Social Studies 10 European History

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4. Ivan III was the 1st czar of a united Russia; also known as “Ivan the Great”

H. Ivan IV ruled through terror

1. a.k.a. “Ivan the Terrible”

2. many victories against the Mongols

3. hated boyers (Russian nobles)

4. organized a separate class of people: brutal police force (oprichniki)

The Renaissance

Chapter 15: The Renaissance and Exploration (1300-1600)

Overview: The Renaissance or “rebirth” of classical ideas (Greek and Roman) which

were now looked at in new way as a result of modern thinking.

I. The Renaissance Began in Northern Italy

A. Intro: These ancient ideas had been forgotten (or censored by the Church) in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The increase in trade and cultural contact due to better farming techniques, the Crusades, and other factors caused these ideas to be relearned from the Muslims and others.

B. Italy Offered New Opportunities

1. Northern Italy was unusually urbanized; there were more and larger cities than in most other areas of Europe

2. Florence, Genoa, Venice, and Milan were independent city-states run by wealthy merchants who became powerful due to individual merit, not simply birth

3. Merchants took pride in sponsoring artists

C. Three Early Geniuses of the Renaissance

1. Giotto Di Bordone

a. frescoes- technique of painting on wet plaster

b. 1304- paints the Arena Chapel in Padua, Italy

c. painted, lifelike “3-d” figures

2. Dante Alighieri (1266-1321)

a. Greatest work was the Divine Comedy written in the vernacular (or common language). His writings greatly enriched the Florentine dialect, and eventually becomes the national language of Italy.

b. He also venerates classical writings such as Virgil and Cicero

c. Letters to Beatrice

3. Petrarch (1304-1374)

a. wrote beautiful love lyrics in the vernacular

b. he invents the Italian sonnet (ex: Sonnets to Laura)

c. he also venerates classical writer, Cicero

D. New Values Shaped the Renaissance

1. Education of the Individual

a. Middle Ages artists were considered skilled artisans and never credited for work as an individual

b. Reniassance artists now fame as an individual

c. 2 new art forms:

i. portrait paintings

ii. the autobiography

2. Period of Classical Learning

a. Humanists- scholars who studied classical texts

b. Broader educational reform- Classical literature became a larger part of educational curiculum, stressing practical learning

3. Enjoyment of Worldly Pleasures

a. fine clothes, perfumes, jewels, etc.

b. move away from Middle Age piety; increased interest in earthly and human subjects in Renaissance art and literature

E. The Renaissance Man and the Renaissance Woman

1. the ideal man excelled in classical education, social graces, athletics, music, art, dancing, singing, military skills, and writing poetry “universal man”

a. guidebook for young people was Baldessome Castigliano’s The Courtier

b. the best example of the ‘Renaissance Man’ was Leon Battista Alberti

2. the ideal woman had similar qualities (attended school), but inspired man’s art and poetry (Beatrice + Laura); not supposed to seek fame as men did (i.e. Isabella d’Este- well educated; sponsored many great artists, very talented)

II. Florence Led the Way in Arts

A. Intro: Guattrocento (1400s)- the full flowering of the Renaissance w/ dozens of the most talented painters and sculptors in history competing for fame in the cities of Northern Italy; the leading city was Florence

B. Cloth and Banking Enriched Florence

1. Florentines made their wealth chiefly through 2 industries- textiles and banking

a. textiles- 1/3 of the city’s population was employed by the cloth guilds- mostly wool

b. banking- wool merchants and guilds deposited their profits into Florentine banks which in turn loaned the money to borrowers; the Florin was the unit of money used

2. for Florence’s leading merchants, pursuit of wealth and political power went hand in hand

C. The Medici Ruled Florence

1. Cosimo de Medici

a. fortune from trade and banking

b. controlled Florence’s city council (1434) for more than 30 years

c. built Western Europe’s first public library, also beautified the city w/ his own personal $

2. Lorenzo Medici

a. Cosimo’s grandson; he ruled w/ absolute power

b. Continued tradition of beautifying the city

D. Artists of Florence

1. Lorenzo Ghiberti

a. 1401- begins work on the Baptistry doors paid for by the Wool guild

b. 50 years to complete, one of the greatest works in the history of man

2. Brunelleschi

a. 1420- working on the Cathedral of Florence; he constructs a gigantic dome over the cathedral

b. when completed, stood about 370 feet

3. Donatello (1386-1466)

a. he first worked for Ghiberti at age 17

b. went to Rome to study classical sculptures

c. like the ancient Greeks and Romans, he wanted to show the strength and grace of the human form; ‘life-like’

d. Donatello’s David

4. Masaccio

a. developed perspective: Atmospheric and Linear perspective

b. expanded upon Giotto’s earlier technique of giving painting ‘depth’

c. considered “Father of Modern Painting”

d. compare pages 191, 326, 330

III. Three Artistic Giants Led the Renaissance

A. Intro: In the 1500s, France and Spain fought for control of Italy and the Italian city-states. The city-states struggle to maintain their independence

B. Niccolo Machiavelli- served as a diplomat for Florence, and through his observations and experiences wrote The Prince, a book about how a ruler can gain and keep power through any means necessary

1. “the end justifies the means” if they serve the state

2. “a prince…must, if necessary, be prepared to do evil”

C. The Popes Support Art

1. after the death of Lorenzo de Medici, the pope became the greatest art patron; the period on Rome in the early 1500s is known as the High Renaissance. Artists dealt primarily w/ religious matter, but the treatment of the subject was invariably secular and human. Greatest of the pope patrons were Nicholas V, Julius II (1503-1513), and Leo X

D. Michelangelo Excelled in Many Arts

1. Michelangelo Buonanti (1475-1564)

a. sculptor, painter, architect, poet

b. Florentine, but did most of his work in Rome for the popes

2. Surpassed Donatello in Sculpture

a. surpasses the Greeks by conveying a strong individual presence in his sculpture

b. his David- 16 feet tall (pg. 333)

c. Pieta (pg. 332)

d. Moses

e. “Tomb of Gulliano de Medici”

3. Michelangelo Painted Sculpture

a. his greatest painting was the fresco ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

i. commissioned by Pope Julius II

ii. took from 1508-1512 to complete

b. “The Last Judgment”

4. Michelangelo as Architect

a. Plaza Farnese Courtyard; used 3 orders of columns

b. St. Peter’s Basilica à Dome

E. Raphael, Greatest Painter of all Time (Raphael de Santi, 1483-1520)

1. contemporary of Michelangelo’s; his favorite subjects were relgious

2. greatest work is the Papal Library, commissioned by Pope Julius II. Raphael reveals the veneration felt for the pagan glory of Greece during the Renaissance. “The School of Athens” includes famous characters of Greece and the Renaissance.

F. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) a true Renaissance Man

1. Leonardo da Vinci

a. he was an illegitimate child from near Florence, where he spent his early career

b. most productive years spent in the employment of the Duke of Milan; traveled to Rome at age 61, and in his final years w/ King Francis I of France where he would eventually die

2. he was a versatile genius; master of painting, science, and engineering

3. his book, the Codex Licister, was written backward à it can only be read w/ a mirror

4. as a painter, he is probably unsurpassed in any age, he dealt primarily w/ religious subject matter, but his treatment of it was invariably secular and human

a. “The Virgin of the Rock” he creates w/ an exquisite grace and beauty, the Virgin Mary and the Baby Jesus

i. Mary is depicted as the loveliest of women

ii. Christ child is a plump, playful baby boy

b. “The Last Supper” à a study in human psychology; it depicted the reaction of the 12 disciples to Christ’s words “one of you shall betray me”

c. “Mona Lisa” à not religious; it is a portrait of a real woman, Lisa Gherdini dei Giocanda; her smile/smirk, hands are all believed to be probing the universal human nature of womanhood. A mathematic note: the angle of her smile is the segment of the same arc as the top of her forehead

Chapter 16: The Reformation and Scientific Revolution (1450-1650)

I. Martin Luther Began a Religious Revolt

A. Intro: New Ideas of the Renaissance and new technology of the printing press were the most important forces of change.

B. The Catholic Church Faced Problems

1. Popes were defending the papal states from French and Italian armies; were neglecting on spiritual needs of the Church

2. Many priests and monks were poorly educated; some even illiterate

3. Some priests had wives

C. Many People Were Devoutly Religious

1. People had high standards of piety and literacy; many people resented the illiteracy of the priests

2. Two Groups of Reformers:

a. The popular religious leaders

i. Savanarola- his fiery sermons won him many supporters in Florence; thus he was able to seize control from Piero de Medici and rule from 1494-1498, until he was burned at the stake

b. The Renaissance Writers- Christian Humanists:

i. Erasmus- Holland (1466-1536) wrote In Praise of Folly, which poked

fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, and pompous priests

ii. Thomas More- England; in 1516 wrote Utopia a book on a nearly perfect society based on reason and mercy and void of war, crime, greed, and corruption

D. The Printing Press Spread New Ideas

1. Intro: Printing press had the same effect on society of the times as T.V. and Computers do today

2. Mainz (Myntz), Germany between 1440 - 1450 became the first Europeans to use movable type

a. Johann Gutenberg- Printed Bible in 1455, first full size book printed w/ movable type

3. Printing press spread throughout Europe:

4. Rome 1467, Venice 1469, Paris 1470

5. 4 ways the Printing Press prepared the way for religious revolution:

a. Many writers criticized the Pope (Erasmus)

b. Encouraged popular piety

i. Albrecht D­ûrer - German artist whose religious woodcuts increased piety (The Knight. the Death, and the Devil) Depicted characters from the Bible in local settings and current times

c. Made bible available for all christians to read Therefore a person (Luther) could make their own interpretation instead of relying on priests and the church

d. Ideas spread more quickly than ever before: “Pen is mightier than the sword”

E. Luther Challenged the Church (1483-1546)

1. A very scrupulous monk

2. his personal reading of the Bible convinced him that faith in God alone was all that was necessary for salvation

3. 95 theses on church door in Wittenberg - 1517

a. criticized Johann Tetzel who sold indulgences to rebuild St. Peter’s

b. criticized the church in many ways

c. someone printed his “Theses” and within six months, Luther was a household name in Germany

F. The Pope Tried To Silence Luther

1. Wanted full reform of the church

2. Salvation by faith alone (not good works)

3. Bible is only authority (not pope)

4. The Priesthood of Believers: all people were equal; no need for priests to interpret the Bible

5. 1520 Leo X threatened excommunication and then did so

G. Charles V Opposed Luther

1. 1521 - Holy Roman Emperor Charles V supported the pope and condemned Luther as a heretic and an outlaw in the Edict of Worms after Luther’s trial at the Diet of Worms

2. Support for Luther:

a. German prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony gave Luther refuge in 1521 after the Edict of Worms; Luther translated the Bible from Latin into German

b. Luther’s followers became known as Lutherans

i. priests and nuns abandoned their habits and married - priests became ministers

ii. Luther, while initially only wanting to reform the Church, ended up starting his own religious group

c. Many German princes and common people liked Luther

i. Luther condemned peasant revolts and urged brutal suppression; 100,000 peasants were massacred (1524-25)

ii. many in the lower classes (who had initially followed Luther due to the idea of Christian freedom felt betrayed by Luther

iii. resentment at sending German money to Rome d. German princes saw Luther’s teachings as a good excuse to seize church property in Germany

iv. some princes actually shared Luther’s beliefs but most princes’ support stemmed from political motives

v. princes and others who protested against German princes who supported the pope became known as Protestants
Summary of the Protestant Reformation
H. Underlying Causes Of The Reformation

1. The Renaissance, based on the philosophy of humanism, led people to question the authority of the Church and to place greater faith in human reason

2. The Rise Of Nation-States led some monarchs to resent the power of the pope in their countries. A growing sense of Nationalism prompted people to feel more loyal to their king than to the pope

3. Economic Restriction, peasants utilized the teachings of religion to support their demands. They asked for the abolition of serfdom where it still existed, limitations on the tithe paid to the Church and rents and services paid to the Lords, an end to the seizure of common land by the nobles, and an extension of their traditional right to hunt, fish, and cut wood in the forests for their own use.

4. Worldliness and Corruption Within The Church caused a crisis of faith among believers because of abuses of power by the clergy and the pope such as indulgences and resentment to pay huge sums of money to Rome for construction of buildings etc.

I. Results Of The Reformation

1. Formation of New Christian Religions: Religions that denied the universal authority of the pope and rested on the Bible as the source of truth were called Protestant

a. Martin Luther à Lutheranism

i. “Justification by Faith”; Salvation by faith alone (not good works)

ii. Bible is only authority (not pope); Denies the authority of the pope

iii. The Priesthood of Believers: Priest not needed to mediate b/w God &individual

b. John Calvin Calvinism

i. Predestination- the belief that a few people are predestined to be saved - “The Elite” or “The Elect”; everyone else will be damned

ii. Theory of the Elect- “The Elect”, or those who would be saved from punishment for sins, would known by their moral lives and by the success they achieved through hard work. Popular among middle class who saw business as a sign of salvation

c. Henry VIII of England

i. Act of Supremacy (1534)- king is made head of the Church of England (Anglican Church)

d. John Knox Led the Scottish Reformation

i. Scottish preacher brought Calvinism to Scotland and made it the official religion, Presbyterianism

2. Great Power For Civil Authorities: Monarchs and Civil Authorities were able to increase their power at the expense of the Catholic Church

3. Religious Wars: Differences in religion was a major cause of the conflicts, competition over trade and rivalry for power also were factors

a. 1588, Protestant England engaged in a Naval war with Spain. Spanish Armada

b. Peace of Augsburg (1555) ends war b/w Charles V and Protestant German Princes; Prince is allowed to choose b/w Lutheranism or Catholicism

c. Thirty Year’s War (1618-1648) civil wars in Germany and France

II. Protestantism Spread in Northern Europe

A. Henry VIII (of England) broke with the pope (1529)

1. Son of the “new monarch” Henry VII (Tudor)

2. Publicly condemned Luther and his ideas, earning him the title “Defender of the Faith” from the pope

3. His wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to bear him a son that survived infancy had one daughter Mary

a. Henry feared that the still new Tudor dynasty might end with his death and lead to another “War of the Roses” type of dynastic struggle

4. Henry decided to get a new queen - a young girl named Anne Boleyn had one daughter Elizabeth 1533

5. The Church didn’t allow divorce but Henry hoped the pope might declare that Henry’s marriage had never been legal

6. Clement VII refuses because Holy Roman Emperor Charles V is holding him prisoner in Rome (due to a war between them) and Catherine is Charles’s aunt

7. King Henry sought Parliament’s help

a. 1529 “Reformation Parliament” stripped away the pope’s power in England and legalized Henry’s divorce from Catherine

b. Henry married Anne Boleyn

c. Act of Supremacy - king is made head of the Church of England (Anglican Church)

i. king had to approve all priests and bishops

d. Thomas More, England’s Chancellor, refused to take an oath supporting the Act of Supremacy and was beheaded

8. Henry seized Church property and closed the monasteries

9. Henry VIll’s six marriages

a. Catherine of Aragon divorced in 1529

b. Anne Boleyn married in 1533, beheaded in 1536 Jane Seymour

c. Son Edward VI, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard (beheaded), Catherine Parr

10. All three of Henry’s children eventually sat on the throne

a. Edward VI - staunch protestant

b. Mary - Catholic who briefly returned the English Church to the Pope

c. Elizabeth I - returned England to Protestantism

B. Calvin Formalized Protestant Ideas

1. studied law and philosophy

2. gave structure to Luther’s idea of setting up a systematic protestant philosophy in his book Institutes of the Christian Religion

3. Calvin’s doctrine of predestination - the belief that a few people are predestined to be saved - “the elite”; everyone else will be damned

4. Calvin believed in a theocracy - a type of government in which the Church leaders control the government (very different from Lutheranism which supported governments by earthly rulers)

a. Calvin’s ideas helped to spur some revolts against “ungodly” rule

5. Calvin set up a theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland

C. Knox Led the Scottish Reformation

1. Scottish preacher brought Calvinism to Scotland and made it the official religion

2. each community church was run by a small group of elders or Presbyters

3. 1567- Protestant nobles following Knox overthrew Scottish Queen Mary

4. Stuart and replaced her with 1-year-old son, James VI, who they controlled

D. Protestant Churches Spread Widely in Europe Particularly in Northern Europe

1. Lutheranism was adopted in Northern Germany. Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the 1500s

2. Calvinism spread from Geneva to parts of France as well as to Scotland and the Netherlands

3. England formed its own Protestant Church, the Church of England

III. The Catholic Church Made Reforms

A. Saint Ignatius of Loyola began the Jesuits

1. Spiritual exercises - Ignatius’s daily plan for prayer and meditation

2. 1540- founded the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits)

3. Concentrated on 3 areas:

a. education

b. missionary activity

c. preventing Protestantism from spreading in southern Germany and Poland

B. Reforming popes led the church in the mid-15OOs

1. goals:

a. to strengthen and purify the Church

b. to combat Protestantism

2. Pope Paul III (1534 - 49)

a. Ordered a council of cardinals to investigate simony, indulgence, selling, and other abuses

b. approved the Jesuit order, Ignatus Loyolla

c. called a council of Catholic bishops and cardinals in 1545 - Council of Trent

i. pope’s interpretation of the Bible was final

ii. Christians saved by faith and good works

iii. Bible and Church tradition were both guides to Christian life

IV. Scientists Challenged Old Assumptions

A. Intro: The Scientific revolution developed more slowly and quietly than the reformation. Scientists challenged the ancient Greek and roman philosophers and the Bible.

B. Copernicus and Kepler Studied The Solar system

1. Intro: Ptolomey (150 A.D.) Alexandrian Greek Astronomer believed that the Earth was the center of the solar system; scholars accepted this idea for 1,400 years

2. Nicolaus Copernicus- Polish scholar

a. 1543 published a book: On The Revolutions Of Heavenly Bodies, It argued that the earth and other planets moved around the SUN not the earth

b. Earth is constantly spinning or rotating

c. His arguments were based on logic and geometry, not by observation

d. Few people knew of his ideas

3. Johannes Keplar (1571 - 1630) German Scientist

a. Made careful observations of the planets and concurred w/ Copernicus that the earth did in fact revolve around the sun.

b. Keplar’s Law of Planetary Motion

c. 3 principal mathematical equations that described how each planet moved around the sun

C. Galileo Used A Telescope

1. Galileo Galilei (1564-1 642) observations of the heavens

a. 1610 Galileo Galilei, an Italian Scientist, published a book called ‘Starry messenger’

b. Galileo is the first astronomer to use a telescope to observe the stars

i. Discovered that the moon’s surface was rough, like earth’s, and not smooth as was thought

ii. The sun had spots therefore not a perfect yellow orb

D. Other Inventions of Scientists:

1. Thermometer- Galileo

a. With Mercury- Fahrenheit

2. Mercury Barometer- Evangelista Torricelli

3. Human Anatomy:

a. Andreas Vesalius Diagrams of human anatomy

b. William Harvey in 1628 published: Essay on the Motion of the Human Heart and Blood; Heart pumping blood through veins (valves), arteries (no valves)

4. Scientific Method-

a. Francis Bacon (1561-1626)- The Advancement of Learning, tried to classify the sciences in logical order

b. Rene Descartes (1596-1650)- Discourse on Method, successful method of application of his system analysis

i. Latin- “Cogito ergo sum”; English- “I think, therefore I am”

ii. System of deduction based on four rules:

-to accept as true nothing that is not self-evident

-to break each problem into as many parts as possible

-to reason always from the simple to the complex

-to make exhaustive notes of all the data to make sure that nothing is omitted

Unit 2.1

Chapter 17
I. Spain Built an Oversees Empire

A. Conquistadors- Spanish conquerors hunting for fortune in the New World

B. Cortes conquered the Aztecs

1. Hernando Cortes and 600 Spaniard soldiers (1519)

2. Aztec Empire- 11 million people

3. Cortes is thought to be Quetzcoatal (an Aztec God) by Montezuma, the Aztec ruler; so he is invited into the city as his guest

4. Cortes’s successful conquest is due to:

a. advice of Doña Marina; she spoke Aztec and other languages and learned Spanish quickly

b. legend of Quetzcoatal

c. better weapons, horses, steel swords, crossbows, and light artillery

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