as necessary for happiness

A. Economic Liberty- Adam Smith (Father of Modern Economics)

1. The Physiocrats- French economists who argued that mercantilist ideas about wealth were wrong; they argued that tariffs and govt. regulations and intervention hurt business. They would inspire Adam Smith

2. the physiocrats and Adam Smith (Scottish Economist) believed in “Laissez Faire”

3. The Wealth of Nations (1776) was written by Smith

a. Adam Smith defended the idea of a free economy

b. Three Natural Laws of Economics

i. Law of Self-Interest- people act for selfish reasons

ii. Law of Competition- competition forces sellers to make a better product (i.e. US car manufacturers)

iii. Law of Supply and Demand: increased supply = decreased demand; decreased supply = increased demand

c. Smith argued that the most goods will be produced at the cheapest price in a totally free economy, that govt. regulation artificially stops the 3 natural laws from working

B. Political Liberty: Montesquieu and Rousseau

1. Montesquieu, On the Spirit of Laws (1748)

a. advocated the separation of powers

b. he said Rome collapsed b/c of lack of political liberties

c. analyzed the British govt. which he believed was the best in the world

i. he makes a mistake in the analysis of the govt., but creates an excellent form of govt. from his mistake

ii. 3 separate powers in govt.

-executive: king and his ministers (executes and enforces laws)

-legislative: Parliament or Congress (makes laws)

-judicial: judges (interprets laws)

iii. power should be a check to power

2. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract (1762)

a. championed freedom and equality for all men

b. ‘state of nature’ of man was subjugated by strong people (absolute monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, etc.) in a civilization; causing freedom and equality to be destroyed

c. therefore all men must be equal to avoid inequality

d. like Locke, Rousseau argued for people’s consent w/ any rule

e. unlike Locke, Rousseau wanted a broad democracy which followed the “general rule” (that people should be sovereign)

Unit 2.3

Chapter 17
IV. France’s Crown Changed Hands

A. Spain beat France in the 1500s in controlling Italy

1. Philip II of Spain weakened the Valois dynasty which had ruled France since 1328 (Capetians died during the 100 Years’ War)

B. Catherine de Medici- Henry II’s wife, ruled in their 4 son’s names after Henry died in 1558

1. in 1689, 1/6 of France’s population were Hugeonots (French Calvinists)

2. b/w 1562 and 1589, 9 civil wars b/w Bourbon and Guise (part of the Catholic League), 2 noble families which wanted to each replace the declining Valois Dynasty

3. the St. Bartholeme’s Day Massacre (Aug. 24, 1572); Catherine de Medici had Admiral de Colyinh (Charles IX’s closest advisor, but a Protestant) killed and inspired the Catholic mob to attack Hugeonots (about 12,00 killed)

C. The Valois Dynasty Ended

1. when Charles IX died in 1574, Henry III, his brother, ruled for 15 years before the dynasty ended due to great civil war

2. the Duke of Guise, supported by Spanish Philip II, ruled briefly; this outraged many Frenchmen (both Catholic + Protestant)

3. Politiques- were French Catholic leaders who wanted peace religious toleration, and a strong monarchy to stop the religious war

4. the Duke of Guise and the important Henry (Valois ‘king’) were each killed

D. Henry IV Brought Peace

1. Prince Henry of Naverre, heir to the French throne and one of the House of Bourbon, gained support as king of both the Protestant and Catholic politiques

2. to placate the Catholic majority, Henry IV converted to Catholicism in 1583- “Paris is well worth a mass”

3. 1598- Edict of Nantes: religious toleration for Hugeonots

a. Hugeonots were granted complete freedom of conscience

b. the right to publicly practice their religion in specified places (1 house of worship in each city except Paris)

c. the right to hold public office

4. The Duke of Sully, the finance minister helped Henry IV to strengthen the monarchy through mercantilist policies ; seek colonial (quebec); grant subsidies to industry ; build roads, canals, etc.

5. Henry IV had restored peace

E. Cardinal Richelieu Ruled France

1. Henry IV’s son inherited the French throne in 1610 (Henry was assassinated by a fanatic); Louis XIII, being rather witless, wisely allowed the Catholic Cardinal Richelieu to rule for him and strengthen the French monarchy form 1624-1642

2. Richelieu’s 2 goals:

a. to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy

i. to weaken the independence of Hugeonot cities; Richelieu had La Rochelle and other Hugeonot cities forced into taking down their walls (Edict of Alais; 1626)

ii. to weaken the power of the French nobles:

-ordered the destruction of many nobles’ castles

-had a spy network

-used members of the middle-class as powerful agents of the king ot

collect taxes and administer justice

-the Bourbon kings increasingly became absolute monarchs who had

no need for the military services of the French nobility

b. make France the strongest nation in Europe

i. Richelieu was very successful against the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburg families during the 30 Years’ War

F. French Thinkers Question Authority

1. France’s religious wars during the 1500s turned many French thinkers into skeptics about religion

2. Francois Rabelois (1483-1553)

a. 2 satires on European society

b. “Do as You Wish”

3. Michael de Montaigne (1533-82)

a. Essays- about himself and friendship (makes essay a literary form)

b. stressed religious tolerance

4. Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

a. mathematician and philosophy

b. the founder of modern philosophy

c. Discourse on Method

i. believed that nothing should be accepted in faith, “seek truth in the sciences”

d. proof for his own existence; “Cogito, ergo sum” (I think, therefore I am)

e. System of Deduction

i. to accept nothing that is not self-evident

ii. to break each problem into as many parts as possible

iii. to always reason from the simple to the complex

iv. to make exhaustive notes of all the data to make sure nothing is omitted

Chapter 19
I. France

A. Intro: Monarch must: subjugate nobility, beurocratic centralization of govt., standing army under control of monarch

1. Bourbon Dynasty: Henry IV à Louis XIII, who appoints Cardinal Richelieu à Louis XIV takes over

B. Louis XIV (1643-1715)

1. the “Sun King”; all of France (Europe) centered around him

2. “I am the State” (L’etat, a est vol)

3. mother Anne, and Prime Minister Cardinal James Mazarin ruled in Louis’ youth

C. Mazarin

1. won favorable terms for France at the Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

2. the French rebellion by nobles was put down

a. 1651: some nobles stormed into Louis’ palace in Paris; Louis learns to hate Paris

D. Jean Baptiste Cobert à Finance Minister for Louis XIV

1. encouraged mercantilism (had to export more than import)

2. encourage French manufacturing w/ tax breaks and subsidies; imported skilled workers

3. France soon gained a favorable balance of trade

4. high tariffs

5. encouraged colonization in Canada

6. by 1683, France was the industrial leader in Europe, thanks to Cobert

7. Louis XIV later hurt France’s economic prosperity in revoking the Edict of Nantes (1598) and encouraging 200,000 Hugeonot workers and businessmen to flee France

E. Versailles

1. new location of Louis’ court (1682)

2. set the artistic standard for Europe’s kingss

3. the most dazzling of the rooms in the palace was the Hall of Mirrors

4. accomodated 1,000 nobles and more than 4,000 servants in crowded rooms

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